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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644253/spectrum-of-autonomic-nervous-system-impairment-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#1
Brent P Goodman, Amy Crepeau, Priya S Dhawan, Julie A Khoury, Lucinda A Harris
OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of autonomic dysfunction in a uniformly evaluated cohort of patients with Sjögren syndrome. METHODS: A series of 13 patients underwent a comprehensive evaluation for suspected autonomic impairment, including a neurological examination, autonomic testing, and laboratory studies. A diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome was established as the cause of autonomic dysfunction in all. Clinical features, findings on autonomic testing, and laboratory results are described...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643576/sensory-organization-test-principally-reflects-utricular-function
#2
Jia Liu, Renhong Zhou, Bo Liu, Yangming Leng, Jingjing Liu, Dongdong Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that sensory organization test (SOT) could principally reflect utricular function, and our cut-score of VEST ratio (the indicator of inputs from the vestibular system in balance performance) in SOT could help to screen patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction in non-fallers. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to know SOT reflects the function of which vestibular end organs and to assess the possibility of screening patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction in non-fall population by means of SOT...
June 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642583/sox2-is-required-for-inner-ear-neurogenesis
#3
Aleta R Steevens, Danielle L Sookiasian, Jenna C Glatzer, Amy E Kiernan
Neurons of the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) transmit hearing and balance information to the brain. During development, a select population of early otic progenitors express NEUROG1, delaminate from the otocyst, and coalesce to form the neurons that innervate all inner ear sensory regions. At present, the selection process that determines which otic progenitors activate NEUROG1 and adopt a neuroblast fate is incompletely understood. The transcription factor SOX2 has been implicated in otic neurogenesis, but its requirement in the specification of the CVG neurons has not been established...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641335/jumping-mechanography-as-a-complementary-testing-tool-for-motor-function-in-children-with-hereditary-motor-and-sensory-neuropathy
#4
Katharina Vill, Lena Ille, Astrid Blaschek, Rainer Rawer, Mirjam N Landgraf, Lucia Gerstl, Sebastian A Schroeder, Wolfgang Müller-Felber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640143/relationship-between-postural-instability-and-subcortical-volume-loss-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Young-Wook Lee, Hyung Lee, In-Sung Chung, Hyon-Ah Yi
The relationship between postural instability and subcortical structure in AD has received less attention. The aims of this study were to assess whether there are differences in the ability to control balance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, and to investigate the association between subcortical gray matter volumes and postural instability in AD.We enrolled 107 consecutive AD patients and 37 controls. All participants underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluations, T1-weighted MRI at 3 T, and posture assessment using computerized dynamic posturography...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639215/regulation-of-t-type-ca-2-channel-expression-by-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-in-sensory-like-nd7-cells
#6
Qiaojuan Zhang, Shao-Chung Hsia, Miguel Martin-Caraballo
Infection of sensory neurons by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 disrupts electrical excitability, altering pain sensory transmission. Because of their low threshold for activation, functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels regulates various cell functions, including neuronal excitability and neuronal communication. In this study, we have tested the effect of HSV-1 infection on the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in differentiated ND7-23 sensory-like neurons. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents were measured using whole cell patch clamp recordings in differentiated ND7-23 neurons under various culture conditions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638875/whole-body-vibration-improves-attention-and-motor-performance-in-mice-depending-on-the-duration-of-the-whole-body-vibration-session
#7
Jan N Keijser, Marieke J G van Heuvelen, Csaba Nyakas, Kata Tóth, Regien G Schoemaker, Edzard Zeinstra, Eddy A van der Zee
BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation via mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. It is assumed that WBV induces sensory stimulation in cortical brain regions through the activation of skin and muscle receptors responding to the vibration. The effects of WBV on muscle strength are well described. However, little is known about the impact of WBV on the brain. Recently, it was shown in humans that WBV improves attention in an acute WBV protocol...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#8
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637854/fish-prey-change-strategy-with-the-direction-of-a-threat
#9
Arjun Nair, Kelsey Changsing, William J Stewart, Matthew J McHenry
Predation is a fundamental interaction between species, yet it is unclear what escape strategies are effective for prey survival. Classical theory proposes that prey should either escape in a direction that conforms to a performance optimum or that is random and therefore unpredictable. Here, we show that larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) instead use a mixed strategy that may be either random or directed. This was determined by testing classic theory with measurements of the escape direction in response to a predator robot...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634466/abnormal-temporal-coupling-of-tactile-perception-and-motor-action-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Matteo Tartaglia, Francesca Natalia Cortese, Viola Baione, Emanuele Battista, Xiao Y Zhu, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
Evidence shows altered somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) in Parkinson's disease in comparison to normal subjects. In healthy subjects, movement execution modulates STDT values through mechanisms of sensory gating. We investigated whether STDT modulation during movement execution in patients with Parkinson's disease differs from that in healthy subjects. In 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy subjects, we tested STDT at baseline and during index finger abductions (at movement onset "0", 100, and 200 ms thereafter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634305/data-driven-extraction-of-a-nested-model-of-human-brain-function
#11
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, B T Thomas Yeo, Lucina Q Uddin
