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J M Fernández-González, A L Grindlay, F Serrano-Bernardo, M I Rodríguez-Rojas, M Zamorano
The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery...
May 10, 2017: Waste Management
Małgorzata Hawrot-Paw, Adam Koniuszy, Małgorzata Mikiciuk, Monika Izwikow, Tomasz Stawicki, Paweł Sędłak
The purpose of this research was evaluation of the effect of soil contamination with waste coming from biomass gasification on chosen indicators of its biological activity, growth and development of spring barley, and change of physiological parameters of the plant. Chromatographic content and basic rheological parameters of the substances under research were also analyzed. Liquid wastes, tar, and mixture of tar and engine oil were introduced to the soil in the amount of 100 mg kg(-1) DM soil. Based on the conducted research, it was ascertained that the changes in the number and activity of soil microorganisms were determined by the type of waste and its dose...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tobias Pape Thomsen, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen, Benny Gøbel, Peder Stoholm, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Ulrik B Henriksen, Dorette Sophie Müller-Stöver
The study is part 2 of 2 in an investigation of gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge in low temperature gasifiers. In this work, solid residuals from thermal gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge were investigated for their potential use as fertilizer. Ashes from five different low temperature circulating fluidized bed (LT-CFB) gasification campaigns including two mono-sludge campaigns, two sludge/straw mixed fuels campaigns and a straw reference campaign were compared...
May 4, 2017: Waste Management
A Hegazy, A O Ghallab, F H Ashour
Rice straw is an agricultural waste that causes an annoying problem in Egypt if it is not well exploited. This study focuses on using this waste in power generation by co-gasification of Egyptian Maghara coal and rice straw blends using entrained flow gasifier technology. Aspen Plus was used to conduct a parametric study for investigation of the effect of changing the inputs to the gasifier on the produced gas composition. Three different input parameters, influencing the performance of the gasifier, including the percentage of coal to rice straw in the blend, the fraction of added water to the blend, and the mass percentage of oxygen with respect to the mass of the blend fed to the gasifier were analysed...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Wubin Weng, Jesper Borggren, Bo Li, Marcus Aldén, Zhongshan Li
A novel multi-jet burner was built to provide one-dimensional laminar flat flames with a wide range of variable parameters for multipurpose quantitative optical measurements. The burner is characterized by two independent plenum chambers, one supporting a matrix of 181 laminar jet flames and the other supporting a co-flow from a perforated plate with small holes evenly distributed among the jets. A uniform rectangular burned gas region of 70 mm × 40 mm can be generated, with a wide range of temperatures and equivalence ratios by controlling independently the gas supplies to the two plenum chambers...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Tobias Pape Thomsen, Zsuzsa Sárossy, Benny Gøbel, Peder Stoholm, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Flemming Jappe Frandsen, Ulrik Birk Henriksen
Results from five experimental campaigns with Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LT-CFB) gasification of straw and/or municipal sewage sludge (MSS) from three different Danish municipal waste water treatment plants in pilot and demonstration scale are analyzed and compared. The gasification process is characterized with respect to process stability, process performance and gas product characteristics. All experimental campaigns were conducted at maximum temperatures below 750°C, with air equivalence ratios around 0...
April 25, 2017: Waste Management
Carlos A García, Álvaro Peña, Ramiro Betancourt, Carlos A Cardona
Forest residues are an important source of biomass. Among these, Coffee Cut-Stems (CCS) are an abundant wood waste in Colombia obtained from coffee crops renovation. However, only low quantities of these residues are used directly in combustion processes for heating and cooking in coffee farms where their energy efficiency is very low. In the present work, an energy and environmental assessment of two bioenergy production processes (ethanol fermentation and gasification) using CCS as raw material was performed...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Y Hawangchu, D Atong, V Sricharoenchaikul
Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
S Vakalis, F Patuzzi, K Moustakas, A Sotiropoulos, D Malamis, M Baratieri
Household biowaste represent the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and are an underutilized resource. Although previous studies have performed pyrolysis of organic waste, the vast majority has been on specific presorted feedstock or conventional lignocellulosic streams. Therefore, there is a lack of pyrolysis applications on representative food waste as retrieved from households and this can be attributed primarily to their high water content and their degradability. But via the intermediate step of drying, long-term storage and thermal treatment have become possible...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Patrick Nau, Peter Kutne, Georg Eckel, Wolfgang Meier, Christian Hotz, Sabine Fleck
An absorption spectrometer utilizing a tunable distributed feedback diode laser at 2.3 μm and an interband cascade laser at 3.1 μm has been developed to measure temperature and concentrations of CO, CH<sub>4</sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>2</sub>, and H<sub>2</sub>O under gasification conditions. A wavelength division multiplexing approach using a single ZrF<sub>4</sub>-fiber was used to measure both wavelength regions simultaneously. The performance of the spectrometer has been tested in laminar flat flames and a heated cell and then applied for measurements at an atmospheric entrained flow gasifier (REGA)...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Björn D Heijstra, Ching Leang, Alex Juminaga
Low carbon fuels and chemicals can be sourced from renewable materials such as biomass or from industrial and municipal waste streams. Gasification of these materials allows all of the carbon to become available for product generation, a clear advantage over partial biomass conversion into fermentable sugars. Gasification results into a synthesis stream (syngas) containing carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2). Autotrophy-the ability to fix carbon such as CO2 is present in all domains of life but photosynthesis alone is not keeping up with anthropogenic CO2 output...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
D Dias, N Lapa, M Bernardo, D Godinho, I Fonseca, M Miranda, F Pinto, F Lemos
Rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH) and polyethylene (PE) were blended and submitted to gasification and pyrolysis processes. The chars obtained were submitted to textural, chemical, and ecotoxic characterisations, towards their possible valorisation. Gasification chars were mainly composed of ashes (73.4-89.8wt%), while pyrolysis chars were mainly composed of carbon (53.0-57.6wt%). Silicon (Si) was the major mineral element in all chars followed by alkaline and alkaline-earth metal species (AAEMs). In the pyrolysis chars, titanium (Ti) was also a major element, as the feedstock blends contained high fractions of PE which was the main source of Ti...
