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RSV clinical isolate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056109/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-control-challenges-with-a-novel-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-a-tertiary-medical-center
#1
Parham Sendi, Adrian Egli, Marc Dangel, Reno Frei, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES To evaluate host characteristics, mode of infection acquisition, and infection control procedures in patients with a positive respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test result after the introduction of the GenXpert Influenza/RSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS Adults with a positive PCR test result for RSV who were hospitalized in a tertiary academic medical center between January 2015 and December 2016 were included in this study. Our infection control policy applies contact isolation precautions only for immunocompromised patients...
October 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990339/the-antiviral-effects-of-rsv-fusion-inhibitor-mdt-637-on-clinical-isolates-versus-its-achievable-concentrations-in-the-human-respiratory-tract-and-comparison-to-ribavirin
#2
Young-In Kim, Rajat Pareek, Ryan Murphy, Lisa Harrison, Eric Farrell, Robert Cook, John DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: RSV viral load and disease severity associate, and the timing of viral load and disease run in parallel. An antiviral must be broadly effective against the natural spectrum of RSV genotypes and must attain concentrations capable of inhibiting viral replication within the human respiratory tract. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a novel RSV fusion inhibitor, MDT-637, and compared it with ribavirin for therapeutic effect in vitro to identify relative therapeutic doses achievable in humans...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#3
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877226/distinct-patterns-of-innate-immune-activation-by-clinical-isolates-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#4
Ruth Levitz, Yajing Gao, Igor Dozmorov, Ran Song, Edward K Wakeland, Jeffrey S Kahn
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory pathogen of infants and young children. Multiple strains of both subgroup A and B viruses circulate during each seasonal epidemic. Genetic heterogeneity among RSV genomes, in large part due to the error prone RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase, could mediate variations in pathogenicity. We evaluated clinical strains of RSV for their ability to induce the innate immune response. Subgroup B viruses were used to infect human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) and primary monocyte-derived human macrophages (MDM) from a variety of donors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797733/propagation-of-respiratory-viruses-in-human-airway-epithelia-reveals-persistent-virus-specific-signatures
#5
Manel Essaidi-Laziosi, Francisco Brito, Sacha Benaoudia, Léna Royston, Valeria Cagno, Mélanie Fernandes-Rocha, Isabelle Piuz, Evgeny Zdobnov, Song Huang, Samuel Constant, Marc-Olivier Boldi, Laurent Kaiser, Caroline Tapparel
BACKGROUND: Leading etiologies of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses typically cause self-limited diseases, though severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses, respiratory enteroviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but due to the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652242/preclinical-characterization-of-pc786-an-inhaled-small-molecule-respiratory-syncytial-virus-l-protein-polymerase-inhibitor
#6
Matthew Coates, Daniel Brookes, Young-In Kim, Heather Allen, Euan A F Fordyce, Elizabeth A Meals, Thomas Colley, Claire-Lise Ciana, Guillaume F Parra, Vladimir Sherbukhin, Jennifer A Stockwell, Jennifer C Thomas, S Fraser Hunt, Lauren Anderson-Dring, Stuart T Onions, Lindsey Cass, Peter J Murray, Kazuhiro Ito, Pete Strong, John P DeVincenzo, Garth Rapeport
Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, attempts to develop an effective therapy have so far proved unsuccessful. Here we report the preclinical profiles of PC786, a potent nonnucleoside RSV L protein polymerase inhibitor, designed for inhalation treatment of RSV infection. PC786 demonstrated a potent and selective antiviral activity against laboratory-adapted or clinical isolates of RSV-A (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], <0...
