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RSV clinical isolate

Peter Fagan, Charlie McLeod, Robert W Baird
AIM: To determine the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the Top End of the Northern Territory and investigate potential drivers of seasonality including rainfall and humidex (humidity and heat index). METHODS: We performed a retrospective audit of laboratory confirmed cases of RSV from January 2012 to August 2014. Demographic details including age, sex and ethnicity were examined. RSV cases were correlated with monthly rainfall and humidex. RESULTS: There were 272 positive isolates detected from 4305 clinical samples (positivity rate 6...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Lei Yang, Yan Zhang, Mengmeng Zhu, Qiong Zhang, Xiaoling Wang, Yanjiao Wang, Jincai Zhang, Jing Li, Liang Yang, Jie Liu, Fei Liu, Yinan Yang, Licheng Kang, Yanna Shen, Zhi Qi
The objective was to examine the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling pathway. Rat hearts were isolated for Langendorff perfusion test and H9c2 cells were used for in vitro assessments. RSV treatment significantly improved left ventricular function, inhibited CK-MB release, and reduced infarct size in comparison with IR group ex vivo. RSV treatment markedly decreased cell death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells during IR...
September 22, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lavanya Reddivari, Venkata Charepalli, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Ramakrishna Vadde, Ryan J Elias, Joshua D Lambert, Jairam K P Vanamala
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the grape bioactive compound resveratrol (RSV) potentiates grape seed extract (GSE)-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis at physiologically relevant concentrations. However, RSV-GSE combination efficacy against colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), which play a key role in chemotherapy and radiation resistance, is not known. METHODS: We tested the anti-cancer efficacy of the RSV-GSE against colon CSCs using isolated human colon CSCs in vitro and an azoxymethane-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis in vivo...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ruyan Fan, Chuping Fan, Jian Zhang, Bo Wen, Yefei Lei, Chan Liu, Lijuan Chen, Wenpei Liu, Chuan Wang, Xiaowang Qu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in children less than 5 years old. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular properties and clinical characteristics of RSV infection. The study sample included 238 patients <5 years old who were hospitalized with clinical symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract infection (URTI or LRTI) in the Pediatric Department at the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, South China in 2014. We subjected nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) or nasal swab (NS) samples from the patients to indirect fluorescence assay screens...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jeffrey A Melvin, Lauren P Lashua, Megan R Kiedrowski, Guanyi Yang, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C Montelaro, Jennifer M Bomberger
Antimicrobial-resistant infections are an urgent public health threat, and development of novel antimicrobial therapies has been painstakingly slow. Polymicrobial infections are increasingly recognized as a significant source of severe disease and also contribute to reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials. Chronic infections also are characterized by their ability to resist clearance, which is commonly linked to the development of biofilms that are notorious for antimicrobial resistance. The use of engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) is attractive due to the slow development of resistance to these fast-acting antimicrobials and their ability to kill multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, key elements for the success of novel antimicrobial agents...
