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Martijn Diender, Philipp S Uhl, Johannes H Bitter, Alfons J M Stams, Diana Z Sousa
Carbon monoxide-fermenting microorganisms can be used for the production of a wide range of commodity chemicals and fuels from syngas (generated by gasification of, e.g., wastes or biomass) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel industry). Microorganisms are normally more resistant to contaminants in the gas (e.g., hydrogen sulfide) than chemical catalysts, less expensive and self-regenerating. However, some carboxydotrophs are sensitive to high concentrations of CO, resulting in low growth rates and productivities...
February 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Yulin Xiang, Yuxiu Xiang, Lipeng Wang, Xin Li
A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate the feasibility of sewage sludge modified by coal gasification slag pretreatment and electron beam irradiation in soil application for cultivation of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . The results showed that modified sewage sludge had an active effect on the growth of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . The sandy soil and modified sludge at the volume ratio of 2:1 were optimal, and the growth potential of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . was highest. In the sandy soil, the values of bioconcentration factor of most heavy metals were below 1...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guiyan Zang, Sharma Tejasvi, Albert Ratner, Electo Silva Lora
The Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) power system is believed to potentially be a highly efficient way to utilize biomass to generate power. However, there is no comparative study of BIGCC systems that examines all the latest improvements for gasification agents, gas turbine combustion methods, and CO2 Capture and Storage options. This study examines the impact of recent advancements on BIGCC performance through exergy analysis using Aspen Plus. Results show that the exergy efficiency of these systems is ranged from 22...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Qingqing Guan, Zhaoni Kong, Zhengzhe Xie, Yuan Chen, Shanshuai Chen, Senlin Tian, Ping Ning
Solid-solution bimetallic alloy catalysts containing no noble metals were developed, via both simultaneous and sequential deposition, in supercritical water (SCW). These bimetallic nano-catalysts were analyzed by BET, XRD, XPS and TEM. Obvious downward shifts are observed in diffraction peaks, situated between the peak (1 1 1) for Co and the peak (1 1 1) for Ni. The shifts indicate the formation of NiCo solid-solution bimetallic alloy(s). The bimetallic nanoparticles show high activity for supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of phenol to produce gaseous fuels...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Technology
Qi Zhang, Chunrong Wang, Longxin Jiang, Ji Qi, Jianbing Wang, Xuwen He
A novel IBAF system (altered conventional biological aerated filter (BAF) for intermittent aeration) was used to treat BDD anodes electrochemical oxidation gasification wastewater effluent, after which 454 pyrosequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial community of IBAF and demonstrate the relationship between dissolved oxygen (DO) and the bacterial community. The results showed that the concentration of COD, NH4+-N and NO3--N reached 55.08, 7.64 and 7.76 mg/L, respectively, in IBAF effluent because of changes in the DO concentration at 30 days after system start-up...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Linbo Yan, Yang Cao, Xuezheng Li, Boshu He
A one-dimensional model is built based on the commercial Aspen Plus software to kinetically simulate the biomass/coal co-gasification process in a dual fluidized bed gasifier. The synergistic effect on the co-gasification kinetics is allowed for, and is coupled with the gas-solid flow hydrodynamics. With the developed model, the effects of different key operating parameters including the biomass blending ratio (Rb), the initial bed temperature (Tg), the feedstock mass flow rate (Ffs), the bed material flux (Fbm) and the steam to carbon ratio (Rsc) on the resultant syngas composition and the supplemental fuel mass flow rate (Fsf) are investigated, and the operation parameters are optimized...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jun Dong, Yuanjun Tang, Ange Nzihou, Yong Chi, Elsa Weiss-Hortala, Mingjiang Ni
Municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis and gasification are in development, stimulated by a more sustainable waste-to-energy (WtE) option. Since comprehensive comparisons of the existing WtE technologies are fairly rare, this study aims to conduct a life cycle assessment (LCA) using two sets of data: theoretical analysis, and case studies of large-scale commercial plants. Seven systems involving thermal conversion (pyrolysis, gasification, incineration) and energy utilization (steam cycle, gas turbine/combined cycle, internal combustion engine) are modeled...
January 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaonan Wang, Miao Guo, Rembrandt H E M Koppelaar, Koen Haziel van Dam, Charalampos P Triantafyllidis, Nilay Shah
Energy, water and waste systems analyzed at a nexus level is key to move towards more sustainable cities. In this paper, the "" platform is developed and applied to emphasize on waste-to-energy pathways, along with the water and energy sectors, aiming to develop waste treatment capacity and energy recovery with the lowest economic and environmental cost. Three categories of waste including wastewater (WW), municipal solid waste (MSW) and agriculture waste are tested as the feedstock for thermochemical treatment via incineration, gasification or pyrolysis for combined heat and power generation, or biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and aerobic treatment...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nan Lu, Wenpei Fan, Xuan Yi, Sheng Wang, Zhantong Wang, Rui Tian, Orit Jacobson, Yijing Liu, Bryant C Yung, Guofeng Zhang, Zhaogang Teng, Kai Yang, Minming Zhang, Gang Niu, Guangming Lu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Alleviation of tumor hypoxia has been the premise for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy, which hinges upon the advanced delivery and rapid release of oxygen within the tumor region. Herein, we propose a "bubble-enhanced oxygen diffusion" strategy to achieve whole tumor oxygenation for significant radiation enhancement based on the "bystander effect". Towards this end, sub-50 nm CuS-modified and 64Cu labeled hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles were constructed for tumor-specific delivery of O2-saturated perfluoropentane (PFP)...
