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Figen Sisman Nayal, Aydin Mammadov, Nilgun Ciliz
While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Farid Safari, Omid Norouzi, Ahmad Tavasoli
A tubular batch micro-reactor system was used for hydrothermal gasification (HTG) of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as green macroalgae found in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for hydrogen production. Hydrochar, as a solid residue of non-catalytic HTG was characterized by BET, FESEM, and ICP-OES methods to determine its physiochemical properties. Surface area and pore volume of C. glomerata increased drastically after HTG...
September 26, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Qian Zhao, Yu Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Santanu Bakshi, Deborah M Aller, David A Laird, Rajesh Chintala
The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Linbo Yan, C Jim Lim, Guangxi Yue, Boshu He, John R Grace
A user-defined solver integrating the solid-gas surface reactions and the multi-phase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) approach is built based on the OpenFOAM software. The solver is tested against experiments. Then, biomass-steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasifier is preliminarily predicted. It is found that the predictions agree well with the experimental results. The bed material circulation loop in the DFB can form automatically and the bed height is about 1m. The voidage gradually increases along the height of the bed zone in the bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of the DFB...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yu-Lin Su, Kuan-Ting Chen, Yu-Chen Sheu, Shuo-Yuan Sung, Ru-Siou Hsu, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Shang-Hsiu Hu
Delivery of drug and energy within responsive carriers that effectively target and accumulate in cancer cells promises to mitigate side effects and to enhance the uniquely therapeutic efficacy demanded for personalized medicine. To achieve this goal, however, these carriers, which are usually piled up at the periphery of tumors near the blood vessel, must simultaneously overcome the challenges associated with low tumor penetration and the transport of sufficient cargos to deep tumors to eradicate whole cancer cells...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
Helga Kovacs, Katalin Szemmelveisz
Reducing or preventing damage caused by environmental pollution is a significant goal nowadays. Phytoextraction, as remediation technique is widely used, but during the process, the heavy metal content of the biomass grown on these sites special treatment and disposal techniques are required, for example liquid extraction, direct disposal, composting, and combustion. These processes are discussed in this review in economical and environmental aspects. The following main properties are analyzed: form and harmful element content of remains, utilization of the main and byproducts, affect to the environment during the treatment and disposal...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Haifeng Zhuang, Xiaoting Hong, Hongjun Han, Shengdao Shan
A lab-scale study was investigated to evaluate the effect of pure oxygen fine bubbles on membrane bioreactor (O2-MBR) performance of treating coal gasification wastewater. Compared with conventional MBR using aeration source of air (CMBR), the removal efficiencies of COD and total phenols increased by 28% and 36%, and the organic compositions of treated effluent represented significant difference that was mainly attributed to the controlled the foam expansion and enhanced the enzymatic activities in O2-MBR...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
John J Milledge, Patricia J Harvey
This review examines the potential technical and energy balance hurdles in the production of seaweed biofuel, and in particular for the MacroBioCrude processing pipeline for the sustainable manufacture of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from seaweed in the UK. The production of biofuel from seaweed is economically, energetically and technically challenging at scale. Any successful process appears to require both a method of preserving the seaweed for continuous feedstock availability and a method exploiting the entire biomass...
August 2016: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
D Godinho, D Dias, M Bernardo, N Lapa, I Fonseca, H Lopes, F Pinto
The present work aims to assess the efficiency of chars, obtained from the gasification and co-pyrolysis of rice wastes, as adsorbents of Cr(3+) from aqueous solution. GC and PC chars, produced in the gasification and co-pyrolysis, respectively, of rice husk and polyethylene were studied. Cr(3+) removal assays were optimised for the initial pH value, adsorbent mass, contact time and Cr(3+) initial concentration. GC showed a better performance than PC with about 100% Cr(3+) removal, due to the pH increase that caused Cr precipitation...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Andrew N Rollinson
The correlation between thermochemical provenance and biochar functionality is poorly understood. To this end, operational reactor temperatures (spanning the reduction zone), pressure and product gas composition measurements were obtained from a downdraft gasifier and compared against elemental composition, surface morphology and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content (PAH) of the char produced. Pine feedstock moisture with values of 7% and 17% was the experimental variable. Moderately high steady-state temperatures were observed inside the reactor, with a ca 50°C difference in how the gasifier operated between the two feedstock types...