May 2016: MSphere
Matthew T Stier, Melissa H Bloodworth, Shinji Toki, Dawn C Newcomb, Kasia Goleniewska, Kelli L Boyd, Marc Quitalig, Anne L Hotard, Martin L Moore, Tina V Hartert, Baohua Zhou, Andrew N McKenzie, R Stokes Peebles
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major health care burden with a particularly high worldwide morbidity and mortality rate among infants. Data suggest that severe RSV-associated illness is in part caused by immunopathology associated with a robust type 2 response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the capacity of RSV infection to stimulate group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the associated mechanism in a murine model. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) BALB/c, thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) knockout (KO), or WT mice receiving an anti-TSLP neutralizing antibody were infected with the RSV strain 01/2-20...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michael G Currier, Sujin Lee, Christopher C Stobart, Anne L Hotard, Remi Villenave, Jia Meng, Carla D Pretto, Michael D Shields, Minh Trang Nguyen, Sean O Todd, Michael H Chi, Jason Hammonds, Stefanie A Krumm, Paul Spearman, Richard K Plemper, Kaori Sakamoto, R Stokes Peebles, Ultan F Power, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness in children. In contrast to the RSV prototypic strain A2, clinical isolate RSV 2-20 induces airway mucin expression in mice, a clinically relevant phenotype dependent on the fusion (F) protein of the RSV strain. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a role in airway mucin expression in other systems; therefore, we hypothesized that the RSV 2-20 F protein stimulates EGFR signaling. Infection of cells with chimeric strains RSV A2-2-20F and A2-2-20GF or over-expression of 2-20 F protein resulted in greater phosphorylation of EGFR than infection with RSV A2 or over-expression of A2 F, respectively...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
F M Moesker, J J A van Kampen, G Aron, M Schutten, D A M C van de Vijver, M P G Koopmans, A D M E Osterhaus, P L A Fraaij
BACKGROUND: Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) are increasingly used to detect influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, their sensitivity and specificity are a matter of debate, challenging their clinical usefulness. OBJECTIVES: Comparing diagnostic performances of BinaxNow Influenza AB(®) (BNI) and BinaxNow RSV(®) (BNR), to those of real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), virus isolation and direct immunofluorescence (D-IF) in paediatric patients...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Simon B Drysdale, Christopher A Green, Charles J Sande
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is ubiquitous with almost all infants having been infected by 2 years of age and lifelong repeated infections common. It is the second largest cause of mortality, after malaria, in infants outside the neonatal period and causes up to 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. RSV results in clinical syndromes that include upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, bronchiolitis (up to 80% of cases) and lower respiratory tract disease including pneumonia and exacerbations of asthma or viral-induced wheeze...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
E R Petrova, V P Sukhovetskaia, M M Pisareva, V G Maiorova, M V Sverlova, D M Danilenko, P A Petrova, V Z Krivitskaia, A A Sominina
The analysis was implemented concerning diagnostic parameters of commercial quick tests (immune chromatographic tests BinaxNOW Influenza A&B and BinaxNow RSV Alere, Scarborough Inc., USA) under detection of antigens of influenza virus A and respiratory syncytial virus in clinical materials. The polymerase chain reaction in real-time and isolation ofviruses in cell cultures. The analysis of naso-pharyngeal smears from 116 children demonstrated that sensitivity and specifcity of detection of influenza virus A using device mariPOC in comparison with polymerase chain reaction made up to 93...
November 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
J O Wishaupt, Ean van den Berg, T van Wijk, T van der Ploeg, F G A Versteegh, N G Hartwig
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of apnoeas in previously healthy young infants with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) and correlate their occurrence with isolated micro-organisms, clinical findings, disease severity and outcome. METHODS: We performed reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on the nasal wash specimens of a prospective cohort study of 582 children with ARI. Clinical data on a subgroup of 241 infants under three months of age, with and without apnoeas, were compared...
May 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Zhao Liu, Nian Ma, Yan Zhong, Zhan-qiu Yang
Viral infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly people and young children throughout the world. The most common pathogens include coxsackie virus (CV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, no antiviral agents with low toxicity and drug resistance are currently available in clinic therapy. The present study aimed to examine the antiviral activities of emodin (an ingredient of Rheum palmatum) against CVB5 and RSV infections, in an attempt to discover new antiviral agents for virus infection...
December 2015: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Michel Perron, Kirsten Stray, April Kinkade, Dorothy Theodore, Gary Lee, Eugene Eisenberg, Michael Sangi, Brian E Gilbert, Robert Jordan, Pedro A Piedra, Geoffery L Toms, Richard Mackman, Tomas Cihlar
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. In addition, RSV causes significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized elderly and immunocompromised patients. Currently, only palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the RSV fusion (F) protein, and inhaled ribavirin are approved for the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of RSV, respectively. Therefore, there is a clinical need for safe and effective therapeutic agents for RSV infections...
