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Solar photovoltaic

Robert L Z Hoye, Lana C Lee, Rachel C Kurchin, Tahmida N Huq, Kelvin H L Zhang, Melany Sponseller, Lea Nienhaus, Riley E Brandt, Joel Jean, James Alexander Polizzotti, Ahmed Kursumović, Moungi G Bawendi, Vladimir Bulović, Vladan Stevanović, Tonio Buonassisi, Judith L MacManus-Driscoll
Bismuth-based compounds have recently gained increasing attention as potentially nontoxic and defect-tolerant solar absorbers. However, many of the new materials recently investigated show limited photovoltaic performance. Herein, one such compound is explored in detail through theory and experiment: bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI). BiOI thin films are grown by chemical vapor transport and found to maintain the same tetragonal phase in ambient air for at least 197 d. The computations suggest BiOI to be tolerant to antisite and vacancy defects...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Sangkuk Kim, Taewan Kim, Seunghyup Lee, Seunghyeon Baek, Taiho Park, Kijung Yong
As a promising means of solar energy conversion, photovoltaic (PV) cell-based electrolysis has recently drawn considerable attention for its effective solar fuel generation; especially the generation of hydrogen by solar water splitting. Inspired by remarkable accomplishments in enhancing the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, various efforts have aimed at fostering convenient and practical uses of PV electrolysis to make this technology ubiquitous, manageable, and efficient. Here, the design and function of a monolithic photoelectrolysis system-a so-called artificial leaf-for use in various environments are highlighted...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jiayu Wang, Wei Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Yang Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Cenqi Yan, Wei Ma, Wei You, Xiaowei Zhan
A side-chain conjugation strategy in the design of nonfullerene electron acceptors is proposed, with the design and synthesis of a side-chain-conjugated acceptor (ITIC2) based on a 4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']di(cyclopenta-dithiophene) electron-donating core and 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone electron-withdrawing end groups. ITIC2 with the conjugated side chains exhibits an absorption peak at 714 nm, which redshifts 12 nm relative to ITIC1. The absorption extinction coefficient of ITIC2 is 2...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Florian Steiner, John M Lupton, Jan Vogelsang
Triplet excitons have been the focus of considerable attention with regards to the functioning of polymer solar cells because these species are long-lived and quench subsequently generated singlet excitons in their vicinity. The role of triplets in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been investigated extensively with contrary conclusions regarding their importance. We probe the various roles triplets can play in P3HT by analyzing the photoluminescence (PL) from isolated single-chain aggregates and multichain mesoscopic aggregates...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mark Portnoi, Christian Sol, Clemens Tummeltshammer, Ioannis Papakonstantinou
Flexible luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could deliver integrated photovoltaics in all aspects of our lives, from architecture to wearable electronics. We present and experimentally verify a model for the optimization of the external optical efficiency of LSCs under varying degrees of curvature. We demonstrate differences between the optimization of flat and bent LSCs, showing that optimal fluorophore concentrations can differ by a factor of two.
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Rohit Prasanna, Aryeh Gold-Parker, Tomas Leijtens, Bert Conings, Aslihan Babayigit, Hans-Gerd Boyen, Michael F Toney, Michael D McGehee
Tin and lead iodide perovskite semiconductors of the composition AMX3, where M is a metal and X is a halide, are leading candidates for high efficiency low cost tandem photovoltaics, in part because they have band gaps that can be tuned over a wide range by compositional substitution. We experimentally identify two competing mechanisms through which the A-site cation influences the band gap of 3D metal halide perovskites. Using a smaller A-site cation can distort the perovskite lattice in two distinct ways: by tilting the MX6 octahedra, or by simply contracting the lattice isotropically...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ravi K Misra, Bat-El Cohen, Lior Iagher, Lioz Etgar
Three-dimensional (3D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention due to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one the major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. The long organic cation acts as a "barrier" that "caps" the 3D perovskite forming the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with different chemical and physical properties than 3D perovskite has...
