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Y Hawangchu, D Atong, V Sricharoenchaikul
Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
S Vakalis, F Patuzzi, K Moustakas, A Sotiropoulos, D Malamis, M Baratieri
Household biowaste represent the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and are an underutilized resource. Although previous studies have performed pyrolysis of organic waste, the vast majority has been on specific presorted feedstock or conventional lignocellulosic streams. Therefore, there is a lack of pyrolysis applications on representative food waste as retrieved from households and this can be attributed primarily to their high water content and their degradability. But via the intermediate step of drying, long-term storage and thermal treatment have become possible...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Patrick Nau, Peter Kutne, Georg Eckel, Wolfgang Meier, Christian Hotz, Sabine Fleck
An absorption spectrometer utilizing a tunable distributed feedback diode laser at 2.3 μm and an interband cascade laser at 3.1 μm has been developed to measure temperature and concentrations of CO, CH<sub>4</sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>2</sub>, and H<sub>2</sub>O under gasification conditions. A wavelength division multiplexing approach using a single ZrF<sub>4</sub>-fiber was used to measure both wavelength regions simultaneously. The performance of the spectrometer has been tested in laminar flat flames and a heated cell and then applied for measurements at an atmospheric entrained flow gasifier (REGA)...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Björn D Heijstra, Ching Leang, Alex Juminaga
Low carbon fuels and chemicals can be sourced from renewable materials such as biomass or from industrial and municipal waste streams. Gasification of these materials allows all of the carbon to become available for product generation, a clear advantage over partial biomass conversion into fermentable sugars. Gasification results into a synthesis stream (syngas) containing carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2). Autotrophy-the ability to fix carbon such as CO2 is present in all domains of life but photosynthesis alone is not keeping up with anthropogenic CO2 output...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
D Dias, N Lapa, M Bernardo, D Godinho, I Fonseca, M Miranda, F Pinto, F Lemos
Rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH) and polyethylene (PE) were blended and submitted to gasification and pyrolysis processes. The chars obtained were submitted to textural, chemical, and ecotoxic characterisations, towards their possible valorisation. Gasification chars were mainly composed of ashes (73.4-89.8wt%), while pyrolysis chars were mainly composed of carbon (53.0-57.6wt%). Silicon (Si) was the major mineral element in all chars followed by alkaline and alkaline-earth metal species (AAEMs). In the pyrolysis chars, titanium (Ti) was also a major element, as the feedstock blends contained high fractions of PE which was the main source of Ti...
April 8, 2017: Waste Management
Alireza Bazargan, Sarah L Rough, Gordon McKay
Palm kernel shell biochars (PKSB) ejected as residues from a gasifier have been used for solid fuel briquette production. With this approach, palm kernel shells can be used for energy production twice: first, by producing rich syngas during gasification; second, by compacting the leftover residues from gasification into high calorific value briquettes. Herein, the process parameters for the manufacture of PKSB biomass briquettes via compaction are optimized. Two possible optimum process scenarios are considered...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Technology
Dayana Priyadharshini Stephen, Bakthavatsalam Kannappan Ayalur
The ability of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater microalga, to degrade phenolic effluent of coal-based producer gas plant under ambient conditions was investigated. C. pyrenoidosa was able to grow in high-strength phenolic effluent. Major contaminant present in the effluent was phenol (C6H5OH). The effluent has 1475.3 ± 68 mg/L of initial total phenolic concentration. The effect of nutrients used for algal cultivation in phenol degradation was analyzed by inoculating four different concentrations, viz...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Quang-Vu Bach, Wei-Hsin Chen, Herng-Kuang Sheen, Jo-Shu Chang
This study aims at investigating the gasification behavior and kinetics of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 before and after wet torrefaction. The raw and wet-torrefied microalgae were first gasified in a thermogravimetric analyzer under a continuous CO2 flow. Thereafter, the obtained thermogravimetric data were modeled for kinetic study, employing a seven-parallel-reaction mechanism. The decomposition of the microalgae in CO2 shows two reactive stages: devolatilization with two peaks and gasification with a peak accompanied by a shoulder, and the thermal decomposition of components in the samples can be clearly identified...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
S M Al-Salem, A Antelava, A Constantinou, G Manos, A Dutta
Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Na Deng, Awen Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Guansong He, Wenqian Cui, Guanyi Chen, Chengcai Song
A self-sustained municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis-gasification process with self-produced syngas as heat source was proposed and an equilibrium model was established to predict the syngas reuse rate considering variable MSW components. Simulation results indicated that for constant moisture (ash) content, with the increase of ash (moisture) content, syngas reuse rate gradually increased, and reached the maximum 100% when ash (moisture) content was 73.9% (60.4%). Novel ternary diagrams with moisture, ash and combustible as axes were proposed to predict the adaptability of the self-sustained process and syngas reuse rate for waste...
