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Jianjun Hu, Qiang Sun, Huan He
The release of selenium (Se) during coal combustion can have serious impacts on the ecological environment and human health. Therefore, it is very important to study the factors that concern the release of Se from coal combustion. In this paper, the characteristics of the release of Se from coal combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification of different coal species under different conditions are studied. The results show that the amount of released Se increases at higher combustion temperatures. There are obvious increases in the amount of released Se especially in the temperature range of 300 to 800 °C...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Agnieszka Gurgul, Włodzimierz Szczepaniak, Monika Zabłocka-Malicka
Constructional complexity of items and their integration are the most distinctive features of electronic wastes. These wastes consist of mineral and polymeric materials and have high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. Elimination of polymeric components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases is the purpose of thermal treatment of electronic wastes. In the case of gasification, gaseous product of the process may be, after cleaning, used for energy recovery or chemical synthesis...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sara Ramió-Pujol, Ramon Ganigué, Lluís Bañeras, Jesús Colprim
Research efforts aimed at increasing ethanol and butanol productivity from syngas are currently gaining attention. For most model carboxydotrophic bacteria, production rates, yields and maximum product titers have been studied in detail, but little is known on alcohol toxicity in these bacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory effects of ethanol and butanol on the growth of Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, Clostridium carboxidivorans P7, and 'Butyribacterium methylotrophicum DSM3468'. Experiments to determine inhibitory effects due to product accumulation were carried out using a synthetic mixture of CO:CO2:H2 as a substrate...
March 29, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Cristina Aracil, Pedro Haro, Diego Fuentes-Cano, Alberto Gómez-Barea
The economic and environmental impact of several waste-to-energy (WtE) schemes to produce electricity from municipal solid waste (MSW) refuse is evaluated and compared with landfill disposal. Both incineration and gasification alternatives are considered. The gasification option includes three different configurations: (1) a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) with internal combustion engine (ICE), (2) a FBG with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and (3) a grate gasifier with steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The study is primarily applied to regions where the management system is based on Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, generating a large share of refuse (>70%), which is currently landfilled...
March 30, 2018: Waste Management
Jianxin Li, Jinbo Chen, Shan Chen
Hyperaccumulator biomass, as a promising resource for renewable energy that can be converted into valuable fuel productions with high conversion efficiency, must be considered as hazardous materials and be carefully treated before further reuse due to the high contents of heavy metals. In this study, Pteris vittata L., an As-hyperaccumulator biomass was treated by an effective and environmental friendly method-supercritical water gasification (SCWG) using a bench-scale batch reactor. The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) and arsenic metalloid in solid, liquid and gaseous products during SCWG process were thoroughly investigated...
March 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Haibo Zhai, Edward S Rubin
This study develops an integrated technical and economic modeling framework to investigate the feasibility of ionic liquids (ILs) for pre-combustion carbon capture. The IL 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is modeled as a potential physical solvent for CO2 capture at integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The analysis reveals that the energy penalty of the IL-based capture system comes mainly from the process and product streams compression and solvent pumping, while the major capital cost components are the compressors and absorbers...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Miaomiao Niu, Qing Dong, Yaji Huang, Baosheng Jin, Hongyan Wang, Haiming Gu
To achieve high-temperature gasification-melting of combustible solid waste, ash melting behaviour under conditions simulating high-temperature gasification were studied. Raw ash (RA) and gasified ash (GA) were prepared respectively by waste ashing and fluidized bed gasification. Results of microstructure and composition of the two-ash indicated that GA showed a more porous structure and higher content of alkali and alkali earth metals among metallic elements. Higher temperature promoted GA melting and could reach a complete flowing state at about 1250°C...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
A Singh, R Kamal, I Ahamed, M Wagh, V Bihari, B Sathian, C N Kesavachandran
Background: Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with lung cancer in various epidemiological studies in industries such as aluminium reduction/smelting, coal gasification, coke production, iron/steel foundries, coal/coke and related products and carbon/graphite electrodes production. Aims: To update data on the association between PAH exposure and morbidity and mortality due to lung cancer among workers in different occupations, including smoking data...
March 20, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Ramesh Kandanelli, Lavanya Meesala, Jatin Kumar, Chinthalapati Siva Kesava Raju, V C Rao Peddy, Sriganesh Gandham, Pramod Kumar
Biochar is carbonaceous mass that is produced from pyrolysis or gasification of biomass. It is so far majorly explored for soil remediation application, but recently it has attracted a lot of interest because of its unexplored applications in the area of adsorption. In this work, detailed study on biochars produced from two different feeds (rice husk and saw dust), at two different temperatures (450 and 550°C) and two different rates (fast and slow) of pyrolysis are discussed for oil spill mitigation. Biochar is characterized in detail by various techniques such as FTIR,13 C CPMAS, FESEM, RAMAN, TGA to determine the structural composition and observe the extent of pyrolysis...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Rui-Zhi Zhang, Ren-Hao Yin, Yong-Hao Luo
For the safe disposal of MSW, a four-step gasification-combustion conversion process is proposed in this work, consisting of material gasification, ash melting, syngas conversion and combustion. Based on the control method of dioxin in gasification process which has been studied previously, experiments of tar chlorination process under oxidative atmospheres were carried out in a homogeneous flow reaction system, using benzene as the tar model compound, to find a way for the inhibition of CCl formation during the syngas combustion process...
