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Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology by Nobuhiro Tanigaki, Yasuka Fujinaga, Hirohisa Kajiyama, and Yoshihiro Ishida. Waste Management & Research 2013; 31: 1118-1124, DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13502386. The authors regret that they omitted the following declaration of conflicting interest in the article: Declaration of Conflicting Interest At the time of publication, all authors were employed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd. Technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Wei Wang, Xuesong Ren, Kai Yang, Zhenhu Hu, Shoujun Yuan
Coal gasification wastewater (CGW) contains very high concentrations of phenols and ammonia. However, the potential impact of ammonia on the anaerobic digestion of phenols remained unclear. Firstly, the methanogens and phenols degraders had a good tolerance up to 1gL(-1) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), but the substrate utilization rate for phenol, and specific methanogenic activity of sludge were decreased by 89% and 67% at 5g TAN L(-1), and 94% and 100% at 10g TAN L(-1), respectively. Secondly, the optimum struvite crystallization conditions (pH=8...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Einara Blanco Machin, Daniel Travieso Pedroso, João Andrade de Carvalho
Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
Siming You, Yong Sik Ok, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Eilhann E Kwon, Jechan Lee, Chi-Hwa Wang
This review lays great emphasis on production and characteristics of biochar through gasification. Specifically, the physicochemical properties and yield of biochar through the diverse gasification conditions associated with various types of biomass were extensively evaluated. In addition, potential application scenarios of biochar through gasification were explored and their environmental implications were discussed. To qualitatively evaluate biochar sustainability through the gasification process, all gasification products (i...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jiakuan Yang, Jian Song, Sha Liang, Ruonan Guan, Yafei Shi, Wenbo Yu, Suiyi Zhu, Wei Fan, Huijie Hou, Jingping Hu, Huali Deng, Bo Xiao
This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0...
June 29, 2017: Water Research
Ming Lei, Jing Hai, Jiang Cheng, Li Gui, Jiawei Lu, Ming-Zhong Ren, Feng Zhu, Zong-Hui Yang
Gasification has gained advantage as an effective way to dispose domestic solid waste in mountainous rural of China. However, its toxic emissions such as PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, as well as their potential environmental risks, were not well studied in engineering application. In this study, an updraft fixed bed gasifier was investigated by field sampling analysis. Results showed that low toxic emissions (dust, SO2, NOx, HCl, CO, H2S, NH3, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals) in the flue gas were achieved when the rural solid waste was used as feedstock...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kanchan Kumari, Sunil Kumar, R Vineel, Ankur Khare, Rakesh Kumar
Open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a potential non-point source of emission, which causes greater concern especially in developing countries like India. The lack of awareness about environmental impact of open burning among the public, and ignorance of the fact i.e., "Open burning is a source of emission of carcinogenic substances" by environmental organizations are major hindrances towards appropriate municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system in India. The present paper highlights about the open burning of MSW practices in India, the current and projected emission of 10 major pollutants, namely dioxin, furans, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and 1-hexene emitted due to the open burning of MSW...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
Steven Wainaina, Ilona Sárvári Horváth, Mohammad J Taherzadeh
An effective method for the production of value-added chemicals from food waste and lignocellulosic materials is a hybrid thermal-biological process, which involves gasification of the solid materials to syngas (primarily CO and H2) followed by fermentation. This paper reviews the recent advances in this process. The special focus is on the cultivation methods that involve the use of single strains, defined mixed cultures and undefined mixed cultures for production of carboxylic acids and higher alcohols. A rate limiting step in these processes is the low mass transfer between the gas and the liquid phases...
June 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Tamer M Ismail, M Abd El-Salam, Eliseu Monteiro, Abel Rouboa
The present study shows the experimental and numerical results of thermal gasification of biomass, on the energy potential of agro-industrial waste from the Portalegre region. Gasification tests were performed in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier, in order to study the behavior of peach stones and miscanthus to investigate the effect of gasification temperatures at 750°C, 800°C and 850°C at a constant biomass flow rate of 45kg/h. In order to optimize the operating conditions of the biomass gasification process, a numerical model is developed namely COMMENT code...
