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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337398/desorption-in-mass-spectrometry
#1
Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich Usmanov, Satoshi Ninomiya, Lee Chuin Chen, Subhrakanti Saha, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Yuji Sakai, Rio Takaishi, Ahsan Habib, Kenzo Hiraoka, Kentaro Yoshimura, Sen Takeda, Hiroshi Wada, Hiroshi Nonami
In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336889/self-propagating%C3%A2-combustion%C3%A2-triggered%C3%A2-synthesis%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-3d%C3%A2-lamellar%C3%A2-graphene-bafe12o19%C3%A2-composite%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-its%C3%A2-electromagnetic%C3%A2-wave%C3%A2-absorption%C3%A2-properties
#2
Tingkai Zhao, Xianglin Ji, Wenbo Jin, Wenbo Yang, Xiarong Peng, Shichang Duan, Alei Dang, Hao Li, Tiehu Li
The synthesis of 3D lamellar graphene/BaFe12O19 composites was performed by oxidizing graphite and sequentially self-propagating combustion triggered process. The 3D lamellar graphene structures were formed due to the synergistic effect of the tremendous heat induced gasification as well as huge volume expansion. The 3D lamellar graphene/BaFe12O19 composites bearing 30 wt % graphene present the reflection loss peak at -27.23 dB as well as the frequency bandwidth at 2.28 GHz (< -10 dB). The 3D lamellar graphene structures could consume the incident waves through multiple Reflection and scattering within the layered structures, Prolonging the propagation path of electromagnetic waves in the absorbers...
March 3, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331960/synthesis-gas-biorefinery
#3
N Dahmen, E Henrich, T Henrich
Synthesis gas or syngas is an intermediate, which can be produced by gasification from a variety of carbonaceous feedstocks including biomass. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen, the main constituents of syngas, can be subjected to a broad range of chemical and microbial synthesis processes, leading to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels as well as to platform and fine chemicals. Gasification of solid biomass differs from coal gasification by chemical composition, heating value, ash behavior, and other technical and biomass related issues...
March 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326997/removal-of-phenol-by-powdered-activated-carbon-prepared-by-residue-extracted-from-coal-gasification-tar-residue
#4
Jun Shen, Xiong-Lei Wang, Yan-Xia Niu, Yu-Gao Wang, Gang Liu, Qing-Tao Sheng
coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous by-product generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The extracted CGTR by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC) and applied for phenol adsorption. The results showed that the prepared PAC under the optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances the PAC had a strong magnetic, easy to be separated after adsorbing phenol...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325703/investigation-of-sewage-sludge-treatment-using-air-plasma-assisted-gasification
#5
Nerijus Striūgas, Vitas Valinčius, Nerijus Pedišius, Robertas Poškas, Kęstutis Zakarauskas
This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319841/mesoporous-magnesium-oxide-nanoparticles-derived-via-complexation-combustion-for-enhanced-performance-in-carbon-dioxide-capture
#6
Vishwanath Hiremath, Raghavendra Shavi, Jeong Gil Seo
Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising candidate for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture at high temperature applicable to pre-combustion capture in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) scheme. In this work, mesoporous MgO nanoparticles were synthesized via simple complexation-combustion method by using glycine (G) and urea (U) as fuels (F). The obtained sorbents were thoroughly characterized in terms of the crystalline structure, morphology, nature of the fuel, F/O ratio, and their consequent effects on CO2 sorption...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315602/synergistic-effect-on-co-gasification-reactivity-of-biomass-petroleum-coke-blended-char
#7
Juntao Wei, Qinghua Guo, Yan Gong, Lu Ding, Guangsuo Yu
In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature...
March 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301544/density-functional-theory-study-the-effects-of-oxygen-containing-functional-groups-on-oxygen-molecules-and-oxygen-atoms-adsorbed-on-carbonaceous-materials
#8
Xuejun Qi, Wenwu Song, Jianwei Shi
Density functional theory was used to study the effects of different types of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of oxygen molecules and single active oxygen atoms on carbonaceous materials. During gasification or combustion reactions of carbonaceous materials, oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl(-OH), carbonyl(-CO), quinone(-O), and carboxyl(-COOH) are often present on the edge of graphite and can affect graphite's chemical properties. When oxygen-containing functional groups appear on a graphite surface, the oxygen molecules are strongly adsorbed onto the surface to form a four-member ring structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301298/characterization-of-coal-gasification-slag-based-activated-carbon-and-its-potential-application-in-lead-removal
#9
Yiting Xu, Xiaoli Chai
Highly porous activated carbons were prepared from a coal gasification slag (CGS) precursor, by KOH activation to remove Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The effects of pretreatment methods and activation parameters on the properties of the activated carbon were investigated, such as KOH/CGS mass ratio, activation temperature, and activation time. The results showed that the maximum BET surface area and total pore volume with the value of 2481m(2)·g(-1) and of 1.711 cc·g(-1) were obtained at a KOH/CGS ratio of 3...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288842/thermo-sensitive-isopentane-aerification-for-mucosal-lift-during-endoscopic-resection-in-animal-models-with-video
#10
Wenjie Liu, Min Wang, Lili Zhao, Min Wang, Xiang Wang, Zhining Fan, Li Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal lift is critical for successful endoscopic treatment. Normal saline solution (NS) is widely used as the submucosal filler, but its short persistency restricts clinical endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedure. In this study, thermo-sensitive isopentane was introduced for submucosal injection. With a 27.8°C boiling point, liquid isopentane could be easily applied, whereas gasification inflation could provide great support for submucosal lifting at body temperature...
