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Lijian Leng, Songqi Leng, Jie Chen, Xingzhong Yuan, Jun Li, Kun Li, Yunpu Wang, Wenguang Zhou
Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and heavy metal (HM) contaminated lignocellulosic biomass (rice straw or wood sawdust) was conducted at 300 °C with ethanol as the solvent to study the transformation behavior of HMs (e.g., Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni). The results indicate that HMs in rice straw or wood sawdust transferred heavily to bio-oils (up to 10-25% of the total Cu, Cd, and Zn) when they were liquefied individually, compared with MSS with only ∼5% distributed to bio-oil. The bio-available fraction of HMs in bio-chars and bio-oils produced from liquefaction of individual biomass were assessed to show medium to high risk to the environment...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jia Wen, Ying Fang, Guangming Zeng
The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
In-Yup Jeon, Hyuk-Jun Noh, Jong-Beom Baek
Hyperbranched macromolecules (HMs, also called hyperbranched polymers) are highly branched three-dimensional (3D) structures in which all bonds converge to a focal point or core, and which have a multiplicity of reactive chain-ends. This review summarizes major types of synthetic strategies exploited to produce HMs, including the step-growth polycondensation, the self-condensing vinyl polymerization and ring opening polymerization. Compared to linear analogues, the globular and dendritic architectures of HMs endow new characteristics, such as abundant functional groups, intramolecular cavities, low viscosity, and high solubility...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fatma Omrane, Imed Gargouri, Moncef Khadhraoui, Boubaker Elleuch, Denis Zmirou-Navier
BACKGROUND: Sfax is a very industrialized city located in the southern region of Tunisia where heavy metals (HMs) pollution is now an established matter of fact. The health of its residents mainly those engaged in industrial metals-based activities is under threat. Indeed, such workers are being exposed to a variety of HMs mixtures, and this exposure has cumulative properties. Whereas current HMs exposure assessment is mainly carried out using direct air monitoring approaches, the present study aims to assess health risks associated with chronic occupational exposure to HMs in industry, using a modeling approach that will be validated later on...
March 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Carla Vignaroli, Sonia Pasquaroli, Barbara Citterio, Andrea Di Cesare, Gianmarco Mangiaterra, Daniele Fattorini, Francesca Biavasco
Sediment samples from three coastal sites - two beach resorts (Beach 1 and Beach 2 sites) and an area lying between an oil refinery and a river estuary (Estuarine site) - were analyzed for antibiotic- and heavy metal (HM)-resistant enterococci. A total of 123 enterococci, 36 E. faecium, 34 E. casseliflavus, 33 E. hirae, 5 E. faecalis, 3 E. durans, 3 E. gallinarum, and 9 Enterococcus spp, were recovered. Strains resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) were recovered from all sites, whereas multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered only from "Beach 2" (14%) and "Estuarine" (3...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Manash Gope, Reginald Ebhin Masto, Joshy George, Srinivasan Balachandran
Street dust samples from Durgapur, the steel city of eastern India, were collected from five different land use patterns, i.e., national highways, urban residential area, sensitive area, industrial area and busy traffic zone during summer, monsoon, and winter to analyze the pollution characteristics, chemical fractionation, source apportionment and health risk of heavy metals (HMs). The samples were fractionated into ≤ 53 µm and analyzed for potentially harmful elements (PHEs) viz. Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn...
February 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhouying Xu, Yang Wu, Yinghe Jiang, Xiangling Zhang, Junli Li, Yihui Ban
Over the last three decades, the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in wetland habitats had been proven, and their roles played in wetland ecosystems and potential functions in wastewater bioremediation technical installations are interesting issues. To increase knowledge on the functions of AMF in the plant-based bioremediation of wastewater, we constructed two vertical-flow wetlands planting with Phragmites australis and investigated AMF distribution in plant roots and their roles played in purification of wastewater polluted by heavy metals (HMs), utilizing the Illumina sequencing technique...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhongmin Jia, Siyue Li, Li Wang
Soil pollution with heavy metals (HMs) has been attracting more and more interests, however, assessment of eco-environmental and human risks particularly in a rapidly urbanization area (the upper Yangtze) remains limited. Multiple modern indices were firstly performed for complete risk assessment of eco-environment and human health based on a high-spatial-resolution sampling. Averages of HMs were far below grade II threshold level of the Chinese Environmental Quality standards for soils, whereas Cd, As and Hg considerably exceeded the local background values...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Azhar H Alostad, Douglas T Steinke, Ellen I Schafheutle
Background: Herbal medicine (HM) regulation is less developed than that of allopathic medicines, with some countries lacking specific regulations. Objective: For the purpose of informing a registration system for HMs in Kuwait, which does not manufacture but imports all HMs, this study compared the similarities and differences between the current HM registration systems of five countries. Methods: The five countries were selected as major source countries of HM in Kuwait (United Kingdom (UK), Germany and United States of America (USA)) or because of geographical proximity or size and approach (United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kingdom of Bahrain)...
