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Neonatal kernicterus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863965/robustness-of-the-reichert-unistat-bilirubinometer-for-analysis-of-hemolyzed-samples-from-neonates
#1
Christopher R McCudden, Kathy Fleming, Michelle Warr
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilirubin is routinely measured in neonates to avoid the irreversible effects of kernicterus. Grossly hemolyzed samples are routinely rejected under the assumption that bilirubin cannot be accurately measured in hemolyzed samples. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hemolysis on bilirubin measurement in neonates. METHODS: Data included 2-years of paired bilirubin results (n=70) where hemolyzed and non-hemolyzed samples were collected and measured within 6h of each other...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746217/a-new-rat-model-of-neonatal-bilirubin-encephalopathy-kernicterus
#2
Naser Amini, Nasim Vousooghi, Mansoureh Soleimani, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Mehdi Akbari, Hosein Safakheil, Pezhman Atafimanesh, Ali Shahbazi, Peiman Brouki Milan, Sara Ramezani, Masoud Mozafari, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei
INTRODUCTION: Hemolytic kernicterus, an indirect bilirubin-induced brain dysfunction, is associated with hyper-bilirubinemia in mammalian neonates. In this study, a new model of kernicterus has been developed using intra-peritoneal injections of phenyl hydrazine and subcutaneous injections of sulfisoxazole. These drugs can potentially induce kernicterus in neonatal through changes in hemolysis and hypo-albumin. METHODS: For this purpose, 7-day-old male Wistar rats (n=72; mean weight 11±1g) were used...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591005/bilirubin-induced-neurological-dysfunction-a-clinico-radiological-neurophysiological-correlation-in-30-consecutive-children
#3
Ronald van Toorn, Philip Brink, Johan Smith, Christelle Ackermann, Regan Solomons
The clinical expression of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction varies according to severity and location of the disease. Definitions have been proposed to describe different bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction subtypes. Our objective was to describe the severity and clinico-radiological-neurophysiological correlation in 30 consecutive children with bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction seen over a period of 5 years. Thirty children exposed to acute neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy were included in the study...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587993/a-hypothesis-for-using-pathway-genetic-load-analysis-for-understanding-complex-outcomes-in-bilirubin-encephalopathy
#4
Sean M Riordan, Douglas C Bittel, Jean-Baptiste Le Pichon, Silvia Gazzin, Claudio Tiribelli, Jon F Watchko, Richard P Wennberg, Steven M Shapiro
Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60-80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially devastating condition very rare in more developed countries. The current understanding of the genetic background of kernicterus is largely comprised of mutations related to alterations of bilirubin production, elimination, or both...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546055/the-choroid-plexus-in-health-and-in-disease-dialogues-into-and-out-of-the-brain
#5
Fernanda Marques, João Carlos Sousa, Alexandra Brito, Jens Pahnke, Cecilia Santos, Margarida Correia-Neves, Joana Almeida Palha
This article brings the choroid plexus into the context of health and disease. It is remarkable that the choroid plexus, composed by the monolayer of epithelial cells that lie in a highly vascularized stroma, floating within the brain ventricles, gets so little attention in major physiology and medicine text books and in the scientific literature in general. Consider that it is responsible for producing most of the about 150mL of cerebrospinal fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space and surrounds the spinal cord in the adult human brain, which is renewed approximately 2-3 times daily...
August 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511502/management-of-hyperbilirubinemia-in-preterm-infants-in-turkey
#6
Nilüfer Güzoğlu, Ümit Ayşe Tandircioğlu, Didem Aliefendioğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Prematurity is a significant risk factor for developing unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. This study investigated the current approach to managing hyperbilirubinemia in preterm newborns in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study-specific questionnaire on the management of jaundice in preterm infants was sent to 100 level III neonatal intensive care units in Turkey. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 84 centers from all regions of Turkey...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382636/exchange-transfusion-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-in-johannesburg-south-africa-from-2006-to-2011
#7
Daynia E Ballot, Gilbert Rugamba
Background. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia requiring exchange transfusion has become less common in recent years; however, kernicterus still occurs. The aim of this study was to review babies undergoing exchange transfusion for severe hyperbilirubinaemia in a Johannesburg hospital. Methodology. This was a retrospective review of babies who required exchange transfusion in both the neonatal and the paediatric wards from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Results. There were 64 patients who underwent 67 exchange transfusions...
