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Maria Manuel Serrano Bernardo, Catarina Alexandra Catanas Madeira, Nuno Carlos Lapa Dos Santos Nunes, Diogo André Costa Messias Dias, Delfina Maria Barbosa Godinho, Maria Filomena de Jesus Pinto, Inês Alexandra Morgado do Nascimento Matos, Ana Paula Batista Carvalho, Isabel Maria de Figueiredo Ligeiro Fonseca
This work is dedicated to study the potential application of char byproducts obtained in the gasification of rice husk (RG char) and rice husk blended with corn cob (RCG char) as removal agents of two emergent aquatic contaminants: tetracycline and caffeine. The chars presented high ash contents (59.5-81.5%), being their mineral content mainly composed of silicon (as silica) and potassium. The samples presented a strong basic character, which was related to its higher mineral oxides content. RCG char presented better textural properties with a higher apparent surface area (144 m(2) g(-1)) and higher micropore content (V micro = 0...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guan Sem Ho, Hasan Mohd Faizal, Farid Nasir Ani
High temperature thermal plasma has a major drawback which consumes high energy. Therefore, non-thermal plasma which uses comparatively lower energy, for instance, microwave plasma is more attractive to be applied in gasification process. Microwave-induced plasma gasification also carries the advantages in terms of simplicity, compactness, lightweight, uniform heating and the ability to operate under atmospheric pressure that gains attention from researchers. The present paper synthesizes the current knowledge available for microwave plasma gasification on solid fuels and waste, specifically on affecting parameters and their performance...
August 12, 2017: Waste Management
David M Wall, Shane McDonagh, Jerry D Murphy
Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid...
July 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Albany Milena Lozano Násner, Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, José Carlos Escobar Palacio, Mateus Henrique Rocha, Julian Camilo Restrepo, Osvaldo José Venturini, Albert Ratner
This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed...
August 7, 2017: Waste Management
Junhao Hu, Jingai Shao, Haiping Yang, Guiying Lin, Yingquan Chen, Xianhua Wang, Wennan Zhang, Hanping Chen
The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification...
July 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zheng Xing, Yeap Hung Ng, Siok-Wei Tay, Rachel Pek Har Oon, Liang Hong
This work investigates the effect of atmosphere on pyrolysis of a polymer matrix (precursor) for directing its transformation towards more disordered graphene species and smaller graphitic nanograins. These two structural characteristics are crucial to the generation of nano-channels (NCs) pertinent to nanofiltration (NF). Two measures are explored hereby to conduct the study: varying the pyrolysis atmosphere and implementing highly dispersed nickel atomic clusters (Ni-clusters) in the coating matrix undergoing pyrolysis...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ye Shen, Michelle Ting Ting Tan, Clive Chong, Wende Xiao, Chi-Hwa Wang
Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically...
July 27, 2017: Waste Management
Sergio Rapagnà, Katia Gallucci, Pier Ugo Foscolo
Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm(3) of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm(3) of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude...
July 27, 2017: Waste Management
Chiara Fasciani, Anabel E Lanterna, Javier B Giorgi, Juan C Scaiano
Reduced graphene oxide modified by pulsed laser ablation causes water splitting under visible light illumination (532 nm). When the light source is a pulsed laser, water splitting is accompanied by carbon gasification (CO formation); however, conventional (LED) light sources produce water splitting exclusively.
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yijun Zhao, Dongdong Feng, Zhibo Zhang, Shaozeng Sun, Xinwei Zhou, Jiyi Luan, Jiangquan Wu
Based on the original biomass cyclone gasifier, the cyclone pyrolysis-suspension combustion gasification technology was constituted with a bottom wind ring to build the biochar suspension combustion zone. This technology decouples the biomass pyrolysis, gasification (reduction reaction) and combustion (oxidation reaction) within the same device. With the feed amount and total air fixed, the effect of air rate arrangement on temperature distribution of the gasifier, syngas components and gasification parameters was studied...