March 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jacqueline Corry, Sara M Johnson, Jessica Cornwell, Mark E Peeples
UNLABELLED: All live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines that have advanced to clinical trials have been produced in Vero cells. The attachment (G) glycoprotein in virions produced in these cells is smaller than that produced in other immortalized cells due to cleavage. These virions are 5-fold less infectious for primary well-differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE) cell cultures. Because HAE cells are isolated directly from human airways, Vero cell-grown vaccine virus would very likely be similarly inefficient at initiating infection of the nasal epithelium following vaccination, and therefore, a larger inoculum would be required for effective vaccination...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Virology
Tonya M Thompson, Philippa L Roddam, Lisa M Harrison, Jody A Aitken, John P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: There is a wide range of severity of respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) disease in previously healthy infants. Host factors have been well demonstrated to contribute to disease severity differences. However the possibility of disease severity differences being produced by factors intrinsic to the virus itself has rarely been studied. METHODS: Low-passage isolates of RSV collected prospectively from infants with different degrees of RSV disease severity were evaluated in vitro, holding host factors constant, so as to assess whether isolates induced phenotypically different cytokine/chemokine concentrations in a human lung epithelial cell line...
June 29, 2015: Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
Barry Linnane, Miranda G Kiernan, Nuala H O'Connell, Linda Kearse, Colum P Dunne
RATIONALE: There is limited evidence supporting the routine use of palivizumab in paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to reduce respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and related hospitalisation. Despite this, anti-RSV prophylaxis is increasingly common. This is the first report from Ireland regarding palivizumab outcomes for children with CF, under 2 years old, despite the greatest prevalence of CF globally. METHODS: An audit was performed at a tertiary hospital in Ireland's mid-West to document all children with CF, <24 months old, who received palivizumab over a five year period and comparision made with all eligible children for the prior five year period who had not received the product (also CF patients)...
2015: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Jia Meng, Anne L Hotard, Michael G Currier, Sujin Lee, Christopher C Stobart, Martin L Moore
UNLABELLED: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pathogen causing acute lower respiratory tract disease in children. The RSV attachment glycoprotein (G) is not required for infection, as G-null RSV replicates efficiently in several cell lines. Our laboratory previously reported that the viral fusion (F) protein is a determinant of strain-dependent pathogenesis. Here, we hypothesized that virus dependence on G is determined by the strain specificity of F. We generated recombinant viruses expressing G and F, or null for G, from the laboratory A2 strain (Katushka RSV-A2GA2F [kRSV-A2GA2F] and kRSV-GstopA2F) or the clinical isolate A2001/2-20 (kRSV-2-20G2-20F and kRSV-Gstop2-20F)...
October 14, 2015: Journal of Virology
C H van den Kieboom, G Ferwerda, I de Baere, H Vermeiren, R de Groot, R Rossau, M I de Jonge
Implementation of point-of-care tests may facilitate the health management of infectious diseases by reducing the timeframe on pathogen identification and host response measurements, allowing for immediate diagnosis and guided clinical intervention. In this feasibility study, a novel totally integrated and fully automated real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (Idylla™, Biocartis) was assessed to determine the mRNA expression levels of multiple genes from 1 mL of whole blood. To this purpose, a sample-in result-out assay, including mRNA extraction and RT-qPCR-based detection, was ported to the platform...
November 2015: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Dahui You, David T Siefker, Bishwas Shrestha, Jordy Saravia, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the number one cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants; and severe RSV infection in infants is associated with asthma development. Today, there are still no vaccines or specific antiviral therapies against RSV. The mechanisms of RSV pathogenesis in infants remain elusive. This is partly due to the fact that the largely-used mouse model is semi-permissive for RSV. The present study sought to determine if a better neonatal mouse model of RSV infection could be obtained using a chimeric virus in which the F protein of A2 strain was replaced with the F protein from the line 19 clinical isolate (rA2-19F)...
2015: Respiratory Research
Candan Çiçek, Ayşe Arslan, Haydar Soydaner Karakuş, Mehmet Yalaz, Eylem Ulaş Saz, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Gürsel Çok
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses in pediatric and adult outpatients and inpatients who were admitted to hospital with the symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, during a 12-year period. A total of 5102 clinical samples (4372 nasopharyngeal swabs, 316 bronchoalveolar lavages, 219 transtracheal aspirates, 163 nasopharyngeal aspirates, 20 sputum, 10 nasal swabs) examined in our laboratory between January 1st 2002 and July 17th 2014, were evaluated retrospectively...
April 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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