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Solar photovoltaic

Ah Reum Jeong, Sung Bin Choi, Won Mok Kim, Jong-Keuk Park, Jihye Choi, Inho Kim, Jeung-Hyun Jeong
A monolithic tandem solar cell consisting of crystalline Si (c-Si)/indium tin oxide (ITO)/CuGaSe2 (CGSe) was demonstrated by stacking a CGSe solar cell on a c-Si/ITO solar cell to obtain a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of about 10%. Electrical analyses based on cell-selective light absorption were applied to individually characterize the photovoltaic performances of the top and bottom subcells. Illumination at a frequency that could be absorbed only by a targeted top or bottom subcell permitted measurement of the open-circuit voltage of the target subcell and the shunt resistance of the non-target subcell...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yongxi Li, Jiu-Dong Lin, Xiaozhou Che, Yue Qu, Feng Liu, Liang-Sheng Liao, Stephen R Forrest
The absence of near-infrared (NIR) solar cells with high open circuit voltage (Voc) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) has impeded progress toward achieving organic photovoltaic (OPV) power conversion efficiency PCE > 15%. Here we report a small energy gap (1.3 eV), chlorinated nonfullerene acceptor-based solar cell with PCE = 11.2 ± 0.4%, short circuit current of 22.5 ± 0.6 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.70 ± 0.01 V and fill factor of 0.71 ± 0.02, which is the highest performance reported to date for NIR single junction OPVs...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Heesoo Park, Fahhad H Alharbi, Stefano Sanvito, Nouar Tabet, Fedwa El-Mellouhi
In the quest for non-toxic and stable perovskites for solar cells, we conduct a systematic study of the effect of chalcogen content in oxychalcogenide perovskite using density functional theory (DFT) and quasi-particle perturbation theory. We explore the changes in the electronic structure due to the substitution of O atoms in NaNbO 3 and NaTaO 3 perovskite structures with various chalcogen (S, Se, Te) at different concentrations. Interestingly, the introduction of the chalcogen atoms results in a drastic reduction of the electronic band gap, making some of them fall within the visible range of the solar spectrum...
November 16, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Agnes Weiss, Helmut Weiss
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Haeri Kim, Se Jin Park, Byungwoo Kim, Yun Jeong Hwang, Byoung Koun Min
CuIn1-xGaxS2-ySey (CIGSSe) thin films have attracted a great deal of attention as a promising absorbing material for solar cell applications due to their favorable optical properties (e.g. a direct band gap and high absorption coefficients) and stable structure. Many studies have sought to improve the efficiency of solar cells using these films, and it has been found that surface modification via post heat treatment can lead to surface passivation of surface defects and a subsequent increase in efficiency. The surface properties of solution-processed CIGSSe films are considered to be particularly important in this respect due to the fact they are more prone to defects...
November 15, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Riccardo Milan, Gurpreet Singh Selopal, Marco Cavazzini, Simonetta Orlandi, Rita Boaretto, Stefano Caramori, Isabella Concina, Gianluca Pozzi
Computational studies have suggested that the integration of secondary amine as donor groups in the structure of unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) should have positive effects on photovoltaic performance, once the molecule is integrated as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Aiming at obtaining experimental confirmation, we synthesized a peripherally substituted push-pull ZnPc bearing three electron donating diphenylamine substituents and a carboxylic acid anchoring group and integrated it as sensitizer in TiO2-based DSSCs...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cristina Flox, Sebastián Murcia-López, Nina M Carretero, Carles Ros, Juan Ramón Morante, Teresa Andreu
The ability of crystalline Si to photo-assist the V3+/V2+ cathodic reaction under simulated solar irradiation, combined with the effect of Bi have led to important electrochemical improvements. Besides the photo-voltage supplied by the photovoltaics, additional decrease in the onset potentials, high reversibility of the V3+/V2+ redox pair and improvement in the electro-kinetics have been attained thanks to the addition of Bi. In fact, Bi0 deposition has shown to slightly decrease the photocurrent, but the significant betterment in the charge transfer, reflected in the overall electrochemical performance clearly justifies its use as additive in a photo-assisted system for maximizing the efficiency of solar charge to battery...