July 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Antonietta De Sio, Christoph Lienau
Light-induced charge transfer from the photoexcited donor to the acceptor is the fundamental step towards current generation in organic solar cells. Experimental evidence for efficient charge separation on ultrafast time scales has been available for quite some time. Yet even today, the elementary mechanisms underlying this process in organic semiconductors and in particular the role of the coherent wave-like motion of electrons and nuclei for the charge separation are still a matter of considerable debate...
July 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yoon Ho Choi, Hyun Bin Kim, In Seok Yang, Sang Do Sung, Young Sik Choi, Jeongho Kim, Wan In Lee
Thin films of a heteropolytungstate, lithium silicotungstate (Li4SiW12O40, termed Li-ST), prepared by a solution process at low temperature, were successfully applied as electron transporting layer (ETL) of planar-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Dense and uniform Li-ST films were prepared on the FTO glass by depositing a thin Li-ST buffer layer, followed by coating of a main Li-ST layer. The film thickness was controlled by varying the number of coating cycles, consisting of spin-coating and thermal treatment at 150(o)C...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tingting Wu, Gang Wang, Qiang Dong, Fei Zhan, Xu Zhang, Shaofeng Li, Huiying Qiao, Jieshan Qiu
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging technology that uniquely integrates energy storage and desalination. In this work, porous carbon nanosheets (PCNSs) with an ultrahigh specific surface area of 2853 m(2)/g were fabricated by the simple carbonization of starch followed by KOH activation for the electrode material of photovoltaic CDI. The CDI cell consisting of PCNSs electrodes exhibited a high salt adsorption capacity (SAC) of 15.6 mg/g at ~1.1 V in 500 mg/L NaCl as well as high charge efficiency and low energy consumption...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jun Wang, Shurong Liu, Yannan Mu, Li Liu, Runa A, Jiandong Yang, Guijie Zhu, Xianwei Meng, Wuyou Fu, Haibin Yang
Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Gordon J Hedley, Florian Steiner, Jan Vogelsang, John M Lupton
Low-gap conjugated polymers have enabled an impressive increase in the efficiencies of organic solar cells, primarily due to their red absorption which allows harvesting of that part of the solar spectrum. Here, we report that the true optical gap of one prototypical material, PTB7, is in fact at significantly higher energy than has previously been reported, indicating that the red absorption utilized in these materials in solar cells is entirely due to chain aggregation. Using single-molecule spectroscopy we find that PL from isolated nanoscale aggregates consists of multiple independently emitting chromophores...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
N Schuergers, C Werlang, C M Ajo-Franklin, A A Boghossian
The ability to electronically interface living cells with electron accepting scaffolds is crucial for the development of next-generation biophotovoltaic technologies. Although recent studies have focused on engineering synthetic interfaces that can maximize electronic communication between the cell and scaffold, the efficiency of such devices is limited by the low conductivity of the cell membrane. This review provides a materials science perspective on applying a complementary, synthetic biology approach to engineering membrane-electrode interfaces...
May 1, 2017: Energy & Environmental Science
Wei-Chieh Chen, Santhanamoorthi Nachimuthu, Jyh-Chiang Jiang
Determining an ideal adsorption configuration for a dye on the semiconductor surface is an important task in improving the overall efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we present a detailed investigation of different adsorption configurations of designed model dyes on TiO2 anatase (101) surface using first principles methods. Particularly, we aimed to investigate the influence of cyano group in the anchoring part of dye on its adsorption stability and the overall photovoltaic properties such as open circuit voltage, electron injection ability to the surface...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Catherine S De Castro, Stoichko Dimitrov, Hugh D Burrows, Peter Douglas, Matthew L Davies
To celebrate the centenary of Science Progress we offer a short survey of the progress made over the past one hundred years in the research and application of photoinduced charge transfer. After a brief historical overview and introduction to photoinduced charge transfer, we discuss developments in the theory and practice of photography, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, fluorescent probes and chemosensing.
