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Hypoxia and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#1
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068681/hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-affect-serum-angiogenic-regulators-in-t2dm-men-during-cycling
#2
C Brinkmann, A Metten, P Scriba, C V M Tagarakis, P Wahl, J Latsch, K Brixius, W Bloch
Exercise-induced transient increases in pro-angiogenic regulators can promote angiogenesis.This pilot study aims to analyze the potential of exercise to positively affect angiogenic regulators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who often exhibit abnormal angiogenesis, under different environmental conditions. 9 overweight/obese men with uncomplicated T2DM (8 took anti-diabetic drugs) performed submaximal cycling for 40 min in normoxia (≈21 vol%O2), hypoxia (≈14 vol%O2) and during alternating hypoxia/hyperoxia (≈14 vol%O2/≈30 vol%O2, 5-min intervals) (3×3 crossover design)...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061925/hypoxia-occurrence-in-a-military-aviator-below-3048-m
#3
Lesli R Tristan
INTRODUCTION: Despite technological advances, hypoxia remains a concern in aviation. Hypoxia can present with a vast array of symptoms that are unique to each aviator. Military aviators undergo hypoxia awareness trainings to learn their unique constellation of hypoxia symptoms. CASE REPORT: This case report describes a military aviator who was flying in a B1 when the cabin depressurized. While performing the emergency checklist, the aviator was moving about the cabin and began to experience hypoxia symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039190/endurance-training-attenuates-the-increase-in-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-with-intermittent-hypoxia
#4
Amanda J Miller, Charity L Sauder, Aimee E Cauffman, Cheryl A Blaha, Urs A Leuenberger
Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 years) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent eight weeks of endurance training that included running four times/week at 80% predicted max heart rate and interval training, and 4 control subjects did not change activity...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038722/management-standards-for-stable-coronary-artery-disease-in-india
#5
Sundeep Mishra, Saumitra Ray, Jamshed J Dalal, J P S Sawhney, S Ramakrishnan, Tiny Nair, S S Iyengar, V K Bahl
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality globally, giving rise to more than 7 million deaths annually. An increasing burden of CAD in India is a major cause of concern with angina being the leading manifestation. Stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) is characterised by episodes of transient central chest pain (angina pectoris), often triggered by exercise, emotion or other forms of stress, generally triggered by a reversible mismatch between myocardial oxygen demand and supply resulting in myocardial ischemia or hypoxia...
December 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035013/alterations-to-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-use-in-skeletal-muscle-after-chronic-exposure-to-hypoxia-depend-on-metabolic-phenotype
#6
Alexandra Malgoyre, Clovis Chabert, Julia Tonini, Nathalie Koulmann, Xavier Bigard, Hervé Sanchez
We investigated the effects of chronic hypoxia on the maximal use of and sensitivity of mitochondrial to different substrates in rat slow-oxidative (soleus, SOL) and fast-glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) muscles. We studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in permeabilized myofibers, using pyruvate, octanoate, palmitoyl-carnitine (PC) or palmitoyl-coenzyme A (PCoA). The hypophagia induced by hypoxia may also alter metabolism. We therefore used a group of pair-fed rats (reproducing the same caloric restriction as observed in hypoxic animals) in addition to the normoxic control fed ad libitum...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032333/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-blockade-on-post-exercise-brachial-artery-flow-mediated-dilatation-at-sea-level-and-high-altitude
#7
Michael M Tymko, Joshua C Tremblay, Alex B Hansen, Connor A Howe, Chris K Willie, Mike Stembridge, Daniel J Green, Ryan L Hoiland, Prajan Subedi, James D Anholm, Philip N Ainslie
KEY POINTS: Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α1 -adrenergic blockade. Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise. At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α1 -adrenergic blockade...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025662/the-effect-of-a-live-high-train-high-exercise-regimen-on-behavioural-temperature-regulation
#8
Shawnda A Morrison, Urša Ciuha, Daniela Zavec-Pavlinić, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
PURPOSE: Acute hypoxia alters the threshold for sensation of cutaneous thermal stimuli. We hypothesised that hypoxia-induced alterations in cutaneous temperature sensation may lead to modulation of the perception of temperature, ultimately influencing behavioural thermoregulation and that the magnitude of this effect could be influenced by daily physical training. METHODS: Fourteen men were confined 10 days to a normobaric hypoxic environment (PIO2 = 88.2 ± 0...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009532/feed-forward-regulation-of-self-selected-exercise-intensity-in-response-to-different-rates-of-arterial-deoxygenation
