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Bruce A Diner, Janine Fan, Miles C Scotcher, Derek H Wells, Gregory M Whited
There is a growing interest in the use of microbial fermentation for the generation of high-demand, high-purity chemicals using cheap feedstocks, in an environmentally-friendly manner. One example explored here is the production of isoprene (C5H8), a hemiterpene, which is primarily polymerized to polyisoprene in synthetic rubber in tires, but which can also be converted to C10 and C15 biofuels.The strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii, used in all of the work described here, is capable of glycolysis using the Emben-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and of carbon fixation using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Apip Amrullah, Yukihiko Matsumura
In this study, a process for the continuous recovery of phosphorus and generation of gas from sewage sludge is investigated for the first time using supercritical water gasification (SCWG). A continuous reactor was employed and experiments were conducted by varying the temperature (500-600 °C) and residence time (5-60 s) while fixing the pressure at 25 MPa. The behavior of phosphorus during the SCWG process was studied. The effect of the temperature and time on the composition of the product gas was also investigated...
October 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Joseph Miceli, Cesar I Torres, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are important biofuel precursors. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a sustainable electron and carbon donor for fatty acid elongation, since it is metabolized to MCFA precursors, it is toxic to most methanogens, and it is a waste product generated in the gasification of waste biomass. The main objective of this work was to determine if the inhibition of methanogenesis through the continuous addition of CO would lead to increased acetate or MCFA production during fermentation of ethanol...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Alessandra Perna, Mariagiovanna Minutillo, Antonio Lubrano Lavadera, Elio Jannelli
The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)...
September 28, 2017: Waste Management
Anthony Anukam, Sampson Mamphweli, Omobola Okoh, Prashant Reddy
Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N₂ at 10 °C·min(-1) heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O-C and H-C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0...
March 10, 2017: Bioengineering
Daya Ram Nhuchhen, Muhammad T Afzal
Many correlations are available in the literature to predict the higher heating value (HHV) of raw biomass using the proximate and ultimate analyses. Studies on biomass torrefaction are growing tremendously, which suggest that the fuel characteristics, such as HHV, proximate analysis and ultimate analysis, have changed significantly after torrefaction. Such changes may cause high estimation errors if the existing HHV correlations were to be used in predicting the HHV of torrefied biomass. No study has been carried out so far to verify this...
January 24, 2017: Bioengineering
Fang Yan, Kaili Xu, Deshun Li, Zhikai Cui
Biomass gasification stations are facing many hazard factors, therefore, it is necessary to make hazard assessment for them. In this study, a novel hazard assessment method called extended set pair analysis (ESPA) is proposed based on set pair analysis (SPA). However, the calculation of the connection degree (CD) requires the classification of hazard grades and their corresponding thresholds using SPA for the hazard assessment. In regard to the hazard assessment using ESPA, a novel calculation algorithm of the CD is worked out when hazard grades and their corresponding thresholds are unknown...
2017: PloS One
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Anca G Delgado, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Syngas fermentation, the bioconversion of CO, CO2, and H2 to biofuels and chemicals, has undergone considerable optimization for industrial applications. Even more, full-scale plants for ethanol production from syngas fermentation by pure cultures are being built worldwide. The composition of syngas depends on the feedstock gasified and the gasification conditions. However, it remains unclear how different syngas mixtures affect the metabolism of carboxidotrophs, including the ethanol/acetate ratios...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jiheng Ding, Hongran Zhao, Qiaolei Wang, Wanjun Peng, Haibin Yu
Due to its high thermal conductivity, insulation performance, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) have a great promising to fabricate thermal management equipments for application in power electronics. Liquid-phase exfoliation route has been regarded as the most commonly used approach to produce single and few-layered BNNS for many research fileds. However, this process has been slow, and the production yield is extremely low. In this work, an efficient technique to obtain few-layered (mostly < 5 layers), high-yield (~33%), and plane-defect-free BNNS by the combination of liquid N2 (L-N2) gasification and liquid exfoliation was developed...