May 1, 2017: Science Progress
P Naresh Kumar, Ankita Kolay, Melepurath Deepa, Sonnada Math Shivaprasad, Avanish Kumar Srivastava
A novel yet simple approach of carbonate (CBN) treatment of TiO2 films is performed, and quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), reasonably good stabilities, and good fill factors (FFs) are fabricated with TiO2-CBN films. The ability of carbonate groups to passivate defects or oxygen vacancies of TiO2 is confirmed from a nominally enhanced band gap, a lowered defect induced fluorescence intensity, an additional Ti-OH signal obtained after carbonate decomposition, and a more capacitive low frequency electrochemical impedance behavior achieved for TiO2-CBN compared to untreated TiO2...
July 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xinqian Zhang, Gang Wu, Shida Yang, Weifei Fu, Zhongqiang Zhang, Chen Chen, Wenqing Liu, Jielin Yan, Weitao Yang, Hongzheng Chen
Vertically oriented highly crystalline 2D layered (BA)2 (MA)n-1 Pbn I3n+1 (BA = CH3 (CH2 )3 NH3 , MA = CH3 NH3 , n = 3, 4) perovskite thin-films are fabricated with the aid of ammonium thiocyanate (NH4 SCN) additive through one-step spin-coating process. The humidity-stability of the film is certified by the almost unchanged X-ray diffraction patterns after exposed to humid atmosphere (Hr = 55 ± 5%) for 40 d. The photovoltaic devices with the structure of indium tin oxide(ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate)/(BA)2 (MA)n-1 Pbn I3n+1 (n = 3,4)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester/Bathocuproine/Ag are fabricated...
July 10, 2017: Small
Jacqueline Manina Cole, Martin Blood-Forsythe, Tze-Chia Lin, Philip Pattison, Yun Gong, Alvaro Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Paul G Waddell, Lei Zhang, Nagatoshi Koumura, Shogo Mori
Donor--Acceptor dyes containing thiophenyl -conjugated units and cyanoacrylate acceptor groups are among the best-performing organic chromophores used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Yet, the molecular origins of their high photovoltaic output have remained unclear until now. This synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction study eluci-dates these origins for the high-performance thiophenylcy-anoacrylate-based dye, MK-2 (7.7% DSC device efficiency), and its molecular building block, MK-44. The crystal struc-tures of MK-2 and MK-44 are both determined, while a high-resolution charge-density mapping of the smaller mole-cule was also possible, enabling the nature of its bonding to be detailed...
July 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pongthep Prajongtat, Songwut Suramitr, Somkiat Nokbin, Koichi Nakajima, Koichiro Mitsuke, Supa Hannongbua
Structural and electronic properties of eight isolated azo dyes (ArNNAr', where Ar and Ar' denote the aryl groups containing benzene and naphthalene skeletons, respectively) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and TD-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) methods The effect of methanol solvent on the structural and electronic properties of the azo dyes was elucidated by employing a polarizable continuum model (PCM). Then, the azo dyes adsorbed onto the anatase TiO2 (101) slab surface through a carboxyl group...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Gözde Murat Saltan, Deniz Aykut Kıymaz, Ceylan Zafer, Haluk Dinçalp
The riboflavin dye 2,3,4,5-tetra-O-acetyl-1-[3-(6-bromohexyl)-7,8-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydrobenzo[g]pteridin-10(2H)-yl]-1-deoxypentitol and its pyridinium salt were synthesized, and studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in solutions and on thin film states. The first absorption band of riboflavin-pyridinium salt derivative is red-shifted by 10 nm compared to neutral one on film. Cationic riboflavin derivative shows significant wavelength changes on its fluorescence emission spectrum in the excited state depending on the solvent polarity and the electronic environment...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
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