Decades of cognitive neuroscience research have revealed two basic facts regarding task-driven brain activation patterns. First, distinct patterns of activation occur in response to different task demands. Second, a superordinate, dichotomous pattern of activation/de-activation, is common across a variety of task demands. We explore the possibility that a hierarchical model incorporates these two observed brain activation phenomena into a unifying framework. We apply a latent variable approach, exploratory bi-factor analysis, to a large set of human (both sexes) brain activation maps (n = 108) encompassing cognition, perception, action and emotion behavioral domains, to determine the potential existence of a nested structure of factors that underlies a variety of commonly observed activation patterns...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#12
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632750/renal-sodium-handling-and-blood-pressure-changes-in-gestational-protein-restricted-offspring-role-of-renal-nerves-and-ganglia-neurokinin-expression
#13
Augusto H Custódio, Marcelo C de Lima, Bárbara Vaccari, Patrícia A Boer, José A R Gontijo
BACKGROUND: Considering long-term changes in renal sodium handling and blood pressure in maternal protein-restricted (LP) offspring, we assumed that the development of LP hypertension results from abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurokinin expression associated with impaired responsiveness of renal sensory receptors, promoting a reduced urinary excretion of sodium. The present study investigates whether increased blood pressure in protein-restricted offspring would be associated with changes in the DRG cells and in renal pelvic wall expression of NK1R, SP and CGRP when compared to NP offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632647/high-osteogenic-potential-of-adipose-and-muscle-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-spinal-ossification-model-mice
#14
Xizhe Liu, Gentaro Kumagai, Kanichiro Wada, Toshihiro Tanaka, Toru Asari, Kazuki Oishi, Taku Fujita, Hiroki Mizukami, Ken-Ichi Furukawa, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
STUDY DESIGN: Basic experiments in a mouse model of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). OBJECTIVE: To assess the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from muscle and adipose tissue in Tiptoe-walking (ttw) mice, in which cervical OPLL compresses the spinal cord and causes motor and sensory dysfunction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In humans, MSCs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical OPLL...
June 19, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632555/changes-in-cytokines-sensory-tests-and-self-reported-pain-levels-after-manual-treatment-of-low-back-pain
#15
Brian F Degenhardt, Jane C Johnson, Christian Fossum, Chad T Andicochea, Melissa K Stuart
STUDY DESIGN: Unbalanced 3-factor design with repeated measures on 1 factor. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of manual treatment (MT) on cytokine and pain sensations in those with and without low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Evidence suggests that MT reduces LBP but by unknown mechanisms. Certain cytokines have been elevated in patients with LBP and may be affected by MT. METHODS: Participants aged 20-60 years with chronic LBP or without LBP were recruited and randomly assigned to MT, sham ultrasound treatment, or no treatment groups...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632303/audition-specific-temporal-processing-deficits-associated-with-language-function-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Alexandra P Key, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone
Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms...
June 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632204/successful-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-feeding-aversion-with-mechanistic-insights-from-cross-species-neuronal-remodeling
#17
W G Sharp, A G Allen, K H Stubbs, K K Criado, R Sanders, C E McCracken, R G Parsons, L Scahill, S L Gourley
Pediatric feeding disorders affect up to 5% of children, causing severe food intake problems that can result in serious medical and developmental outcomes. Behavioral intervention (BI) is effective in extinguishing feeding aversions, and also expert-dependent, time/labor-intensive and not well understood at a neurobiological level. Here we first conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing BI with BI plus d-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist shown to augment extinction therapies in multiple anxiety disorders...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631840/the-effect-of-infant-vocalization-in-alloparental-responsiveness-of-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#18
Maricele Nascimento Barbosa, Maria Teresa da Silva Mota, Marcela Nascimento Barbosa
Among mammals, alloparental care can be influenced by hormones as well as by previous experience and sensory stimuli from the infants, such as sight and sound, smell, and physical contact with the infant. To determine the responsiveness of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) nonreproductive females and males with and without previous experience in caretaking to infant sensory cues, we exposed 12 females and 12 males to vocalization recordings for 10 min under two conditions: (1) exposure to adult conspecific vocalization recordings, and (2) exposure to infant vocalization recordings...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628505/central-connections-of-the-lacrimal-functional-unit
#19
Catherine Willshire, Roger J Buckley, Anthony J Bron
PURPOSE: To study the contribution of each eye to the reflex tear response, after unilateral and bilateral topical anesthesia. METHOD: A closed-eye, modified Schirmer test was performed bilaterally in 8 normal subjects, in a controlled environment chamber set to 23°C, 45% relative humidity, and 0.08 m/s airflow. Eye drops were instilled into each eye 10 minutes before the Schirmer test. Experiments were as follows: 1) bilateral saline (control), 2) unilateral anesthesia (ipsilateral anesthetic; contralateral saline), and 3) bilateral anesthesia...
June 14, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628232/sensory-mapping-of-pelvic-dermatomes-in-women-with-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#20
Tatiana Sanses, Patrick McCabe, Ling Zhong, Aisha Taylor, Gisela Chelimsky, Sangeeta Mahajan, Tony Buffington, Adonis Hijaz, Sarah Ialacci, Jeffrey Janata, Thomas Chelimsky
AIM: To describe a sensory map of pelvic dermatomes in women with Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS). We hypothesized that if IC/BPS involves changes in central processing, then women with IC/BPS will exhibit sensory abnormalities in neurologic pelvic dermatomes. METHODS: Women with IC/BPS and healthy controls underwent neurologic examination that included evaluation of sharp pain sensitivity and vibration in dermatomes T12, L1, L2, S1-5. Peripheral nervous system sensitivity to pressure, vibration, and pinprick were scored using numeric rating scales (NRS)...
June 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
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