August 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Anna Śliwińska, Dorota Burchart-Korol, Adam Smoliński
This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process...
September 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Juntao Wei, Qinghua Guo, Handing Chen, Xueli Chen, Guangsuo Yu
Co-gasification of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to explore the effects of gasification temperature and blend ratio on reactivity characteristics and synergy behaviours of co-gasification. Moreover, the relationship between the synergy and the K/Ca transformation in co-gasification was studied using flame atomic absorption spectrum (FAAS) and in-situ heating stage microscope. The results showed that the whole reactivities increased with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Pengwei Dong, Thawatchai Maneerung, Wei Cheng Ng, Xu Zhen, Yanjun Dai, Yen Wah Tong, Yen-Peng Ting, Shin Nuo Koh, Chi-Hwa Wang, Koon Gee Neoh
In this work, carbon black waste - a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries - was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
P Bartocci, M Barbanera, M D'Amico, P Laranci, G Cavalaglio, M Gelosia, D Ingles, G Bidini, C Buratti, F Cotana, F Fantozzi
The annual production of driftwood in Italy has been estimated to be more than 60,000 tonnes. This wood can be used as an energy source. Particular attention should be paid to its content of alkali and alkaline earth metals, sulfur and chlorine. Few works are available in the literature on this topic. For this reason, the authors propose experimental tests of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, to evaluate the fate of alkali and alkaline earth metals, sulfur and chlorine in the solid residues and compare the three thermal degradation technologies...
September 2, 2016: Waste Management
Yajie Li, Salma Tabassum, Zhenjia Zhang
An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Daya Shankar Pandey, Saptarshi Das, Indranil Pan, James J Leahy, Witold Kwapinski
In this paper, multi-layer feed forward neural networks are used to predict the lower heating value of gas (LHV), lower heating value of gasification products including tars and entrained char (LHVp) and syngas yield during gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) during gasification in a fluidized bed reactor. These artificial neural networks (ANNs) with different architectures are trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) back-propagation algorithm and a cross validation is also performed to ensure that the results generalise to other unseen datasets...
August 30, 2016: Waste Management
Tatiana Ramos Pacioni, Diniara Soares, Michele Di Domenico, Maria Fernanda Rosa, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz Moreira, Humberto Jorge José
This study evaluated the steam gasification potential of three residues from Brazilian agro-industry by assessing their reaction kinetics and syngas production at temperatures from 650 to 850°C and a steam partial pressure range of 0.05 to 0.3bar. The transition temperature between kinetic control and diffusion control regimes was identified. Prior to the gasification tests, the raw biomasses, namely apple pomace, spent coffee grounds and sawdust, were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed quartz tubular reactor under controlled conditions...
August 25, 2016: Waste Management
V Sricharoenchaikul, D Atong, P Sornkade, J Nisamaneenate
Thermal conversion of cassava rhizome was performed using a modular downdraft gasifier with the addition of Ni-based catalysts as promising tar eliminating and produced gas upgrading techniques. The activities of a synthesized 5% Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst prepared by impregnation method were investigated in a secondary reactor downstream of the gasifier. High reforming activity of the Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst on tar reduction was achieved. The conversion to H2 and CO was improved via steam reforming of methane and char reaction with CO2...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jia-Hong Kuo, Chiou-Liang Lin, Tsung-Jen Chang, Wang-Chang Weng, JingYong Liu
In this study, a two-stage fluidized bed gasifier was used to investigate the effect of the equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass ratio (S/B) on the synthetic gas distribution while activated carbon (AC) was added as the bed material in secondary gasifier (Stage II). The experimental results showed that when the empty bed (without the bed material) was used for the Stage II reaction, the hydrogen (H2) content in the synthetic gas emitted from the Stage II reactor was 2-3 mol% higher than that from the first-stage gasifier (Stage I)...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
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