November 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Haiyuan Xu, Sihua Zhong, Yufeng Zhuang, Wenzhong Shen
Nanoscale inverted pyramid structures (NIPs) have always been regarded as one of the most paramount light management schemes to achieve the extraordinary performance in various devices, especially in solar cells, due to their outstanding antireflection ability with relative lower surface enhancement ratio. However, the current approaches to fabricating the NIPs are complicated and not cost-effective for the massive cell production in the photovoltaic industry. Here, controllable NIPs are fabricated on crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by Ag catalyzed chemical etching and alkaline modification, which is a preferable all-solution-processed method...
November 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
Zhibin Yang, Adharsh Rajagopal, Alex K-Y Jen
Extremely high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of ≈20-22% are realized through intensive research and development of 1.5-1.6 eV bandgap perovskite absorbers. However, development of ideal bandgap (1.3-1.4 eV) absorbers is pivotal to further improve PCE of single junction perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) because of a better balance between absorption loss of sub-bandgap photons and thermalization loss of above-bandgap photons as demonstrated by the Shockley-Queisser detailed balanced calculation. Ideal bandgap PVSCs are currently hindered by the poor optoelectronic quality of perovskite absorbers and their PCEs have stagnated at <15%...
November 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Pengyu Su, Wuyou Fu, Huizhen Yao, Li Liu, Dong Ding, Fei Feng, Shuang Feng, Yebin Xue, Xizhe Liu, Haibin Yang
In this paper, we fabricated a TiO2 homogeneous hybrid structure for application in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under ambient conditions. Under the standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination, PSCs based on homogeneous hybrid structure present a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.39% which is higher than that of pure TiO2 nanosheets. The enhanced properties can be explained by the better contact of TiO2 nanosheets/nanoparticles with CH3NH3PbI3 and fewer pinholes in electron transport materials...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Zubair Ahmad, Mansoor Ani Najeeb, R A Shakoor, Abdulla Alashraf, Shaheen A Al-Muhtaseb, Ahmed Soliman, M K Nazeeruddin
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have rapidly grown as favorable materials for photovoltaic applications, but accomplishing long-term stability is still a major research problem. This work demonstrates a new insight on instability and degradation factors in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells aging with time in open air. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the compositional changes caused by device degradation over the period of 1000 hrs. XPS spectra confirm the migration of metallic ions from the bottom electrode (ITO) as a key factor causing the chemical composition change in the perovskite layer besides the diffusion of oxygen...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ke Gao, Zonglong Zhu, Bo Xu, Sae Byeok Jo, Yuanyuan Kan, Xiaobin Peng, Alex K-Y Jen
Employing a layer of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic semiconductors on top of perovskite to further extend its photoresponse is considered as a simple and promising way to enhance the efficiency of perovskite-based solar cells, instead of using tandem devices or near infrared (NIR)-absorbing Sn-containing perovskites. However, the progress made from this approach is quite limited because very few such hybrid solar cells can simultaneously show high short-circuit current (JSC ) and fill factor (FF). To find an appropriate NIR-absorbing BHJ is essential for highly efficient, organic, photovoltaics (OPV)/perovskite hybrid solar cells...
