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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526686/amazon-river-dolphins-inia-geoffrensis-modify-biosonar-output-level-and-directivity-during-prey-interception-in-the-wild
#1
Michael Ladegaard, Frants Havmand Jensen, Kristian Beedholm, Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Toothed whales have evolved to live in extremely different habitats and yet they all rely strongly on echolocation for finding and catching prey. Such biosonar based foraging involves distinct phases of searching for, approaching, and capturing prey, where echolocating animals gradually adjust sonar output to actively shape the flow of sensory information. Measuring those outputs in absolute levels requires hydrophone arrays centred on the biosonar beam axis, but this has never been done for wild toothed whales approaching and capturing prey...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525714/characterization-of-bitter-compounds-via-modulation-of-proton-secretion-in-human-gastric-parietal-cells-in-culture
#2
Kathrin I Liszt, Joachim Hans, Jakob P Ley, Elke Köck, Veronika Somoza
Humans perceive bitterness via around 25 different bitter receptors. Therefore, the identification of antagonists remains a complex challenge. We previously demonstrated several bitter tasting compounds such as caffeine to induce acid secretion in the stomach and in a human gastric tumor cell line (HGT-1). Here, the results of a fluorescent-based in vitro assay using HGT-1 cells and a human sensory panel testing nine selected potential bitter modulators with or without the bitter compounds caffeine or theobromine, were compared...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524811/impact-of-tactile-sensation-on-dexterity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-patients-with-impaired-hand-function-after-stroke
#3
Elena L Pavlova, Jörgen Borg
The authors sought to explore the impact of tactile sensation on manual dexterity and the validity of the strength-dexterity test in subjects with chronic impairments after stroke in a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with impaired hand function after stroke. Dexterity was assessed by the strength-dexterity test, Box and Blocks, and Nine-Hole Peg Test, and the ABILHAND questionnaire. Sensation was measured by pinprick, cotton-wool, graphesthesia, and 2-point discrimination tests. Sensation in the paretic hand had strong association with paretic hand performance in the strength-dexterity test and Nine-Hole Peg Test and explained 13% of the variance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#4
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523237/evoked-potential-changes-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Chunyan Liu, Yaping Zhang, Weiguo Tang, Binda Wang, Bona Wang, Songbin He
OBJECTIVE: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may have sensory dysfunction, and it can be more easily demonstrated through electrophysiologic testing. We aimed to explore whether the impairment of brainstem visual and auditory passageway exists in PD patients using visual evoked potential (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations. METHODS: Forty-two PD cases and thirty controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent the VEP and BAEP examinations...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522077/treatment-of-restless-legs-syndrome-with-the-selective-ampa-receptor-antagonist-perampanel
#6
Diego Garcia-Borreguero, Irene Cano, Juan Jose Granizo
OBJECTIVES: Perampanel is a selective, noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA) antagonist that has been approved for the treatment of partial seizures. Here we report on the first open study evaluating its efficacy in idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective two-month open trial. Twenty-two previously untreated patients diagnosed with idiopathic RLS began treatment with 2 mg perampanel, which was increased to 4 mg at week four if clinically necessary...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521050/sudden-unexpected-death-during-sleep-in-familial-dysautonomia-a-case-control-study
#7
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Miguel A Perez, Christy L Spalink, Horacio Kaufmann
Study Objectives: Sudden unexpected death during sleep (SUDS) is the most common cause of death in patients with familial dysautonomia, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensory and autonomic dysfunction. It remains unknown what causes SUDS in these patients and who is at highest risk. We tested the hypothesis that SUDS in FD is linked to sleep-disordered breathing. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with familial dysautonomia who died suddenly and unexpectedly during sleep and had undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period prior to death...