July 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Brian Machovina, Kenneth J Feeley
Reducing meat consumption by humans and shifting to more efficient plant and animal protein sources could potentially free up large areas of pasture and feedcrop agricultural land for restoration or conversion to low-input high-diversity (LIHD) grasslands. LIHD grasslands improve biodiversity, carbon sequestration, erosion control, water storage, while also providing opportunities to produce biofuels. We examined the potential of converting pastures globally, and animal feedstock agricultural lands in the USA and Brazil, to LIHD biomass sources and the capacity of these systems to meet national energy demands via (1) cellulosic ethanol and (2) integrated gasification and combined cycle technology with Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis (IGCC-FT) processing...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
Young Nam Chun, Byeo Ri Jeong
Microwave drying-pyrolysis or drying-gasification characteristics was examined to convert sewage sludge into energy and resources. The gasification was carried out with carbon dioxide as a gasifying agent. The examination results were compared with those of the conventional heating-type electric furnace to compare both product characteristics. Through the pyrolysis or gasification, gas, tar and char were generated as products. The produced gas was the largest component of each process followed by the sludge char and the tar...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Brian Dougherty, Myles Gray, Mark G Johnson, Markus Kleber
The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluated the potential of floating biochar covers to reduce odor and gas emissions while simultaneously sorbing nutrients from liquid dairy manure. This new approach has the potential to mitigate multiple environmental problems. Two biochars were tested: one made via gasification of Douglas fir chips at 650°C (FC650), and the other made from a mixture of Douglas fir [ (Mirb...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
(no author information available yet)
Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology by Nobuhiro Tanigaki, Yasuka Fujinaga, Hirohisa Kajiyama, and Yoshihiro Ishida. Waste Management & Research 2013; 31: 1118-1124, DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13502386. The authors regret that they omitted the following declaration of conflicting interest in the article: Declaration of Conflicting Interest At the time of publication, all authors were employed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd. Technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Wei Wang, Xuesong Ren, Kai Yang, Zhenhu Hu, Shoujun Yuan
Coal gasification wastewater (CGW) contains very high concentrations of phenols and ammonia. However, the potential impact of ammonia on the anaerobic digestion of phenols remained unclear. Firstly, the methanogens and phenols degraders had a good tolerance up to 1gL(-1) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), but the substrate utilization rate for phenol, and specific methanogenic activity of sludge were decreased by 89% and 67% at 5g TAN L(-1), and 94% and 100% at 10g TAN L(-1), respectively. Secondly, the optimum struvite crystallization conditions (pH=8...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Einara Blanco Machin, Daniel Travieso Pedroso, João Andrade de Carvalho
Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
Siming You, Yong Sik Ok, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Eilhann E Kwon, Jechan Lee, Chi-Hwa Wang
This review lays great emphasis on production and characteristics of biochar through gasification. Specifically, the physicochemical properties and yield of biochar through the diverse gasification conditions associated with various types of biomass were extensively evaluated. In addition, potential application scenarios of biochar through gasification were explored and their environmental implications were discussed. To qualitatively evaluate biochar sustainability through the gasification process, all gasification products (i...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jiakuan Yang, Jian Song, Sha Liang, Ruonan Guan, Yafei Shi, Wenbo Yu, Suiyi Zhu, Wei Fan, Huijie Hou, Jingping Hu, Huali Deng, Bo Xiao
This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0...
June 29, 2017: Water Research
Ming Lei, Jing Hai, Jiang Cheng, Li Gui, Jiawei Lu, Ming-Zhong Ren, Feng Zhu, Zong-Hui Yang
Gasification has gained advantage as an effective way to dispose domestic solid waste in mountainous rural of China. However, its toxic emissions such as PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, as well as their potential environmental risks, were not well studied in engineering application. In this study, an updraft fixed bed gasifier was investigated by field sampling analysis. Results showed that low toxic emissions (dust, SO2, NOx, HCl, CO, H2S, NH3, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals) in the flue gas were achieved when the rural solid waste was used as feedstock...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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