November 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Eunseong Moon, David Blaauw, Jamie D Phillips
The design and characterization of mm-scale GaAs photovoltaic cells are presented and demonstrate highly efficient energy harvesting in the near infrared. Device performance is improved dramatically by optimization of the device structure for the near-infrared spectral region and improving surface and sidewall passivation with ammonium sulfide treatment and subsequent silicon nitride deposition. The power conversion efficiency of a 6.4 mm(2) cell under 660 nW/mm(2) NIR illumination at 850 nm is greater than 30 %, which is higher than commercial crystalline silicon solar cells under similar illumination conditions...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Yating Yang, Wei-Hai Fang, Run Long
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) heterojunctions are appealing candidates for optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Using time-domain density functional theory combined with nonadiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics, we show that photoexcitation dynamics exhibit a significant difference in the vertical and lateral MoS2/WSe2 heterojunctions arising from the disparity in the donor-acceptor interaction and fundamental band alignment. The obtained electron transfer time scale in the vertical heterojunction shows excellent agreement with experiment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
H S Hafez, S S Shenouda, M Fadel
In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
November 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Weigang Jiang, Runnan Yu, Zhiyang Liu, Ruixiang Peng, Dongbo Mi, Ling Hong, Qiang Wei, Jianhui Hou, Yongbo Kuang, Ziyi Ge
A novel small-molecule acceptor, (2,2'-((5E,5'E)-5,5'-((5,5'-(4,4,9,9-tetrakis(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(methanylylidene)) bis(3-hexyl-4-oxothiazolidine-5,2-diylidene))dimalononitrile (ITCN), end-capped with electron-deficient 2-(3-hexyl-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups, is designed, synthesized, and used as the third component in fullerene-free ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The cascaded energy-level structure enabled by the newly designed acceptor is beneficial to the carrier transport and separation...
November 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Thomas J Whittles, Tim D Veal, Christopher N Savory, Adam W Welch, Francisco Willian de Souza Lucas, James T Gibbon, Max Birkett, Richard J Potter, David O Scanlon, Andriy Zakutayev, Vinod R Dhanak
The earth-abundant material CuSbS2 (CAS) has shown good optical properties as a photovoltaic solar absorber material, but has seen relatively poor solar cell performance. To investigate the reason for this anomaly, the core-levels of the constituent elements, surface contaminants, ionization potential, and valence band spectra are studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The ionization potential and electron affinity for this material (4.98 eV and 3.43 eV) are lower than for other common absorbers, including CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS)...
November 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ik Jae Park, Seongrok Seo, Min Ah Park, Sangwook Lee, Dong Hoe Kim, Kai Zhu, Hyunjung Shin, Jin Young Kim
We report the electrical properties of rubidium-incorporated methylammonium lead iodide ((RbxMA1-x)PbI3) films and the photovoltaic performance of (RbxMA1-x)PbI3 film-based p-i-n-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The incorporation of a small amount of Rb(+) (x=0.05) increases both the open circuit voltage (Voc) and the short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of the PSCs, leading to an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, a high fraction of Rb(+) incorporation (x=0.1 and 0.2) decreases the Jsc and thus the PCE, which is attributed to the phase segregation of the single tetragonal perovskite phase to a MA-rich tetragonal perovskite phase and a RbPbI3 orthorhombic phase at high Rb fractions...
November 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maksym V Kovalenko, Loredana Protesescu, Maryna I Bodnarchuk
Semiconducting lead halide perovskites (LHPs) have not only become prominent thin-film absorber materials in photovoltaics but have also proven to be disruptive in the field of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). The most important feature of LHP NCs is their so-called defect-tolerance-the apparently benign nature of structural defects, highly abundant in these compounds, with respect to optical and electronic properties. Here, we review the important differences that exist in the chemistry and physics of LHP NCs as compared with more conventional, tetrahedrally bonded, elemental, and binary semiconductor NCs (such as silicon, germanium, cadmium selenide, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphide)...
November 10, 2017: Science
Elana Borvick, Assaf Y Anderson, Hannah-Noa Barad, Maayan Priel, David A Keller, Adam Ginsburg, Kevin J Rietwyk, Simcha Meir, Arie Zaban
Data mining tools have been known to be useful for analyzing large material data sets generated by high-throughput methods. Typically, the descriptors used for the analysis are structural descriptors, which can be difficult to obtain and to tune according to the results of the analysis. In this Research Article, we show the use of deposition process parameters as descriptors for analysis of a photovoltaics data set. To create a data set, solar cell libraries were fabricated using iron oxide as the absorber layer deposited using different deposition parameters, and the photovoltaic performance was measured...
November 9, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
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