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Hypoxia and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708702/exercise-induced-fatigue-in-severe-hypoxia-following-an-intermittent-hypoxic-protocol
#1
Rosie Twomey, James Wrightson, Hannah Fletcher, Stephanie Avraam, Emma Ross, Jeanne Dekerle
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced central fatigue is alleviated following acclimatisation to high altitude. The adaptations underpinning this effect may also be induced with brief, repeated exposures to severe hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (i) exercise tolerance in severe hypoxia would be improved following an intermittent hypoxic (IH) protocol and (ii) exercise-induced central fatigue would be alleviated following an IH protocol. METHODS: Nineteen recreationally-active males were randomised into two groups who completed ten 2-h exposures in severe hypoxia (IH: PIO2 82 mmHg; n=11) or normoxia (control; n=8)...
July 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706859/role-of-metabolic-stress-for-enhancing-muscle-adaptations-practical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Jose Gerosa-Neto, Nelo Eidy Zanchi, Fabio Santos Lira, Fabrício Eduardo Rossi
Metabolic stress is a physiological process that occurs during exercise in response to low energy that leads to metabolite accumulation [lactate, phosphate inorganic (Pi) and ions of hydrogen (H(+))] in muscle cells. Traditional exercise protocol (i.e., Resistance training) has an important impact on the increase of metabolite accumulation, which influences hormonal release, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell swelling. Changes in acute exercise routines, such as intensity, volume and rest between sets, are determinants for the magnitude of metabolic stress, furthermore, different types of training, such as low-intensity resistance training plus blood flow restriction and high intensity interval training, could be used to maximize metabolic stress during exercise...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704259/systemic-blood-pressure-at-exercise-in-hypoxia-in-hypertensive-and-normotensive-patients
#3
Laurent Winkler, François J Lhuissier, Jean-Paul Richalet
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether acute hypoxia exposure in laboratory conditions associated with exercise induces an increase in systemic blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and hypertensive patients, and whether hypertensive patients are more prone to develop severe acute mountain sickness (sAMS). Finally, to determine if BP changes at exercise in acute hypoxia in hypertensive patients are predictive factors for sAMS. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 852 normotensive and 106 hypertensive patients went through an acute hypoxia exercise test before a sojourn at high altitude...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686002/cerebrocortical-activity-during-self-paced-exercise-in-temperate-hot-and-hypoxic-conditions
#4
Julien D Périard, Kevin De Pauw, Frank Zanow, Sébastien Racinais
AIM: Heat stress and hypoxia independently influence cerebrocortical activity and impair prolonged exercise performance. This study examined the relationship between electroencephalography (EEG) activity and self-paced exercise performance in control (CON, 18°C, 40% RH), hot (HOT, 35°C, 60%RH) and hypoxic (HYP, 18°C, 40%RH FiO2 : 0.145) conditions. METHODS: Eleven well-trained cyclists completed a 750 kJ cycling time trial in each condition on separate days in a counter-balanced order...
July 7, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685468/tissue-integrating-oxygen-sensors-continuous-tracking-of-tissue-hypoxia
#6
Natalie A Wisniewski, Scott P Nichols, Soya J Gamsey, Steve Pullins, Kit Y Au-Yeung, Bruce Klitzman, Kristen L Helton
We describe a simple method of tracking oxygen in real-time with injectable, tissue-integrating microsensors. The sensors are small (500 μm × 500 μm × 5 mm), soft, flexible, tissue-like, biocompatible hydrogel s that have been shown to overcome the foreign body response for long-term sensing. The sensors are engineered to change luminescence in the presence of oxygen or other analytes and function for months to years in the body. A single injection followed by non-invasive monitoring with a hand-held or wearable Bluetooth optical reader enables intermittent or continuous measurements...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684588/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-increases-acute-mountain-sickness-severity-and-sense-of-effort-during-hypoxic-exercise
#7
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel James Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally-active men (mean(SD): age 22(4) years, V̇O2max 51(6) mL·min-1·kg-1) completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study. Twelve participants were classified as AMS- based on Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) score <0...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684191/effects-of-oral-sodium-nitrate-on-forearm-blood-flow-oxygenation-and-exercise-performance-during-acute-exposure-to-hypobaric-hypoxia-4300%C3%A2-m
#8
Heath G Gasier, Anthony R Reinhold, Allison R Loiselle, Shawn E Soutiere, David M Fothergill
A reduction in oxygen transport contributes to impaired exercise capacity at high altitude. Since blood flow is mediated, in part, by nitric oxide (NO), we hypothesized that sodium nitrate provided before forearm grip exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 4300 m (hypobaric hypoxia (HH)) would increase forearm blood flow and oxygenation, and decrease the decrement in grip performance. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 10 healthy subjects (9 males and 1 female) performed continuous (CGrip) and repeated rhythmic (RGrip) isometric forearm exercise until task failure in normobaric normoxia (NN), 2...
July 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679682/normobaric-hypoxic-conditioning-to-maximise-weight-loss-and-ameliorate-cardio-metabolic-health-in-obese-populations-a-systematic-review
#9
Liam Gray Hobbins, Steve Hunter, Nadia Gaoua, Olivier Girard
Normobaric hypoxic conditioning (HC) denotes exposure to hypoxia at rest (passive) or combined with exercise (active). HC has been applied acutely (single exposure) and chronically (repeated exposure) to obese populations for managing/increasing cardio-metabolic health and weight loss. Cardio-metabolic health and weight loss responses of obese populations in response to passive and active HC are unclear. A systematic search for articles published between 2000-2017 was carried out. Studies investigating the effects of HC for improving cardio-metabolic health and weight loss of obese populations were included...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673745/high-altitude-pulmonary-edema-in-a-mining-worker-with-an-abnormal-rise-in-pulmonary-artery-pressure-in-response-to-acute-hypoxia-without-prior-history-of-high-altitude-pulmonary-edema
#10
Almaz Ch Akunov, Meerim A Sartmyrzaeva, Abdirashit M Maripov, Kubatbek Muratali Uulu, Argen T Mamazhakypov, Akylbek S Sydykov, Akpay Sh Sarybaev
High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially life-threatening form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that may develop in otherwise healthy individuals upon ascent to high altitude. A constitutional susceptibility has been noted in some individuals, whereas others appear not to be susceptible at all. In our report, we present a case of HAPE triggered by concurrent respiratory tract infection and strenuous exercise in a mining worker with an abnormal rise in pulmonary artery pressure in response to acute hypoxia, without a prior history of HAPE during almost a year of commuting between high altitude and lowland areas...