2016: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235209/bilirubin-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-preterm-neonate
#8
REVIEW
Jon F Watchko
Bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in preterm neonates remains a clinical concern. Multiple cellular and molecular cascades likely underlie bilirubin-induced neuronal injury, including plasma membrane perturbations, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle arrest. Preterm newborns are particularly vulnerable secondary to central nervous system immaturity and concurrent adverse clinical conditions that may potentiate bilirubin toxicity. Acute bilirubin encephalopathy in preterm neonates may be subtle and manifest primarily as recurrent symptomatic apneic events...
June 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170928/facility-based-constraints-to-exchange-transfusions-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-in-resource-limited-settings
#9
REVIEW
Cecilia A Mabogunje, Sarah M Olaifa, Bolajoko O Olusanya
Several clinical guidelines for the management of infants with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia recommend immediate exchange transfusion (ET) when the risk or presence of acute bilirubin encephalopathy is established in order to prevent chronic bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. However, the literature is sparse concerning the interval between the time the decision for ET is made and the actual initiation of ET, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with significant resource constraints but high rates of ET...
May 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26945202/kernicterus-in-neonatal-jaundice-finding-the-needle-in-the-haystack
#10
EDITORIAL
Thor Willy Ruud Hansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866975/prevalence-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-jaundiced-egyptian-neonates
#11
Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Mohammed Soliman Rizk
BACKGROUND: The enzyme, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficiency leads to impaired production of reduced glutathione and predisposes the red cells to be damaged by oxidative metabolites, causing hemolysis. Deficient neonates may manifest clinically as hyperbilirubinemia or even kernicterus. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to detect erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. METHODS AND DESIGN: To determine the frequency and effect of G6PD deficiency, this study was conducted on 202 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia...
December 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818600/efficacy-of-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-on-neonatal-bilirubin-encephalopathy-in-rats
#12
Naser Amini, Nasim Vousooghi, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem, Mehrdad Bakhtiyari, Neda Mousavi, Hosein Safakheil, Leila Jafari, Arash Sarveazad, Abazar Yari, Sara Ramezani, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei
Kernicterus is a neurological syndrome associated with indirect bilirubin accumulation and damages to the basal ganglia, cerebellum and brain stem nuclei particularly the cochlear nucleus. To mimic haemolysis in a rat model such that it was similar to what is observed in a preterm human, we injected phenylhydrazine in 7-day-old rats to induce haemolysis and then infused sulfisoxazole into the same rats at day 9 to block bilirubin binding sites in the albumin. We have investigated the effectiveness of human adiposity-derived stem cells as a therapeutic paradigm for perinatal neuronal repair in a kernicterus animal model...
May 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760820/bilirubin-encephalopathy-due-to-rh-incompatibility
#13
Taísa Roberta Ramos Nantes de Castilho, Marcelli Salete Vargas, Adriana Pinsuti, Marcos Augusto Rocha, Jose Ricardo D'Bertagnon
The authors present the case of a newborn of an Rh-factorsensitized mother, who received early hospital discharge while icteric only to be readmitted at an Emergency Service at five days of age with signs of kernicterus. Despite treatment given, the neonate progressed with a clinical picture of bilirubin encephalopathy. The lack of interaction between the obstetric and neonatal teams, premature hospital discharge, and lack of concern of neonatologists with jaundice in a full-term infant are highlighted as causes of a condition that should have disappeared if there had been adequate prevention...
June 2011: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26755212/the-burden-and-management-of-neonatal-jaundice-in-nigeria-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature
#14
B O Olusanya, F B Osibanjo, C A Mabogunje, T M Slusher, S A Olowe
Neonatal jaundice is a leading cause of hospitalization in the first week of life worldwide. If inappropriately managed, it may result in significant bilirubin-induced mortality and disability. We set out to describe the epidemiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia as well as the practices and challenges in the care of infants with significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) in Nigeria, as basis for policy intervention and research priorities. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, WHO Library Database, African Index Medicus, African Journals Online, and local journals for studies published between January 1960 and December 2014...
