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Huixia Huo, Yao Liu, Wenjing Liu, Jing Sun, Qian Zhang, Yunfang Zhao, Jiao Zheng, Pengfei Tu, Yuelin Song, Jun Li
The quality of herbal medicines (HMs) is the prerequisite for their pronounced therapeutic outcomes in clinic, and multi-component (also known as quality markers, Q-markers) quantification has been widely emphasized as a viable means for quality evaluation. Because of the chemical diversity, the quality control practices are extensively dampened by four principal technical bottlenecks, including the lack of authentic compounds, large polarity span, extensive concentration range, and signal misrecognition for those potential Q-markers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Shervin Assari
Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity) and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use) and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016⁻2017), is a national online survey of college students in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yishu Tang, Qian Cheng, Qing Yang, Jing Liu, Di Zhang, Wei Cao, Qingxia Liu, Tianyi Zhou, Huiqi Zeng, Li Zhou, QinJin Wang, Huan Wei, Xin Li
PURPOSE: Patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at a higher risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), which pose significant burden on morbidity and mortality. Better risk stratification helps in medical decision making, increasing efficiency and reducing economic burden. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reliable prediction model which can be used to identify HM patients at higher risk for BSIs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in three university-affiliated hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from January 2010 to April 2015...
May 16, 2018: Infection
M Walaszek, P Bois, J Laurent, E Lenormand, A Wanko
Urban stormwater affects the general quality of water bodies because of their hydraulic and pollution impacts. Stormwater discharges modify stream water flow and are reported as major source of heavy metals (HMs) in urban streams. Stormwater Constructed Wetlands (SCWs) have been built worldwide to manage stormwater before it is released into hydrosystems. In SCWs, stormwater is stored, evaporated and sometimes infiltrated. Subsequently, the HMs in stormwater can be settled, filtered and bioassimilated by microorganisms...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Filippo Ghezzi, Laura Monni, Andrea Nistri
KEY POINT SUMMARY: Excessive neuronal excitability characterizes several neuropathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) that control tongue muscles, are extremely vulnerable to this disease and undergo damage and death when exposed to excessive glutamate extracellular concentration that causes excitotoxicity. Our laboratory devised an in vitro model of excitotoxicity obtained by pharmacological block of glutamate transporters...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Maria C Risueño, Pilar S Testillano
The ubiquity of pollutants, such as agrochemicals and heavy metals, constitute a serious risk to human health. To evaluate the induction of DNA damage and programmed cell death (PCD), root cells of Allium cepa and Vicia faba were treated with two organophosphate insecticides (OI), fenthion and malathion, and with two heavy metal (HM) salts, nickel nitrate and potassium dichromate. An alkaline variant of the comet assay was performed to identify DNA breaks; the results showed comets in a dose-dependent manner, while higher concentrations induced clouds following exposure to OIs and HMs...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaocheng Wei, Dongfang Liu, Wenjiao Li, Lirui Liao, Zhendong Wang, Weiwei Huang, Wenli Huang
Biochar was applied during the bioleaching of heavy metals (HMs) from swine manure (SM), in an attempt to accelerate the HMs removal rates and to reduce the losses of nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus). Results showed that the addition of biochar (5gL-1 ) could not only significantly shorten the leaching time of HMs (Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd) from 10 (control) to 7days with a high solubilization efficiency of 90%, but also decrease the total nitrogen loss efficiency by 42.7% from 180.3 (control) to 103.3mgL-1 in the leachate...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A K Nayak, S S Panda, A Basu, N K Dhal
Bioremediation of Cr (VI), Fe, and other heavy metals (HMs) through plant-microbes interaction is one of the efficient strategies due to its high efficiency, low cost, and ecofriendly nature. The aim of the study was to isolate, characterize, and assess the potential of rhizospheric bacteria to enhance growth and metal accumulation by the chromium hyperaccumulator Vetiveria zizanoides. The bacterial strain isolated from mine tailings was identified to be Bacillus cereus (T1B3) strain exhibited plant growth-promoting traits including, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole acetic acid, and siderophores production, nitrogen fixation, and P solubilization...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Yongqiang Pang, Yongfeng Li, Mingbao Yan, Dongqing Liu, Jiafu Wang, Zhuo Xu, Shaobo Qu
Controlling of electromagnetic wave radiation is of great importance in many fields. In this work, a hybrid metasurface (HMS) is designed to simultaneously reduce the microwave reflection and the infrared emission. The HMS is composed of the metal/dielectric/metal/dielectric/metal configuration. The reflection reduction at microwave frequencies mainly results from the phase cancellation technique, while the infrared emission reduction is due to the reflection of the metal with a high filling ration in the top layer...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Hongxing Qiao, Liheng Zhang, Hongtao Shi, Yuzhen Song, Chuanzhou Bian
The gut microbiota play important roles in the degradation of chemical compounds of herbal medicines (HMs). However, little information regarding the interplay between HMs and the gut microbiota is available. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the fecal microbiota of young (age, 11 weeks) hens fed a conventional diet containing a crude Astragalus (0.5%) additive for 21 days (group A) vs. controls (group B) that were fed only conventional feed. The fecal contents of 14-week-old hens were collected for DNA extraction, and then the V3 and V4 hyper-variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified and analyzed using high-throughput sequencing technology...