April 8, 2017: Waste Management
Alireza Bazargan, Sarah L Rough, Gordon McKay
Palm kernel shell biochars (PKSB) ejected as residues from a gasifier have been used for solid fuel briquette production. With this approach, palm kernel shells can be used for energy production twice: first, by producing rich syngas during gasification; second, by compacting the leftover residues from gasification into high calorific value briquettes. Herein, the process parameters for the manufacture of PKSB biomass briquettes via compaction are optimized. Two possible optimum process scenarios are considered...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
Dayana Priyadharshini Stephen, Bakthavatsalam Kannappan Ayalur
The ability of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater microalga, to degrade phenolic effluent of coal-based producer gas plant under ambient conditions was investigated. C. pyrenoidosa was able to grow in high-strength phenolic effluent. Major contaminant present in the effluent was phenol (C6H5OH). The effluent has 1475.3 ± 68 mg/L of initial total phenolic concentration. The effect of nutrients used for algal cultivation in phenol degradation was analyzed by inoculating four different concentrations, viz...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Quang-Vu Bach, Wei-Hsin Chen, Herng-Kuang Sheen, Jo-Shu Chang
This study aims at investigating the gasification behavior and kinetics of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 before and after wet torrefaction. The raw and wet-torrefied microalgae were first gasified in a thermogravimetric analyzer under a continuous CO2 flow. Thereafter, the obtained thermogravimetric data were modeled for kinetic study, employing a seven-parallel-reaction mechanism. The decomposition of the microalgae in CO2 shows two reactive stages: devolatilization with two peaks and gasification with a peak accompanied by a shoulder, and the thermal decomposition of components in the samples can be clearly identified...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
S M Al-Salem, A Antelava, A Constantinou, G Manos, A Dutta
Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Na Deng, Awen Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Guansong He, Wenqian Cui, Guanyi Chen, Chengcai Song
A self-sustained municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis-gasification process with self-produced syngas as heat source was proposed and an equilibrium model was established to predict the syngas reuse rate considering variable MSW components. Simulation results indicated that for constant moisture (ash) content, with the increase of ash (moisture) content, syngas reuse rate gradually increased, and reached the maximum 100% when ash (moisture) content was 73.9% (60.4%). Novel ternary diagrams with moisture, ash and combustible as axes were proposed to predict the adaptability of the self-sustained process and syngas reuse rate for waste...
March 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhiqiang Wu, Shuzhong Wang, Zhengyuan Luo, Lin Chen, Haiyu Meng, Jun Zhao
In this paper, the influence of cellulose on the physicochemical properties and the gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. A specific surface area analyzer and an X-ray diffraction system were used to characterize the pore structure and the micro-crystalline structure of char. Fractal theory and deconvolution method were applied to quantitatively investigate the influence of cellulose on the structure of co-pyrolysis char. The results indicate that the improvements in the pore structure due to the presence of cellulose are more pronounced in the case of anthracite char with respect to bituminous char...
March 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Linbo Yan, Boshu He
A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋten), total exergy efficiency (ŋtex) and carbon sequestration rate (Rcs) were detected...
March 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ana Belén Hernández, Felix Okonta, Ntuli Freeman
Thermochemical valorisation processes that allow energy to be recovered from sewage sludge, such as pyrolysis and gasification, have demonstrated great potential as convenient alternatives to conventional sewage sludge disposal technologies. Moreover, these processes may benefit from CO2 recycling. Today, the scaling up of these technologies requires an advanced knowledge of the reactivity of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the products, specific to the thermochemical process. In this study the behaviour of sewage sludge during thermochemical conversion, under different atmospheres (N2, CO2 and air), was studied, using TGA-FTIR, in order to understand the effects of different atmospheric gases on the kinetics of degradation and on the gaseous products...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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