September 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
Oscar Pardo-Planas, Hasan K Atiyeh, John R Phillips, Clint P Aichele, Sayeed Mohammad
The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Hao Zhu, Yuxing Han, Wencheng Ma, Hongjun Han, Weiwei Ma
Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R1), ozonated (R2) and catalytic ozonated (R3) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TN in R3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process...
September 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Yuhang Jing, Stefano Campanaro, Panagiotis Kougias, Laura Treu, Irini Angelidaki, Shicheng Zhang, Gang Luo
CO is a main component of syngas, which can be produced from the gasification of organic wastes and biomass. CO can be converted to methane by anaerobic digestion (AD), however, it is still challenging due to its toxicity to microorganisms and limited knowledge about CO converting microorganisms. In the present study, anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was used for the simultaneous biomethanation of wastewater and CO. Batch experiments showed that AGS tolerated CO partial pressure as high as 0.5 atm without affecting its ability for synthetic wastewater degradation, which had higher tolerance of CO compared to suspended sludge (less than 0...
September 9, 2017: Water Research
Ana Carolina Medina Jimenez, Guilherme Henrique Nordi, Milagros Cecilia Palacios Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios Bereche, Antonio Garrido Gallego, Silvia Azucena Nebra
Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Yan Zhang, Ping Geng, Rui Liu
Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM)...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Atul Kumar, S R Samadder
Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable...
September 5, 2017: Waste Management
Ning Li, Jian Du, Jing Yang, Qiang Fan, Wen Tian
A gas standard mixture containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons in high purity nitrogen was prepared using a two-step weighing method and a gasifying apparatus developed in-house. The concentration of each component was determined using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Linear regression analysis of every component was performed using the gas standard mixture with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μmol/mol, showing the complete gasification of volatile organic compound (VOCs) species in a selected cylinder...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aïda Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Amina Ghrib, Kaouther Zaafouri, Athar Friaa, Aymen Ouerghi, Slim Naoui, Habib Belayouni
Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9...
2017: BioMed Research International
Guanyi Chen, Xiang Guo, Zhanjun Cheng, Beibei Yan, Zeng Dan, Wenchao Ma
Digestate is a byproduct from biomass anaerobic digestion process. Gasification of dried digestate to produce gasesous product might be a promising route. In this work, air gasification of digestate with high ash content was performed in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier at temperature varying from 600°C to 800°C and air equivalence ratio (ER) ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. The ash melting properties were firstly detected by the Intelligent Ash Melting Point Test, and the by-products (biochar and ash) were analyzed...
August 22, 2017: Waste Management
Petros Gikas, Baoning Zhu, Nicolas Ion Batistatos, Ruihong Zhang
Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains a large fraction of biodegradable organic materials. When disposed in landfills, these materials can cause adverse environmental impact due to gaseous emissions and leachate generation. This study was performed with an aim of effectively separating the biodegradable materials from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility and treating them in well-controlled anaerobic digesters for biogas production. The rotary drum reactor (RDR) process (a sub-process of the MBT facilities studied in the present work) was evaluated as an MSW pretreatment technology for separating and preparing the biodegradable materials in MSW to be used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Regina Kalpokaitė-Dičkuvienė, Irena Lukošiūtė, Kristina Brinkienė, Nerijus Striūgas, Arūnas Baltušnikas, Raimonda Lukauskaitė, Jūratė Čėsnienė
In this study the viability to utilize the residue, obtained from a sewage sludge and biomass combustion/gasification plant (GR), in cement based materials was analysed. Two pozzolanic materials were selected to make GR more recyclable: metakaolin (MK) and spent catalyst waste (Z), received from fluidized bed catalytic cracking process. Functional and environmental properties of standard cement pastes and mortars as well as binary and ternary combinations of GR with MK and Z were assessed. Results showed that enhanced mechanical strength, reduced water absorption and heavy metals release was obtained for compositions when GR was combined with one of pozzolanic material MK or Z...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
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