September 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559125/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-rhinovirus-related-bronchiolitis-in-children-aged-2-years-in-an-english-district-general-hospital
#7
S P Paul, A Mukherjee, T McAllister, M J Harvey, B A Clayton, P C Turner
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization in young children. In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), other viruses have been increasingly implicated. Guidance on testing has also changed. AIMS: To compare clinicopathological outcomes in young children admitted with bronchiolitis due to RSV in comparison with rhinovirus (RV), and identify associated risk/epidemiological factors. METHODS: Children aged less than two years admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis with positive results for either RSV or RV were included in this study...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#8
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908797/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-b-genotypes-circulating-in-pakistani-children
#9
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Nayab Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV B genotypes in Pakistani children below 5years with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) during three consecutive winter seasons from 2010 to 2013. A total of 1941 samples were analyzed for RSV infection by real time PCR and 24% (472/1941) samples were found positive out of which 22...
January 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835760/performance-evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-multicode-based-sample-to-answer-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-influenza-a-b-and-respiratory-syncytial-viruses
#10
Jolanda J C Voermans, S Seven-Deniz, P L A Fraaij, Annemiek A van der Eijk, M P G Koopmans, Suzan D Pas
BACKGROUND: Clinical signs and symptoms of different airway pathogens are generally indistinguishable, making laboratory tests essential for clinical decisions regarding isolation and antiviral therapy. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) and direct immunofluorescence assays (DFA) have lower sensitivities and specificities than molecular assays, but have the advantage of quick turnaround times and ease-of-use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a rapid molecular assay, ARIES FluA/B & RSV, using laboratory developed RT-PCR assays (LDA), ICT (BinaxNOW) and DFA...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798337/similar-to-those-who-are-breastfed-infants-fed-a-formula-containing-2-fucosyllactose-have-lower-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karen C Goehring, Barbara J Marriage, Jeffery S Oliver, Julie A Wilder, Edward G Barrett, Rachael H Buck
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671992/seasonal-variability-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-the-top-end-of-the-northern-territory-2012-2014
#12
Peter Fagan, Charlie McLeod, Robert W Baird
AIM: To determine the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the Top End of the Northern Territory and investigate potential drivers of seasonality including rainfall and humidex (humidity and heat index). METHODS: We performed a retrospective audit of laboratory confirmed cases of RSV from January 2012 to August 2014. Demographic details including age, sex and ethnicity were examined. RSV cases were correlated with monthly rainfall and humidex. RESULTS: There were 272 positive isolates detected from 4305 clinical samples (positivity rate 6...
January 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667182/resveratrol-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-up-regulation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b
#13
Lei Yang, Yan Zhang, Mengmeng Zhu, Qiong Zhang, Xiaoling Wang, Yanjiao Wang, Jincai Zhang, Jing Li, Liang Yang, Jie Liu, Fei Liu, Yinan Yang, Licheng Kang, Yanna Shen, Zhi Qi
The objective was to examine the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling pathway. Rat hearts were isolated for Langendorff perfusion test and H9c2 cells were used for in vitro assessments. RSV treatment significantly improved left ventricular function, inhibited CK-MB release, and reduced infarct size in comparison with IR group ex vivo. RSV treatment markedly decreased cell death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells during IR...
December 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506388/grape-compounds-suppress-colon-cancer-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-a-rodent-model-of-colon-carcinogenesis
#14
Lavanya Reddivari, Venkata Charepalli, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Ramakrishna Vadde, Ryan J Elias, Joshua D Lambert, Jairam K P Vanamala
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the grape bioactive compound resveratrol (RSV) potentiates grape seed extract (GSE)-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis at physiologically relevant concentrations. However, RSV-GSE combination efficacy against colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), which play a key role in chemotherapy and radiation resistance, is not known. METHODS: We tested the anti-cancer efficacy of the RSV-GSE against colon CSCs using isolated human colon CSCs in vitro and an azoxymethane-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis in vivo...