January 31, 2018: ACS Nano
Azize Ayol, Ozgun Tezer, Alim Gurgen
Sludges produced in biological wastewater treatment plants have rich organic materials in their characteristics. Recent research studies have focused on the energy recovery from sludge due to its high organic content. The gasification process is a thermal conversion technology transforming the chemical energy contained in a solid fuel into thermal energy and electricity. The produced syngas as a mixture of CO, CH4, H2 and other gases can be used to generate electrical energy. The gasification of yeast industry sludge has been experimentally evaluated in a pilot scale downdraft-type gasifier as a route towards the energy recovery...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Elzimar Tadeu de F Ferreira, José Antonio P Balestieri
The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy has been implemented with some difficulty, especially in convincing the different actors of society about the importance of conscious awareness among every citizen and businesses concerning adequate solid waste disposal and recycling. Technologies for recovering energy from municipal solid waste were considered in National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), given that their technical and environmental viability is ensured, being the landfill biogas burning in internal combustion engines and solid waste incineration suggested options...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Mallika Singla, Morten Lund Rasmussen, Hamid Hashemi, Hao Wu, Peter Glarborg, Matteo Pelucchi, Tiziano Faravelli, Paul Marshall
Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride. In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH3Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature...
January 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lingqin Liu, Yaji Huang, Jianhua Cao, Changqi Liu, Lu Dong, Ligang Xu, Jianrui Zha
Considering the universality, renewability and cleanness of biomass, an experimental research is carried out using rice straw in a two-stage fluidized bed. The experimental analysis identified the relevant parameters in the operation of the two-stage fluidized bed to investigate the properties of biomass enriched air gasification. Results show that higher gasification temperature is conducive to enhance the gasification performance. An increasing ER is shown to go against adding gas heat value. When oxygen concentration increases from 21% to 45%, the gas heating value increases from 4...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Martijn Eikelboom, Alice do Carmo Precci Lopes, Claudio Mudadu Silva, Fábio de Ávila Rodrigues, Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio, José Cola Zanuncio
The Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) procedure was used to compare waste management options for kraft pulp mill sludge following its anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion of sludge is advantageous because it produces biogas that may be used to generate electricity, heat and biofuels. However, adequate management of the digested sludge is essential. Landfill disposal is a non-sustainable waste management alternative. Kraft pulp mill digested sludge applied to land may pose risks to the environment and public health if the sludge has not been properly treated...
2018: PloS One
Weiwei Ma, Yuxing Han, Chunyan Xu, Hongjun Han, Wencheng Ma, Hao Zhu, Kun Li, Dexin Wang
The aim of this work was to study an integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) for strengthening removal of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated MEBR achieved high efficiencies in removal of COD and phenolic compounds as well as improvement of biodegradability of CGW under the micro-oxygen condition. The integrated MEBR process was more favorable to improvement of the structural stability of activated sludge and biodiversity of specific functional microbial communities...
December 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Federica D Conti, Giovanna Visioli, Alessio Malcevschi, Cristina Menta
Biochar is a product of the thermal decomposition of biomass under a limited supply of oxygen and can be deriving from pyrolysis or gasification. As the product is rich in highly recalcitrant carbon, it has been proposed as a soil amendment to improve soil fertility and to stock carbon in soils. However, the contaminant compounds present in biochar could represent potential environmental threats. The gasification biochar is a promising by-product, but its effects on soil microarthropods are still nearly unknown...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gilbert John Miito, Noble Banadda
Agricultural biomass is widely recognized as a clean and renewable energy source, with increasing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels in the energy market. Uganda, like other developing countries, has a high dependency (91%) on wood fuel, leading to environmental degradation. With a coffee production of 233 Metric Tonnes per annum, relating to 46.6 Mega Tonnes of coffee husks from processing, transforming these husks into syngas through gasification can contribute to resolving the existing energy challenges...
2017: F1000Research
Evandro José Lopes, Neide Queiroz, Carlos Itsuo Yamamoto, Pedro Ramos da Costa Neto
In this study, we evaluated the emissions of pollutants generated from the combustion of syngas in the gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Brazil using a mobile grille gasifier fed with domestic waste without any previous separation or grinding. The basic syngas composition (H2, CH4 and CO) was analyzed by gas chromatography and the Lower Calorific Value was calculated, which ranged from 1.9 to 10.2 MJ/kg. In the monitoring of combustion gases (CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO2 and Total Hydrocarbon Content), values were found for these pollutants that were lower than the values established by the Brazilian legislation, except for SO2...
December 16, 2017: Waste Management
Daniel Torres, Pedro Arcelus-Arrillaga, Marcos Millan, José Luis Pinilla, Isabel Suelves
A sustainable and effective method for de-oxygenation of few-layer graphene oxide (FLGO) by glycerol gasification in supercritical water (SCW) is described. In this manner, reduction of FLGO and valorization of glycerol, in turn catalyzed by FLGO, are achieved simultaneously. The addition of glycerol enhanced FLGO oxygen removal by up to 59% due to the in situ hydrogen generation as compared to the use of SCW only. Physicochemical characterization of the reduced FLGO (rFLGO) showed a high restoration of the sp²-conjugated carbon network...
December 14, 2017: Nanomaterials
Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi, Hikmat Hisoriev, Mohammad Zarnegar, Hamed Ahmadi
The steam gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) in presence of alkali and alkaline-earth metal compounds (AAEM) catalysts was studied to enhance the yield of syngas and reduce its tar content through craking and reforming of condensable fractions. The commercial catalysts used include NaOH, KHCO3, Na3PO4 and MgO. The gasification runs carried out with a research scale, biomass gasification unit, show that the NaOH has a strong potential for production of hydrogen, along with the added advantages of char converting and tar destruction, allowing enhancement of produced syngas caloric value...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
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