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Solar photovoltaic

Longzhen You, Bin Liu, Tao Liu, Bingbing Fan, Yunhao Cai, Lin Guo, Yanming Sun
Tungsten oxide as an alternative to conventional acidic PEDOT:PSS has attracted much attention in organic solar cells (OSCs). However, the vacuum-processed WO3 layer and high temperature sol-gel hydrolyzed WOX are incompatible with large-scale manufacturing of OSCs. Here, we report for the first time that a specific tungsten oxide WO2.72 (W18O49) nanowire can function well as the anode buffer layer. The nw-WO2.72 film exhibits a high optical transparency. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSCs based on three typical polymer active layers PTB7:PC71BM, PTB7-Th:PC71BM, and PDBT-T1:PC71BM with nw-WO2...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Özgül Birel, Said Nadeem, Hakan Duman
The current review aims to collect short information about photovoltaic performance and structure of porphyrin-based sensitizers used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Sensitizer is the key component of the DSSC device. Structure of sensitizer is important to achieve high photovoltaic performance. Porphyrin derivatives are suitable for DSSC applications due to their thermal, electronic and photovoltaic properties. It describes some electrochemical and spectral properties as well as thestructure of porphyrin dyes used in dye based-solar cells...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
Harry L Tuller
To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store...
2017: Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Ze Yu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jianbo Lai, Yuchen Zhang, Maowei Hu, Ning Lei, Dongping Wang, Xichuan Yang, Licheng Sun
In high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole-transporting materials (HTMs) play important roles in extracting and transporting the photo-generated holes from the perovskite absrorber to the cathode, thus reducing unwanted recombination losses and enhancing the photovoltaic performance. Herein, solution-processable tetra-4-(bis(4-tert-butyl)phenyl)amino)phenoxy-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc-OTPAtBu) has been synthesized and explored as a HTM in PSCs. The optical, electrochemical and thermal properties are fully characterized for this organic metal complex...
February 15, 2017: ChemSusChem
Tsung Yu Hsieh, Chi Kai Huang, Tzu-Sen Su, Cheng-You Hong, Tzu-Chien Wei
Crystal morphology and structure are important for improving the organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor property in optoelectronic, electronic and photovoltaic devices. In particular, crystal growth and dissolution are two major phenomena in determining the morphology of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite in the sequential deposition method for fabricating a perovskite solar cell. In this report, the effect of immersion time in the seconds step, i.e. methlyammonium iodide immersion in the morphological, structural, optical and photovoltaic evolution, is extensively investigated...
February 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu Yan, Xuan Liu, Tao Wang
The photoactive layer of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells, in a thickness range of tens to hundreds of nanometers, comprises phase-separated electron donors and acceptors after solution casting. The component distribution in the cross-section of these thin films is found to be heterogeneous, with electron donors or acceptors accumulated or depleted near the electrode interfaces. This vertical stratification of the photovoltaic blend influences device metrics through its impact on charge transport and recombination, and consequently plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices...
February 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Sawanta S Mali, Chang Kook Hong, A I Inamdar, Hyunsik Im, Sang Eun Shim
The development of hybrid organo-lead trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) comprising an electron transporting layer (ETL), a perovskite light absorber and a hole transporting layer (HTL) has received significant attention for their potential in efficient PSCs. However, the preparation of a compact and uniform ETL and the formation of a uniform light absorber layer suffer from a high temperature processing treatment and the formation of unwanted perovskite islands, respectively. A low temperature/room temperature processed ETL is one of the best options for the fabrication of flexible PSCs...
February 14, 2017: Nanoscale
Andreas Opitz
Planar organic heterojunctions are widely used in photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, and bilayer field-effect transistors. The energy level alignment in the devices plays an important role in obtaining the aspired gap arrangement. Additionally, the π-orbital overlap between the involved molecules defines e.g. the charge-separation efficiency in solar cells due to charge-transfer effects. To account for both aspects, direct/inverse photoemission spectroscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy were used to determine the energy level landscape and the molecular orientation at prototypical planar organic heterojunctions...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yaming Yu, Ying Hong, Peng Gao, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin
In the past few years, the advent of lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has revolutionized the prospects of the third- generation photovoltaics and the reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been updated to 22%. Nevertheless, two main challenges, including the poisonous content of Pb and the vexing instability toward water, still lie between the lab-based PSCs technology and large scale commercialization. With this background, we first evaluated Pb(2+) concentration from the rainwater samples polluted by three types of markets promising PSCs with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurements (ICP-MS) as a case study...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Minghua Li, Xiaoqin Yan, Zhuo Kang, Xinqin Liao, Yong Li, Xin Zheng, Pei Lin, Jingjing Meng, Yue Zhang
The low-cost inorganic-organic lead halide perovskite materials become particularly promising for solar cells with high photovoltaic conversion efficiency. The uniform and pinhole-free perovskite films play an important role for high-performance solar cells. We demonstrate an anti-solvent treatment by controlling the PbI2 morphology to enhance the perovskite conversion and photophysical properties, including high absorption, crystallinity and rapid carrier transfer. The fabricated perovskite solar cells show tremendous PCE improvement to about 16...
February 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiang Fang, Jianning Ding, Ningyi Yuan, Peng Sun, Minghang Lv, Guqiao Ding, Chong Zhu
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have emerged as attractive materials for use in photovoltaic cells. Owing to the existence of dangling bonds at the grain boundaries between perovskite crystals, minimizing the charge recombination at the surface or grain boundaries by passivating these trap states has been identified to be one of the most important strategies for further optimization of device performance. Previous reports have mainly focused on surface passivation by inserting special materials such as graphene or fullerene between the electron transfer layer and the perovskite film...