March 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhiqiang Wu, Shuzhong Wang, Zhengyuan Luo, Lin Chen, Haiyu Meng, Jun Zhao
In this paper, the influence of cellulose on the physicochemical properties and the gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. A specific surface area analyzer and an X-ray diffraction system were used to characterize the pore structure and the micro-crystalline structure of char. Fractal theory and deconvolution method were applied to quantitatively investigate the influence of cellulose on the structure of co-pyrolysis char. The results indicate that the improvements in the pore structure due to the presence of cellulose are more pronounced in the case of anthracite char with respect to bituminous char...
March 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Linbo Yan, Boshu He
A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋten), total exergy efficiency (ŋtex) and carbon sequestration rate (Rcs) were detected...
March 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ana Belén Hernández, Felix Okonta, Ntuli Freeman
Thermochemical valorisation processes that allow energy to be recovered from sewage sludge, such as pyrolysis and gasification, have demonstrated great potential as convenient alternatives to conventional sewage sludge disposal technologies. Moreover, these processes may benefit from CO2 recycling. Today, the scaling up of these technologies requires an advanced knowledge of the reactivity of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the products, specific to the thermochemical process. In this study the behaviour of sewage sludge during thermochemical conversion, under different atmospheres (N2, CO2 and air), was studied, using TGA-FTIR, in order to understand the effects of different atmospheric gases on the kinetics of degradation and on the gaseous products...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Jiri Horak, Lenka Kubonova, Kamil Krpec, Frantisek Hopan, Petr Kubesa, Oldrich Motyka, Vendula Laciok, Milan Dej, Tadeas Ochodek, Daniela Placha
Five different domestic heating boilers (automatic, over-fire, with down-draft combustion and gasification) and three types of fuel (lignite, wood and mixed fuel) were examined in 25 combustion tests and correlated with the emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), total organic carbon (TOC) and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs with MW = 178-278 g/mol) focusing on particle phase. However, the distribution of 12 PAHs in gas phase was considered as well due to the presence mainly of lighter PAHs in gas phase...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Michael Kraussler, Philipp Schindler, Hermann Hofbauer
This work presents an experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of H2 and CH4, which should serve as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Therefore, a lab-scale process chain employing a water gas shift unit, scrubbing units, and a pressure swing adsorption unit was operated with tar-rich product gas extracted from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. A gas mixture with a volumetric fraction of about 80% H2 and 19% CH4 and with minor fractions of CO and CO2 was produced by employing carbon molecular sieve as adsorbent...
March 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Qifeng Liu, Vijay P Singh, Zhimin Fu, Jing Wang, La Hu
A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat artificial pretreated coal gasification wastewater that was mainly contained of ammonia and phenol. The efficiency of SBR fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 150 to 300 mg l(-1)) and the relationship among phenol, nitrogen removal, and the microbial community structure were evaluated. When the phenol feeding concentration was increased to about 300 mg l(-1), the removal efficiency was above 99.0%, demonstrating the robustness of phenol removal capacity...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich Usmanov, Satoshi Ninomiya, Lee Chuin Chen, Subhrakanti Saha, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Yuji Sakai, Rio Takaishi, Ahsan Habib, Kenzo Hiraoka, Kentaro Yoshimura, Sen Takeda, Hiroshi Wada, Hiroshi Nonami
In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
Tingkai Zhao, Xianglin Ji, Wenbo Jin, Wenbo Yang, Xiarong Peng, Shichang Duan, Alei Dang, Hao Li, Tiehu Li
The synthesis of 3D lamellar graphene/BaFe12O19 composites was performed by oxidizing graphite and sequentially self-propagating combustion triggered process. The 3D lamellar graphene structures were formed due to the synergistic effect of the tremendous heat induced gasification as well as huge volume expansion. The 3D lamellar graphene/BaFe12O19 composites bearing 30 wt % graphene present the reflection loss peak at -27.23 dB as well as the frequency bandwidth at 2.28 GHz (< -10 dB). The 3D lamellar graphene structures could consume the incident waves through multiple Reflection and scattering within the layered structures, Prolonging the propagation path of electromagnetic waves in the absorbers...
March 3, 2017: Nanomaterials
N Dahmen, E Henrich, T Henrich
Synthesis gas or syngas is an intermediate, which can be produced by gasification from a variety of carbonaceous feedstocks including biomass. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen, the main constituents of syngas, can be subjected to a broad range of chemical and microbial synthesis processes, leading to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels as well as to platform and fine chemicals. Gasification of solid biomass differs from coal gasification by chemical composition, heating value, ash behavior, and other technical and biomass related issues...
March 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Jun Shen, Xiong-Lei Wang, Yan-Xia Niu, Yu-Gao Wang, Gang Liu, Qing-Tao Sheng
coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous by-product generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The extracted CGTR by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC) and applied for phenol adsorption. The results showed that the prepared PAC under the optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances the PAC had a strong magnetic, easy to be separated after adsorbing phenol...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
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