April 30, 2018: AMB Express
Lixun Zhang, Bo Zhao, Gang Xu, Yuntao Guan
Globally, fluvial heavy metal (HM) pollution has recently become an increasingly severe problem. However, few studies have investigated the variational characteristics of fluvial HMs after rain over long periods (≥1 year). The Dakan River in Xili Reservoir watershed (China) was selected as a case study to investigate pollution levels, influencing factors, and sources of HMs under different rainfall conditions during 2015 and 2016. Fluvial HMs showed evident spatiotemporal variations attributable to the coupled effects of pollution generation and rainfall diffusion...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tatiana Minkina, Grigoriy Fedorenko, Dina Nevidomskaya, Aleksei Fedorenko, Victor Chaplygin, Saglara Mandzhieva
The effect of strong chemical contamination of soils on the growth and structure of reed (Phragmites australis Cav.) roots and stems has been investigated. Soils and plants on monitoring plots in the zone of industrial sewage tanks and sludge reservoirs in the city of Kamensk-Shakhtinskii (southern Russia) were studied. Polyelement pollution of soils on the studied monitoring plots was revealed, with exceedances of Clarkes in hundreds of times for Zn and Cd, in tens of times for Pb, and in several times for Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mn...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Norihiko Asada, Rumi Kairiku, Mika Tobo, Akifumi Ono
Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Xiu Wang, Wenhan Hu, Kai Zhang, Xiaoqiu Shao, Yanshan Ma, Lin Sang, Zhong Zheng, Chao Zhang, Junjv Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Purpose: Hypermotor seizures (HMS) can be triggered by different epileptogenic foci and thus common symptomatic networks generating HMS may exist among these patients. The goal of the present study was to investigate the specialized networks underlying HMS by analyzing interictal 18 FDG-PET imaging and ictal stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. Methods: Fourteen patients with HMS were retrospectively analyzed. HMS were classified into HMS1 and HMS2 according to the speed and intensity of the motor seizure behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Erica L Larson, Dan Vanderpool, Brice A J Sarver, Colin Callahan, Sara Keeble, Lorraine P Provencio, Michael D Kessler, Vanessa Stewart, Erin Nordquist, Matthew D Dean, Jeffrey M Good
Resolving the mechanistic and genetic bases of reproductive barriers between species is essential to understanding the evolutionary forces that shape speciation. Intrinsic hybrid incompatibilities are often treated as fixed between species, yet there can be considerable variation in the strength of reproductive isolation between populations. The extent and causes of this variation remain poorly understood in most systems. We investigated the genetic basis of variable hybrid male sterility (HMS) between two recently diverged subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus domesticus and M...
April 24, 2018: Genetics
Zixue Wu, Feng Guo, Lu Huang, Li Wang
An Electrochemical nonenzymatic sensor was fabricated based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), chitosan (Chit) and carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode. Scanning electron microscopy morphology showed that CNT well dispersed in Chit, while CTAB micelles assembled on the surface of the CNT. Due to the synergetic effect of the three components, excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydroxymethanesulfinate (HMS) in the presence of both fixed and varying concentrations of sulfite was achieved...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Keon Mook Seong, Brad S Coates, May R Berenbaum, John M Clark, Barry R Pittendrigh
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in the biosynthesis of endogenous intracellular compounds and the metabolism of xenobiotics, including chemical insecticides. We investigated the structural and expression level variance across all P450 genes with respect to the evolution of insecticide resistance under multigenerational DDT selection. RESULTS: RNA-seq and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR indicated that the transcript levels of seven P450 genes were significantly up-regulated and three P450 genes were down-regulated in the DDT-resistant strain 91-R, as compared to the control strain 91-C...
April 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Edwin D Rose
The British Museum, based in Montague House, Bloomsbury, opened its doors on 15 January 1759, as the world's first state-owned public museum. The Museum's collection mostly originated from Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast holdings were purchased by Parliament shortly after his death. The largest component of this collection was objects of natural history, including a herbarium made up of 265 bound volumes, many of which were classified according to the late seventeenth-century system of John Ray (1627-1705)...
April 15, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
Direct ingestion of soil and/or soil attached to the food items is a potential rout for wildlife exposure to contaminants. In this study, bioaccumulation of five heavy metals (HMs) in internal tissues of an urban bird (Pica pica) collected from Aran-O-Bidgol City, Central Iran and their related soil were investigated. A total of 15 magpie specimens were collected in autumn 2013 and then their internal tissues were digested using a mixture of HNO3 and H2 O2 , and finally, concentrations of HMs were detected by ICP-OES...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhongbin Liao, Xin Xiao, Yingying Hu, Xiaofei Sun, Hui Wang, Hongxuan Zhou, Yu Ma, James Li
We studied heavy metal (HM) stress on wheat seedlings (AK-58) with and without coal fly ash (CFA) exposure. Three CFA spray rates were used to simulate air quality of the second level. Results show airborne particulates can directly enter plant leaves, affecting the whole plant. HM deposition decreases seedling size and mass and reduces activities of the chlorophyll family, photosynthesis enzymes (RuBP and PEPC), and photosynthesis efficiency. In leaves, HM deposition increases with the CFA spray rate. In roots, however, CFA exposure seems to reduce HM deposition, compared with the control without CFA exposure...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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