February 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daniela Meroni, Leonardo Lo Presti, Giovanni Di Liberto, Michele Ceotto, Robert G Acres, Kevin C Prince, Roberto Bellani, Guido Soliveri, Silvia Ardizzone
The surface functionalization of TiO2-based materials with alkylsilanes is attractive in several cutting-edge applications, such as photovoltaics, sensors, and nanocarriers for the controlled release of bioactive molecules. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) is able to self-assemble to form monolayers on TiO2 surfaces, but its adsorption geometry and solar-induced photodegradation pathways are not well understood. We here employ advanced experimental (XPS, NEXAFS, AFM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR) and theoretical (plane-wave DFT) tools to investigate the preferential interaction mode of APTES on anatase TiO2...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Kyung-Ho Bae, Van-Duong Dao, Ho-Suk Choi
This study presents the synthesis of PtNi alloys with different volume ratios of Pt and Ni precursors in mixture solutions using dry plasma reduction under atmospheric pressure and low temperature. The developed materials are applied as efficient counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The investigation of the Pt utility in PtNi alloys for electrocatalytic activity, and cost effective and highly efficient DSCs are also investigated. Compared with the reference electrodes (Pt and Ni CEs), the developed PtNi alloy CEs exhibit better reversibility as indicated by the peak-to-peak separation and better catalytic activity for the regeneration of iodide ions from triiodide ions...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bert Conings, Simon A Bretschneider, Aslihan Babayigit, Nicolas Gauquelin, Ilaria Cardinaletti, Jean V Manca, Jo Verbeeck, Henry J Snaith, Hans-Gerd Boyen
The power conversion efficiency of halide perovskite solar cells is heavily dependent on the perovskite layer being sufficiently smooth and pinhole-free. It has been shown that these features can be obtained even when starting out from rough and discontinuous perovskite film, by briefly exposing it to methylamine (MA) vapor. The exact underlying physical mechanisms of this phenomenon are, however, still unclear. By investigating smooth, MA treated films, based on very rough and discontinuous reference films of methylammonium triiode (MAPbI3), considering their morphology, crystalline features, local conductive properties, and charge carrier lifetime, we unravel the relation between their characteristic physical qualities and their performance in corresponding solar cells...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xing Zhao, Hui-Seon Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Nam-Gyu Park
Thermal stability of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3)-based perovskite solar cells was investigated for the normal structure including mesoporous TiO2 layer and spiro-MeOTAD and the invert structure with PCBM and NiO. MAPbI3 was found to be intrinsically stable from 85 oC up to 120 oC in the absence of moisture. However, fast degradation was observed for the encapsulated device including spiro-MeOTAD upon thermal stress at 85 oC. Photoluminescence (PL) intensity and time constant for charge separation increased with thermal exposure time, which is indicative of inhibition of charge separation from MAPbI3 into spiro-MeOTAD...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Taketo Handa, David M Tex, Ai Shimazaki, Atsushi Wakamiya, Yoshihiko Kanemitsu
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells are attracting much attention due to their excellent photovoltaic properties. In these multi-layered structures, the device performance is determined by complicated carrier dynamics. Here, we studied photocarrier recombination and injection dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent (PC) measurements. It is found that a peculiar slowdown in the PL decay time constants of the perovskite layer occurs for higher excitation powers, followed by a decrease of the external quantum efficiency for PC...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Linna Zhu, Yahan Shan, Rui Wang, Debei Liu, Cheng Zhong, Qunliang Song, Fei Wu
In this work, four tetraphenylethylene (TPE) centered hole transport materials (HTMs), with 2,7- or 3,6-substituted carbazole derivatives as periphery groups are deliberately synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties, energy levels and photovoltaic performances are systematically investigated, and their performances as HTMs are discussed with respect to the different substituent positions on carbazole moiety. It is interesting to find that the TPE-based HTMs with 2,7-carbazole substituents rival the 3,6-carbazole substituents in hole mobility and hole extraction ability...
February 8, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mohammed Makha, Paolo Testa, Surendra Babu Anantharaman, Jakob Heier, Sandra Jenatsch, Nicolas Leclaire, Jean-Nicolas Tisserant, Anna C Véron, Lei Wang, Frank Nüesch, Roland Hany
Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Mariusz Wojcik, Artur Nowak, Kazuhiko Seki
We propose a semi-empirical theory which describes the geminate electron-hole separation probability in both homogeneous systems and donor-acceptor heterojunction systems applicable in organic photovoltaics. The theory is based on the results of extensive simulation calculations, which were carried out using various lattice models of the medium and different charge-carrier hopping mechanisms, over the parameter ranges typical for organic solar cells. It is found that the electron-hole separation probability can be conveniently described in terms of measurable parameters by a formula whose functional form is derived from the existing recombination theories, and which contains only one empirical parameter...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jeremy Barbe, Max L Tietze, Marios Neophytou, Banavoth Murali, Erkki Alarousu, Abdulrahman El Labban, Mutalifu Abulikemu, Wan Yue, Omar F Mohammed, Iain McCulloch, Aram Amassian, Silvano Del Gobbo
The chemical bath deposition of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films as electron transporting layer (ETL) in planar heterojunction n-i-p organohalide lead perovskite and organic bulk heterojunction solar cells is reported. The amorphous SnO2 films are grown from a non-toxic aqueous bath of tin chloride at very low temperatures (55°C) and do not require post-annealing treatment to work very effectively as ETL in planar heterojunction n-i-p organohalide lead perovskite or organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, in lieu of the commonly used ETL materials TiO2 and ZnO, respectively...
February 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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