March 10, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284942/investigation-on-by-products-of-bioenergy-systems-anaerobic-digestion-and-gasification-as-potential-crop-nutrient-using-ftir-xrd-sem-analysis-and-phyto-toxicity-test
#11
Sampriti Kataki, Samarendra Hazarika, D C Baruah
Success and acceptability of the bio energy conversion technology to a large extent depend upon management of the inevitable by-products generated during the conversion process. By-products can be considered favourable as organic fertilizer as they retain nutrients with varying composition depending upon input biomass. However, characteristics of these heterogeneous resources with respect to feedstock and processing conditions have to be assessed to state on their agricultural and environmental benefits. Therefore, 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from surplus biomass viz...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284810/carbon-dioxide-utilization-in-a-microalga-based-biorefinery-efficiency-of-carbon-removal-and-economic-performance-under-carbon-taxation
#12
Igor Lapenda Wiesberg, George Victor Brigagão, José Luiz de Medeiros, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo
Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283330/microwave-enhanced-pyrolysis-of-macroalgae-and-microalgae-for-syngas-production
#13
Yu Hong, Wanru Chen, Xiang Luo, Chengheng Pang, Edward Lester, Tao Wu
In this study, three different marine biomasses, i.e., microalgae-spirulina, chlorella and macroalgae-porphyra, were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale multimode-microwave cavity at 400, 550 and 700°C. Ovalbumin and cellulose were also chosen as model compounds to simulate algae. The influence of heating rate on pyrolysis and the βi curves of different samples under different temperatures were studied in detail. The porphyra was found to be the most reactive and produced the largest gaseous fraction (87.1wt%) amongst the three algae, which comprised of 73...
February 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272482/characterizing-biochar-as-alternative-sorbent-for-oil-spill-remediation
#14
Ludovica Silvani, Blanka Vrchotova, Petr Kastanek, Katerina Demnerova, Ida Pettiti, Marco Petrangeli Papini
Biochar (BC) was characterized as a new carbonaceous material for the adsorption of toluene from water. The tested BC was produced from pine wood gasification, and its sorption ability was compared with that of more common carbonaceous materials such as activated carbon (AC). Both materials were characterized in terms of textural features and sorption abilities by kinetic and equilibrium tests. AC and BC showed high toluene removal from water. Kinetic tests demonstrated that BC is characterized by faster toluene removal than AC is...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272054/comparison-of-phosphorus-recovery-from-incineration-and-gasification-sewage-sludge-ash
#15
Raimon Parés Viader, Pernille Erland Jensen, Lisbeth M Ottosen, Tobias P Thomsen, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ashes, a material that is rich in phosphorus, but which is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock supply, phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ashes has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of phosphorus extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228328/techno-economic-assessment-of-catalytic-gasification-of-biomass-powders-for-methanol-production
#16
Lara Carvalho, Erik Furusjö, Kawnish Kirtania, Elisabeth Wetterlund, Joakim Lundgren, Marie Anheden, Jens Wolf
This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214442/hydrothermal-liquefaction-of-sewage-sludge-under-isothermal-and-fast-conditions
#17
Lili Qian, Shuzhong Wang, Phillip E Savage
We investigated the effects of water loading, sludge moisture content, recovery solvent, and additives on the product yields and compositions from isothermal (673K, 60min) and fast (773K, 1min) hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sewage sludge. The water loading (which affects pressure within the reactor) plays a small role in product yields. The sludge moisture content had a larger effect with the highest biocrude yields (26.8wt% from isothermal HTL and 27.5wt% from fast HTL) being produced from sludge that was 85wt% moisture...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182436/kinetics-chemistry-and-morphology-of-syngas-photoinitiated-chemical-vapor-deposition
#18
Donya Farhanian, Gregory De Crescenzo, Jason R Tavares
Syngas is the product of gasification processes and is used for the production of petrochemicals. Little attention has been paid to its use in the production of oligomeric thin films under ambient conditions. Herein, the nature of the photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition of films made from syngas using high-wavelength ultraviolet light is discussed, including an exploration of the oligomeric films' structure, synthesis mechanism, and growth kinetics. Specifically, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses provide insight into the chemical structure, illustrating the effect of photogenerated radicals in the formation of aliphatic, anhydride, and cyclic structures...
February 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138339/well-to-wake-analysis-of-ethanol-to-jet-and-sugar-to-jet-pathways
#19
Jeongwoo Han, Ling Tao, Michael Wang
BACKGROUND: To reduce the environmental impacts of the aviation sector as air traffic grows steadily, the aviation industry has paid increasing attention to bio-based alternative jet fuels (AJFs), which may provide lower life-cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum jet fuel. This study presents well-to-wake (WTWa) results for four emerging AJFs: ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) from corn and corn stover, and sugar-to-jet (STJ) from corn stover via both biological and catalytic conversion...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108022/evaluation-of-a-method-for-removing-cesium-and-reducing-the-volume-of-leaf-litter-from-broad-leaved-trees-contaminated-by-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-accident-during-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#20
Shigeki Harada, Mitsunori Yanagisawa
The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter...
April 2017: Chemosphere
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