May 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520773/development-of-the-highly-sensitive-dog-questionnaire-to-evaluate-the-personality-dimension-sensory-processing-sensitivity-in-dogs
#8
Maya Braem, Lucy Asher, Sibylle Furrer, Isabel Lechner, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516967/body-worn-triaxial-accelerometer-coherence-and-reliability-related-to-static-posturography-in-unilateral-vestibular-failure
#9
M Alessandrini, A Micarelli, A Viziano, I Pavone, G Costantini, D Casali, F Paolizzo, G Saggio
Since changes in vestibular function may be one cause of disequilibrium, major advances in measuring postural control and sensory integration in vestibular impairments have been achieved by using posturography. However, in order to overcome problems related to this type of technology, body-worn accelerometers (ACC) have been proposed as a portable, low-cost alternative to posturography for measurements of postural sway in a friendly and ecologic environment. Due to the fact that no study to date has shown the experimental validity of ACC-based measures of body sway with respect to posturography for subjects with vestibular deficits, the aim of the present study was: i) to develop and validate a practical tool that can allow clinicians to measure postural sway derangements in an otoneurological setting by ACC, and ii) to provide reliable, sensitive and accurate automatic analysis of sway that could help in discriminating unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516394/linguistic-asymmetry-egocentric-anchoring-and-sensory-modality-as-factors-for-the-observed-association-between-time-and-space-perception
#10
Eunice E Hang Choy, Him Cheung
Temporal and spatial representations have been consistently shown to be inextricably intertwined. However, the exact nature of time-space mapping remains unknown. On the one hand, the conceptual metaphor theory postulates unilateral, asymmetric mapping of time onto space, that is, time is perceived in spatial terms but the perception of space is relatively independent of time. On the other hand, a theory of magnitude assumes bilateral and symmetric interactions between temporal and spatial perceptions. In the present paper, we argue that the concepts of linguistic asymmetry, egocentric anchoring, and sensory modality provide potential explanations for why evidences favoring both asymmetry and symmetry have been obtained...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515654/qualitative-characteristics-and-determining-shelf-life-of-milk-beverage-product-supplemented-with-coffee-extracts
#11
Ji-Woo Yoon, Sung-Il Ahn, Ha-Na Kim, Jun-Hong Park, Sun-Young Park, Jae-Hoon Kim, Duk-Geun Oh, Jin-Woo Jhoo, Gur-Yoo Kim
This study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of a milk beverage product supplemented with coffee extracts. Qualitative changes including peroxide value (PV), microorganism content, caffeine content, and sensory evaluation were measured periodically in beverages kept at 10, 20, and 30°C for 8 wk. Lipid oxidation of the product was measured by peroxide value analysis, and apparent changes were observed during a 4 wk storage period. Caffeine analysis revealed that the changes in caffeine content were negligible during the storage period...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515643/quality-of-frozen-pork-from-pigs-fed-diets-containing-palm-kernel-meal-as-an-alternative-to-corn-meal
#12
Jeong Yeon An, Hae In Yong, So Yeon Kim, Han Bit Yoo, Yoo Yong Kim, Cheorun Jo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of palm kernel meal (PKM), an alternative to corn, on the quality of pork. A total of 72 crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were assigned into four dietary treatments (PKM level of 0, 4, 8, or 12%). After 12 wk, one pig of median weight in each pen was selected and slaughtered to analyze meat quality. The color, free radical scavenging activity, lipid oxidation, texture, composition of fatty acids, and sensory qualities of pork loin were evaluated post slaughter...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515517/a-clinical-comparison-between-0-5-levobupivacaine-and-0-5-levobupivacaine-with-dexamethasone-8-mg-combination-in-brachial-plexus-block-by-the-supraclavicular-approach
#13
Nibedita Pani, Sidharth Sraban Routray, Debasis Mishra, Basant Kumar Pradhan, Bishnu Prasad Mohapatra, Deepti Swain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dexamethasone as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus (SCBP) block prolongs motor and sensory blockade. However, the effect of dexamethasone (8 mg) when added to levobupivacaine has not been well studied. This study was conducted to find out analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone as adjuvant to levobupivacaine in SCBP block. METHODS: Ultrasound- guided SCBP block was given to sixty patients, randomly assigned into two groups...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515269/effect-of-omega-3-supplementation-on-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-12-month-pilot-trial
#14
Evan J H Lewis, Bruce A Perkins, Leif E Lovblom, Richard P Bazinet, Thomas M S Wolever, Vera Bril