June 21, 2017: Waste Management
Sashini De Tissera, Michael Köpke, Sean D Simpson, Christopher Humphreys, Nigel P Minton, Peter Dürre
Autotrophic acetogenic bacteria are able to capture carbon (CO or CO2) through gas fermentation, allowing them to grow on a spectrum of waste gases from industry (e.g., steel manufacture and oil refining, coal, and natural gas) and to produce ethanol. They can also consume syn(thesis) gas (CO and H2) made from the gasification of renewable/sustainable resources, such as biomass and domestic/agricultural waste. Acetogenic gas fermentation can, therefore, produce ethanol in any geographic region without competing for food or land...
June 20, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Ya Xin, Hongliang Cao, Qiaoxia Yuan, Dianlong Wang
Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
Shengyong Jia, Yuxing Han, Haifeng Zhuang, Hongjun Han, Kun Li
A lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with intermittent aeration was operated to treat the reverse osmosis concentrate derived from coal gasification wastewater. Results showed intermittent aeration represented slight effect on organic matter reduction but significant effect on nitrite and nitrate reduction, with 6h aeration and 6h non-aeration, removal efficiencies of organic matter, chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate reached 48.35%, 40.91%, 34.28%, -36.05% and 64.34%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing showed a microorganisms succession from inoculated activated sludge (S1) to activated sludge in MBR (S2) with high salinity...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
Marco Tomasi Morgano, Hans Leibold, Frank Richter, Dieter Stapf, Helmut Seifert
Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones...
June 7, 2017: Waste Management
Makoto Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Akiho
Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Areeb Shehzad, Mohammed J K Bashir, Mika Horttanainen, Mika Manttari, Jouni Havukainen, Ghulam Abbas
The present study explores the potential of MSW gasification for exergy analysis and has been recently given a premier attention in a region like Pakistan where the urbanization is rapidly growing and resources are few. The plant capacity was set at 50 MW based on reference data available and the total exergetic efficiency was recorded to be 31.5 MW. The largest irreversibility distribution appears in the gasifier followed by methanation unit and CO2 capture. The effect of process temperature, equivalence ratio and MSW moisture content was explored for inspecting the variations in syngas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
A S Nizami, M Rehan, M Waqas, M Naqvi, O K M Ouda, K Shahzad, R Miandad, M Z Khan, M Syamsiro, I M I Ismail, Deepak Pant
This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
Gianluca Cavalaglio, Valentina Coccia, Franco Cotana, Mattia Gelosia, Andrea Nicolini, Alessandro Petrozzi
A particular approach to the task of energy conversion of a residual waste material was properly experienced during the implementation of the national funded Enerpoll project. This project is a case study developed in the estate of a poultry farm that is located in a rural area of central Italy (Umbria Region); such a farm was chosen for the research project since it is almost representative of many similar small-sized breeding realties of the Italian regional context. The purpose of the case study was the disposal of a waste material (i...
May 31, 2017: Waste Management
Filomena Ardolino, Chiara Berto, Umberto Arena
The study evaluated the environmental performances of an integrated material recovery facility (MRF) able to treat 32kt/y of unsorted mixed waste, made of residuals from household source separation and separate collection. The facility includes a mechanical sorting platform for the production of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) utilized in an external waste-to-energy plant, bio-cells for tunnel composting of organic fraction, and a sanitary landfill for the safe disposal of ultimate waste. All the MRF sub-units have been analysed in depth in order to acquire reliable data for a life cycle assessment study, focused on the environmental performances of different configurations of the facility...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management
Muhammad Shahbaz, Suzana Yusup, Abrar Inayat, David Onoja Patrick, Angga Pratama, Muhamamd Ammar
Catalytic steam gasification of palm kernel shell is investigated to optimize operating parameters for hydrogen and syngas production using TGA-MS setup. RSM is used for experimental design and evaluating the effect of temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio, and coal bottom ash wt% on hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen production appears highly sensitive to all factors, especially temperature and coal bottom ash wt%. In case of syngas, the order of parametric influence is: CaO/biomass>coal bottom ash wt%>temperature>particle size...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
Bingliang Zhou, Jianbin Zhou, Qisheng Zhang
This study aims at investigating the pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches by the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) and thermogravimetric experiments. Then the Discrete DAEM method is used to describe pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches dominated by 12 characterized reactions. The decomposition mechanism of Camellia sinensis branches and interaction with components are observed. And the reaction at 350.77°C is a significant boundary of the first and second reaction range...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
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