March 17, 2018: Waste Management
Vincent Tan, Anthony De Girolamo, Tahereh Hosseini, Jameel Aljariri Alhesan, Lian Zhang
This paper attempts to develop a modified chemical percolation devolatilization (M-CPD) model that can include heat transfer, primary pyrolysis and the secondary cracking reactions of volatiles together to describe the pyrolysis of waste scrap tyre chip, as well as to examine the influence of operating conditions on the scrap tyre pyrolysis product yields. Such a study has yet to be conducted in the past, thereby leading to a large knowledge gap failing to understand the pyrolysis of the coarse feedstock appropriately...
March 16, 2018: Waste Management
Markus Köhler, Patrick Oßwald, Dominik Krueger, Ryan Whitside
This manuscript describes a high-temperature flow reactor experiment coupled to the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique. This flexible tool offers a detailed observation of chemical gas-phase kinetics in reacting flows under well-controlled conditions. The vast range of operating conditions available in a laminar flow reactor enables access to extraordinary combustion applications that are typically not achievable by flame experiments. These include rich conditions at high temperatures relevant for gasification processes, the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime or investigations of complex technical fuels...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lihle D Mafu, Hein W J P Neomagus, Raymond C Everson, Gregory N Okolo, Christien A Strydom, John R Bunt
The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (Ri , Rs , Rf ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity...
December 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Yike Zhang, Zengyi Ma, Jianhua Yan
The characteristics of the products of pig carcass pyrolysis depend on initial feedstock composition, specifically tissue and bone, as well as the interaction between these components. In this work, the raw pork (RP), pig bone (PB), and a mixture of RP and PB to simulate pig carcasses with a mass ratio of 2:1 (RB21) were pyrolyzed at 650 °C and compared to investigate pig carcass pyrolytic product characteristics. The presence of minerals in PB was found to increase the gaseous product yields of RB21 by 16%, especially the CO2 , C2 H4 and C2 H6 yields through steam gasification and steam reforming reactions...
February 27, 2018: Waste Management
Jiazhou Li, Xiaoyu Wang, Bing Wang, Jiantao Zhao, Yitian Fang
This study investigates the volatilization behaviors and mineral transformation of vanadium and nickel during co-gasification of petroleum coke with biomass. Moreover, the evolution of occurrence modes of vanadium and nickel was also determined by the method of sequential chemical extraction. The results show that the volatilities of vanadium and nickel in petroleum coke have a certain level of growth with an increase in the temperature. With the addition of biomass, their volatilities both show an obvious decrease...
February 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yajie Li, Salma Tabassum, Chunfeng Chu, Zhenjia Zhang
In this paper, the inhibition of methanogens by phenol in coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated by both anaerobic toxicity tests and a lab-scale anaerobic biofilter reactor (AF). The anaerobic toxicity tests indicated that keeping the phenol concentration in the influent under 280mg/L could maintain the methanogenic activity. In the AF treating CGW, the result showed that adding glucose solution as co-substrate could be beneficial for the quick start-up of the reactor. The effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol reached 1200 and 100mg/L, respectively, and the methane production rate was 175mLCH4 /gCOD/day...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Pei-Gao Duan, Shi-Chang Li, Jia-Li Jiao, Feng Wang, Yu-Ping Xu
Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was examined with a catalyst mixture of Ru/C and Rh/C in a mass ratio of 1:1. The influences of temperature (380-600°C), water density (0-0.197g/cm3 ), and catalyst loading (0-20wt%) on the yields and composition of the gaseous products and the gasification efficiency were examined. The temperature and water density significantly affected the SCWG of the microalgae. The hydrogen gasification efficiency was more dependent on the temperature, while the carbon gasification efficiency was more dependent on the water density...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qing-An Xiong, Jiazhou Li, Shuai Guo, Guang Li, Jiantao Zhao, Yitian Fang
In this study, the effect of biomass ash on petroleum coke ash fusibility was investigated at a reducing atmosphere. Some analytical methods, such as ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FactSage and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were applied to determine the characteristics of ash fusion and transformation of mineral matters. The results indicated that AFTs were closely associated with ash mineral compositions. It was found that the formations of high melting point calcium silicate, vanadium trioxide and coulsonite resulted in the high AFTs of Yanqing petroleum coke (YQ)...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Martijn Diender, Philipp S Uhl, Johannes H Bitter, Alfons J M Stams, Diana Z Sousa
Carbon monoxide-fermenting microorganisms can be used for the production of a wide range of commodity chemicals and fuels from syngas (generated by gasification of, e.g., wastes or biomass) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel industry). Microorganisms are normally more resistant to contaminants in the gas (e.g., hydrogen sulfide) than chemical catalysts, less expensive and self-regenerating. However, some carboxydotrophs are sensitive to high concentrations of CO, resulting in low growth rates and productivities...
February 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Yulin Xiang, Yuxiu Xiang, Lipeng Wang, Xin Li
A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate the feasibility of sewage sludge modified by coal gasification slag pretreatment and electron beam irradiation in soil application for cultivation of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . The results showed that modified sewage sludge had an active effect on the growth of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . The sandy soil and modified sludge at the volume ratio of 2:1 were optimal, and the growth potential of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . was highest. In the sandy soil, the values of bioconcentration factor of most heavy metals were below 1...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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