June 30, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672774/combinatorial-therapy-of-exercise-preconditioning-and-nanocurcumin-formulation-supplementation-improves-cardiac-adaptation-under-hypobaric-hypoxia
#11
Sarita Nehra, Varun Bhardwaj, Anju Bansal, Deepika Saraswat
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671626/effects-of-carbohydrate-and-glutamine-supplementation-on-oral-mucosa-immunity-after-strenuous-exercise-at-high-altitude-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#12
Aline Venticinque Caris, Edgar Tavares Da Silva, Samile Amorim Dos Santos, Sergio Tufik, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos
This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min), and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day) and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min). All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal), before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise (post-exercise), and two hours after exercise...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650070/the-human-ventilatory-response-to-stress-rate-or-depth
#13
Michael J Tipton, Abbi Harper, Julian F R Paton, Joseph T Costello
Many stressors cause an increase in ventilation in humans. This is predominantly reported as an increase in minute ventilation (V̇E ). But, the same V̇E can be achieved by a wide variety of changes in the depth (tidal volume, VT ) and number of breaths (respiratory frequency, ƒR). This review investigates the impact of stressors including: cold, heat, hypoxia, pain and panic on the contributions of ƒR and VT to V̇E to see if they differ with different stressors. Where possible we also consider the potential mechanisms that underpin the responses identified, and propose mechanisms by which differences in ƒR and VT are mediated...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649714/exercise-during-short-term-exposure-to-hypoxia-or-hyperoxia-novel-treatment-strategies-for-type-2-diabetic-patients
#14
REVIEW
C Brinkmann, W Bloch, K Brixius
Both hypoxia (decreased oxygen availability) and hyperoxia (increased oxygen availability) have been shown to alter exercise adaptations in healthy subjects. This review aims to clarify the possible benefits of exercise during short-term exposure to hypoxia or hyperoxia for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is evidence that exercise during short-term exposure to hypoxia can acutely increase skeletal muscle glucose uptake more than exercise in normoxia, and that post-exercise insulin sensitivity in T2DM patients is more increased when exercise is performed under hypoxic conditions...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649204/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiological-responses-cognitive-function-and-exercise-performance-at-moderate-and-very-high-simulated-altitude
#15
Oliver M Shannon, Lauren Duckworth, Matthew J Barlow, Kevin Deighton, Jamie Matu, Emily L Williams, David Woods, Long Xie, Blossom C M Stephan, Mario Siervo, John P O'Hara
Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during acute altitude exposure, contributing toward the decline in physiological and cognitive function in this environment. This study evaluated the effects of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) supplementation on NO bioavailability, physiological and cognitive function, and exercise performance at moderate and very-high simulated altitude. Methods:Ten males (mean (SD): [Formula: see text]: 60.9 (10.1) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) rested and performed exercise twice at moderate (~14...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648907/sulfated-dehydropolymer-of-caffeic-acid-in-vitro-anti-lung-cell-death-activity-and-in-vivo-intervention-in-emphysema-induced-by-vegf-receptor-blockade
#16
Tien M Truong, Hua Li, Sneha Dhapare, Umesh R Desai, Nobert F Voelkel, Masahiro Sakagami
Induced lung cell death and impaired hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling are proposed as a pathobiologic mechanism for alveolar structural destruction and loss in emphysema. We hypothesized that our sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid, CDSO3, exerts anti-cell death activities and therapeutic interventions in emphysema by virtue of Fe(2+) chelation-based HIF-1α/VEGF stabilization and elevation. The Fe(2+) chelating activity was determined in the chromogenic ferrozine-Fe(2+) chelation inhibitory assay...
June 22, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646182/high-intensity-interval-training-improves-mitochondrial-function-and-suppresses-thrombin-generation-in-platelets-undergoing-hypoxic-stress
#17
Li-Hua Wu, Shao-Chiang Chang, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Ching-Hui Huang, Jong-Shyan Wang
This study elucidates how high-intensity interval training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) affect mitochondrial functionality and thrombin generation (TG) in platelets following hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min). Forty-five healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage either HIT (3-minute intervals at 40% and 80%VO2max, n = 15) or MCT (sustained 60%VO2max, n = 15) for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL, n = 15) that did not received exercise intervention...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641679/normobaric-hypoxia-and-submaximal-exercise-effects-on-running-memory-and-mood-state-in-women
#18
Yongsuk Seo, Hayden D Gerhart, Jon Stavres, Curtis Fennell, Shane Draper, Ellen L Glickman
BACKGROUND: An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. METHODS: There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626339/effects-of-2-week-intermittent-training-in-hypobaric-hypoxia-on-the-aerobic-energy-metabolism-and-performance-of-cycling-athletes-with-disabilities
#19
Sang-Hoon Kim, Ho-Jung An, Jung-Hyun Choi, Yong-Youn Kim
[Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level)...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611686/hypoxia-related-hormonal-appetite-modulation-in-humans-during-rest-and-exercise-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Tadej Debevec
Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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