2018: Pharmaceutical Medicine
Oluwatosin Gbemisola Oladipo, Obinna Tobechukwu Ezeokoli, Mark Steve Maboeta, Jacobus Johannes Bezuidenhout, Louwrens R Tiedt, Anine Jordaan, Cornelius Carlos Bezuidenhout
Response and growth kinetics of microbes in contaminated medium are useful indices for the screening and selection of tolerant species for eco-friendly bio-augmentative remediation of polluted environments. In this study, the heavy metal (HM) tolerance, bioaccumulation and growth kinetics of seven bacterial strains isolated from mining sites to 10 HMs (Cd, Hg, Ni, Al, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) at varied concentrations (25-600 mgL -1 ) were investigated. The isolates were phylogenetically (16S rRNA gene) related to Lysinibacillus macroides, Achromobacter spanius, Bacillus kochii, B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Xiangli Sun, Yan Xu, Qiqiong Zhang, Xiuzhen Li, Zhongzheng Yan
The frequency and duration of tidal flooding significantly influence the bioavailability of heavy metals (HMs) in sediment and hence exert toxicological effects on coastal wetland plants. In this study, the combined effects of different water inundation times (3, 6, 9, and 12 h) and HMs (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr) on the photosynthesis and physiology of Spartina alterniflora were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that S. alterniflora was somehow tolerant to the combined HMs treatments, and only the highest level of HM treatment decreased leaf chlorophyll content...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marta Pogrzeba, Szymon Rusinowski, Jacek Krzyżak
Heavy metals (HMs) contamination of soils is a major problem occurring worldwide. Utility of energy crops for biofuel feedstock production systems offers a feasible solution for a commercial exploitation of an arable land contaminated with HMs. Experiments involved field testing of Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina pectinata cultivated on HMs-contaminated soil with standard NPK fertilizers and commercially available microbial inoculum. Biomass yield, water content, macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca), and heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in plant shoots were assessed at the end of the first and the second growing season...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yu Zhang, Junli Hu, Jianfeng Bai, Junhua Wang, Rui Yin, Jingwei Wang, Xiangui Lin
An 8-week pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal inoculations on a heavily heavy metal (HM)-contaminated (H) soil and a lightly HM-enriched (L) soil, both of which were collected from a waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)-recycling site. Compared with the L soil, the H soil induced significantly larger (P<0.05) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn and Ni in sunflower (except for root Cr and shoot Ni), which impaired the thylakoid lamellar folds in leaves...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jie Li, Guangwei Yu, Shengyu Xie, Lanjia Pan, Chunxing Li, Futian You, Yin Wang
Ceramsite was prepared from sewage sludge biochar (SSB). The migration, speciation evolution, leaching toxicity, and potential environmental risk of heavy metals (HMs) in sludge biochar ceramsite (SBC) were investigated. The characteristics of the SBC met the requirements for Chinese lightweight aggregate standards (GB/T 1743.1-2010 and JT/T 770-2009) and the heavy metals (HMs: Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Cd) were well immobilized in the SBC. The leaching percentages of the HMs in SBC were remarkably reduced, in particular after preheating at 400°C and sintering at 1100°C...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Victor Chaplygin, Tatiana Minkina, Saglara Mandzhieva, Marina Burachevskaya, Svetlana Sushkova, Evgeniy Poluektov, Elena Antonenko, Valentina Kumacheva
The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Fabio Danisi, Emma Guidi
Background: Linear scleroderma has been associated with muscle spasms ipsilateral to skin lesions. Typically, spasms are located in trigeminal innervated muscles, leading to hemimasticatory spasm (HMS). Case Report: We report a case of linear scleroderma associated with spasm of muscles innervated not only by the trigeminal but also by the facial nerve. Discussion: We review the patient's successful treatment with incobotulinumtoxinA, a formulation of botulinum toxin that has not been reported for use in this condition...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Yan Xu, Xiangli Sun, Qiqiong Zhang, Xiuzhen Li, Zhongzheng Yan
Tidal flat elevation in the estuarine wetland determines the tidal flooding time and flooding frequency, which will inevitably affect the formation of iron plaque and accumulations of heavy metals (HMs) in wetland plants. The present study investigated the formation of iron plaque and HM's (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium) accumulation in S. alterniflora, a typical estuarine wetland species, at different tidal flat elevations (low, middle and high) in filed and at different time (3, 6, 9, 12 h per day) of waterlogging treatment in greenhouse conditions...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kang Tian, Biao Huang, Zhe Xing, Wenyou Hu
Soil pollution by heavy metals (HMs) has rapidly become a major threat to vegetable security. Nearly all cultivated soils are at risk of metal accumulation, and greenhouse soils are among the most heavily impacted soils. In this study, a rapid assessment of HMs at trace concentrations was conducted via portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectroscopy in Shouguang, China. Measurements were made via PXRF under in situ, ex situ and sieved conditions and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tao Huang, Lulu Zhou, Longfei Liu, Ming Xia
Low-frequency ultrasound generated by a transducer was investigated to activate the raw municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes in the electrokinetic process, aiming at enhancing heavy metal (HM) removal and achieving better remedial efficacy. The maximum removal efficiencies of 69.84%, 64.24%, 67.74% and 59.93% were obtained in the orthogonal tests of ultrasonication for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd, respectively. The acoustic time of 30 min and controlling temperature of 45 °C in the operating parameters were quantitatively determined to optimize the ultrasonication of the MSWI fly ash matrices...
January 25, 2018: Waste Management
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