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 were recruited to participate in a single-arm, open-label trial of seal oil ω-3 PUFA supplementation (10 mL·d(-1); 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514231/preoperative-pain-neuroscience-education-combined-with-knee-joint-mobilization-for-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Enrique Lluch, Lirios Dueñas, Deborah Falla, Isabel Baert, Mira Meeus, Jose Sánchez-Frutos, Jo Nijs
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to first compare the effects of a preoperative treatment combining pain neuroscience education (PNE) with knee joint mobilization versus biomedical education with knee joint mobilization on central sensitization (CS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis, both before and after surgery. Second, we wanted to compare the effects of both interventions on knee pain, disability, and psychosocial variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were allocated to receive 4 sessions of either PNE combined with knee joint mobilization or biomedical education with knee joint mobilization before surgery...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513860/cortical-contributions-to-sensory-gating-in-the-ipsilateral-somatosensory-cortex-during-voluntary-activity
#16
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
An important principle in the organization of the somatosensory cortex is that it processes afferent information from the contralateral side of the body. The role of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) in sensory gating in humans remains largely unknown. Using electroencephalographic recordings over the iS1 and electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist we examined somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs; P14/N20, N20/P25, and P25/N33 components) and paired-pulse SSEPs between (interhemispheric inhibition) and within (intracortical inhibition) the iS1 at rest and during tonic index finger voluntary activity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513784/chlorhexidine-with-or-without-alcohol-against-biofilm-formation-efficacy-adverse-events-and-taste-preference
#17
Gabriela Otero Dos Santos, Fernanda Carpes Milanesi, Bruna Frizon Greggianin, Marilene Issa Fernandes, Rui Vicente Oppermann, Patricia Weidlich
In recent years, different chlorhexidine formulations have been tested, including an alcohol-free alternative, but the effect of this solution on early biofilm formation is not clear. A crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two chlorhexidine solutions against supra- and subgingival biofilm formation (NCT#02656251). Thirty-five participants were randomized and asked to rinse twice daily with 15 ml of an alcohol-containing 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, an alcohol-free 0...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512726/cutaneous-reflex-modulation-during-obstacle-avoidance-under-conditions-of-normal-and-degraded-visual-input
#18
Daniel S Marigold, Andrew J Chang, Kim Lajoie
The nervous system integrates visual input regarding obstacles with limb-based sensory feedback to allow an individual to safely negotiate the environment. This latter source can include cutaneous information from the foot, particularly in the event that limb trajectory is not sufficient and there is an unintended collision with the object. However, it is not clear the extent to which cutaneous reflexes are modified based on visual input. In this study, we first determined if phase-dependent modulation of these reflexes is present when stepping over an obstacle during overground walking...
May 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511918/molecular-imaging-of-serotonin-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Gwenn S Smith, Frederick S Barrett, Jin Hui Joo, Najlla Nassery, Alena Savonenko, Devin J Sodums, Christopher M Marano, Cynthia A Munro, Jason Brandt, Michael A Kraut, Yun Zhou, Dean F Wong, Clifford I Workman
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions, as well as the cell bodies of origin (raphe nuclei)...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511792/mechanisms-of-hemispheric-lateralization-a-replication-study
#20
Kim C Wende, Catherine Thiel, Jens Sommer, Frieder M Paulus, Sören Krach, Andreas Jansen
It has been shown, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that hemispheric lateralization of brain activity depends on the requirements of the cognitive task performed during the processing of a sensory stimulus rather than on the intrinsic characteristics of that stimulus [Stephan et al., 2003, Science 301 (5631): 384-6]. Task-dependent increase in the coupling of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region involved in cognitive control, and brain areas in the left prefrontal and right parietal cortex, respectively, regions involved in task execution, was proposed as the mechanism underlying this task-dependency of hemispheric lateralization...
April 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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