August 9, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358012/respiratory-syncytial-virus-subtype-on1-na1-ba9-predominates-in-hospitalized-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#15
Ruyan Fan, Chuping Fan, Jian Zhang, Bo Wen, Yefei Lei, Chan Liu, Lijuan Chen, Wenpei Liu, Chuan Wang, Xiaowang Qu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in children less than 5 years old. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular properties and clinical characteristics of RSV infection. The study sample included 238 patients <5 years old who were hospitalized with clinical symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract infection (URTI or LRTI) in the Pediatric Department at the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, South China in 2014. We subjected nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) or nasal swab (NS) samples from the patients to indirect fluorescence assay screens...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303744/simultaneous-antibiofilm-and-antiviral-activities-of-an-engineered-antimicrobial-peptide-during-virus-bacterium-coinfection
#16
Jeffrey A Melvin, Lauren P Lashua, Megan R Kiedrowski, Guanyi Yang, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C Montelaro, Jennifer M Bomberger
Antimicrobial-resistant infections are an urgent public health threat, and development of novel antimicrobial therapies has been painstakingly slow. Polymicrobial infections are increasingly recognized as a significant source of severe disease and also contribute to reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials. Chronic infections also are characterized by their ability to resist clearance, which is commonly linked to the development of biofilms that are notorious for antimicrobial resistance. The use of engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) is attractive due to the slow development of resistance to these fast-acting antimicrobials and their ability to kill multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, key elements for the success of novel antimicrobial agents...
May 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156176/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-activates-il-13-producing-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-through-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin
#17
Matthew T Stier, Melissa H Bloodworth, Shinji Toki, Dawn C Newcomb, Kasia Goleniewska, Kelli L Boyd, Marc Quitalig, Anne L Hotard, Martin L Moore, Tina V Hartert, Baohua Zhou, Andrew N McKenzie, R Stokes Peebles
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major health care burden with a particularly high worldwide morbidity and mortality rate among infants. Data suggest that severe RSV-associated illness is in part caused by immunopathology associated with a robust type 2 response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the capacity of RSV infection to stimulate group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the associated mechanism in a murine model. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) BALB/c, thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) knockout (KO), or WT mice receiving an anti-TSLP neutralizing antibody were infected with the RSV strain 01/2-20...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152417/egfr-interacts-with-the-fusion-protein-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-strain-2-20-and-mediates-infection-and-mucin-expression
#18
Michael G Currier, Sujin Lee, Christopher C Stobart, Anne L Hotard, Remi Villenave, Jia Meng, Carla D Pretto, Michael D Shields, Minh Trang Nguyen, Sean O Todd, Michael H Chi, Jason Hammonds, Stefanie A Krumm, Paul Spearman, Richard K Plemper, Kaori Sakamoto, R Stokes Peebles, Ultan F Power, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness in children. In contrast to the RSV prototypic strain A2, clinical isolate RSV 2-20 induces airway mucin expression in mice, a clinically relevant phenotype dependent on the fusion (F) protein of the RSV strain. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a role in airway mucin expression in other systems; therefore, we hypothesized that the RSV 2-20 F protein stimulates EGFR signaling. Infection of cells with chimeric strains RSV A2-2-20F and A2-2-20GF or over-expression of 2-20 F protein resulted in greater phosphorylation of EGFR than infection with RSV A2 or over-expression of A2 F, respectively...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045454/diagnostic-performance-of-influenza-viruses-and-rsv-rapid-antigen-detection-tests-in-children-in-tertiary-care
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
F M Moesker, J J A van Kampen, G Aron, M Schutten, D A M C van de Vijver, M P G Koopmans, A D M E Osterhaus, P L A Fraaij
BACKGROUND: Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) are increasingly used to detect influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, their sensitivity and specificity are a matter of debate, challenging their clinical usefulness. OBJECTIVES: Comparing diagnostic performances of BinaxNow Influenza AB(®) (BNI) and BinaxNow RSV(®) (BNR), to those of real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), virus isolation and direct immunofluorescence (D-IF) in paediatric patients...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034777/best-practice-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Simon B Drysdale, Christopher A Green, Charles J Sande
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is ubiquitous with almost all infants having been infected by 2 years of age and lifelong repeated infections common. It is the second largest cause of mortality, after malaria, in infants outside the neonatal period and causes up to 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. RSV results in clinical syndromes that include upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, bronchiolitis (up to 80% of cases) and lower respiratory tract disease including pneumonia and exacerbations of asthma or viral-induced wheeze...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
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