January 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26724979/-how-to-assess-clinical-practice-guidelines-with-agree-ii-the-example-of-neonatal-jaundice
#15
L Renesme, A Bedu, P Tourneux, P Truffert
BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice is a very frequent condition that occurs in approximately 50-70% of term or near-term (>35 GA) babies in the 1st week of life. In some cases, a high bilirubin blood level can lead to kernicterus. There is no consensus for the management of neonatal jaundice and few countries have published national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of these guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature for national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice in term or near-term babies...
March 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26674039/-a-14-day-old-boy-with-jaundice-and-apnoea
#16
Ole-Jørgen Olsøy Smerud, Anne Lee Solevåg, Thor Willy Ruud Hansen, Morten Grønn
We describe an infant who was readmitted from home at 14 days of age with jaundice and a history of apnoea and episodes of retrocollis/opisthotonos. He had been only mildly jaundiced on discharge from the maternity clinic at 2 days of age. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) on admission was 542 µmol/L, and the infant was treated intensively with triple phototherapy and exchange transfusion. In contrast to what is recommended in Norwegian national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, the parents had apparently neither received oral nor written information about jaundice and its follow-up at the time of discharge from maternity...
December 15, 2015: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643826/a-prospective-study-on-exchange-transfusion-in-neonatal-unconjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-nepal
#17
T Malla, S Singh, P Poudyal, B Sathian, G Bk, K K Malla
BACKGROUND: An exchange transfusion involves replacing patient's blood with donor blood in order to remove abnormal blood components and circulating toxins while maintaining adequate circulating blood volume. OBJECTIVE: To observe the incidence, causes of jaundice requiring Exchange and any adverse event of exchange transfusion in newborns with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. METHOD: Prospective study undertaken at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from March 2014 to April 2015...
April 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594786/revisiting-the-criteria-for-exchange-transfusion-for-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-in-resource-limited-settings
#18
REVIEW
Bolajoko O Olusanya, Zainab O Imam, Abieyuwa A Emokpae, Iman F Iskander
BACKGROUND: Exchange transfusion (ET) for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) is frequently undertaken in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), in sharp contrast to the prevailing practice in high-income countries. However, the criteria for initiating this procedure in settings with limited resources for treating infants with SNH have not been systematically explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify key considerations for initiating ET in resource-poor countries to curtail its unnecessary use for the prevention of kernicterus...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26541892/albumin-administration-prevents-neurological-damage-and-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#19
Simone Vodret, Giulia Bortolussi, Andrea B Schreuder, Jana Jašprová, Libor Vitek, Henkjan J Verkade, Andrés F Muro
Therapies to prevent severe neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus are phototherapy and, in unresponsive cases, exchange transfusion, which has significant morbidity and mortality risks. Neurotoxicity is caused by the fraction of unconjugated bilirubin not bound to albumin (free bilirubin, Bf). Human serum albumin (HSA) administration was suggested to increase plasma bilirubin-binding capacity. However, its clinical use is infrequent due to difficulties to address its potential preventive and curative benefits, and to the absence of reliable markers to monitor bilirubin neurotoxicity risk...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26480925/reduced-myelination-and-increased-glia-reactivity-resulting-from-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#20
Andreia Barateiro, Shujuan Chen, Mei-Fei Yueh, Adelaide Fernandes, Helena Sofia Domingues, João Relvas, Olivier Barbier, Nghia Nguyen, Robert H Tukey, Dora Brites
Bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) and kernicterus has been used to describe moderate to severe neurologic dysfunction observed in children exposed to excessive levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB) during the neonatal period. Here we use a new mouse model that targets deletion of the Ugt1 locus and the Ugt1a1 gene in liver to promote hyperbilirubinemia-induced seizures and central nervous system toxicity. The accumulation of TSB in these mice leads to diffuse yellow coloration of brain tissue and a marked cerebellar hypoplasia that we characterize as kernicterus...
January 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
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