#9
Saro D Farra
Arterial desaturation impairs exercise performance in a dose-dependent manner. However, new theories of exercise-induced fatigue suggest that increasing rates of arterial deoxygenation augment the fatigue response during exercise. The purpose of this dissertation is to clarify if self-selected exercise intensity, while exercising at a constant rate of perceived exertion (RPE), is sensitive to alterations in the absolute arterial saturation (SPO2) and/or the rate of change in SPO2. Subjects performed constant RPE exercise for 30 min...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006436/professor-bengt-saltin-symposium-environmental-challenges-to-human-performance
#10
Philip N Ainslie
This short review is from a presentation made at the Bengt Saltin Symposium, October 15-17, at the 2015 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology conference, Hamilton, Canada. The review provides context of the important work of the late Dr. Saltin's contributions to environmental physiology. In addition to well-controlled laboratory experiments to better understand the influence of hypoxia or temperature, or both, Dr. Saltin also led several field expeditions to the North Greenland, Kenya, Himalayas, and the Andes, where he studied several aspects of human adaptation to environment...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994554/effect-of-environmental-and-feedback-interventions-on-pacing-profiles-in-cycling-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Michael J Davies, Bradley Clark, Marijke Welvaert, Sabrina Skorski, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Philo Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
In search of their optimal performance athletes will alter their pacing strategy according to intrinsic and extrinsic physiological, psychological and environmental factors. However, the effect of some of these variables on pacing and exercise performance remains somewhat unclear. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an overview as to how manipulation of different extrinsic factors affects pacing strategy and exercise performance. Only self-paced exercise studies that provided control and intervention group(s), reported trial variance for power output, disclosed the type of feedback received or withheld, and where time-trial power output data could be segmented into start, middle and end sections; were included in the meta-analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932989/hypoxic-living-and-exercise-training-alter-adipose-tissue-leptin-leptin-receptor-in-rats
#12
Yingli Lu, Lianshi Feng, Minhao Xie, Li Zhang, Jianfang Xu, Zihong He, Tongjian You
Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913427/intermittent-hypoxia-during-recovery-from-neonatal-hyperoxic-lung-injury-causes-long-term-impairment-of-alveolar-development-a-new-rat-model-of-bpd
#13
Anastasiya Mankouski, Crystal Kantores, Mathew J Wong, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Eric J Benner, Stanley N Mason, A Keith Tanswell, Richard L Auten, Robert P Jankov
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung injury characterized by impaired alveologenesis that may persist into adulthood. Rat models of BPD using varying degrees of hyperoxia to produce injury either cause early mortality or spontaneously recover following removal of the inciting stimulus, thus limiting clinical relevance. We sought to refine an established rat model induced by exposure to 60% O2 from birth by following hyperoxia with intermittent hypoxia (IH). Rats exposed from birth to air or 60% O2 until day 14 were recovered in air with or without IH (FiO2 = 0...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#14
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#15
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881556/nitrite-and-s-nitrosohemoglobin-exchange-across-the-human-cerebral-and-femoral-circulation-relationship-to-basal-and-exercise-blood-flow-responses-to-hypoxia
#16
Damian M Bailey, Peter Rasmussen, Morten Overgaard, Kevin A Evans, Aske M Bohm, Thomas Seifert, Patrice Brassard, Morten Zaar, Henning B Nielsen, Peter Raven, Niels H Secher
BACKGROUND: -The mechanisms underlying red blood cell (RBC)-mediated hypoxic vasodilation remain controversial with separate roles for nitrite (NO2(-)) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) widely contested given their ability to transduce nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity within the microcirculation. To establish their relative contribution in vivo, we quantified arterial-venous (a-v) concentration gradients across the human cerebral and femoral circulation at rest and during exercise, an ideal model system characterized by physiological extremes of O2 tension and blood flow...
November 15, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875543/irisin-ameliorates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-injury-through-modulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4
#17
Yu Tina Zhao, Hao Wang, Shouyan Zhang, Jianfeng Du, Shougang Zhuang, Ting C Zhao
Irisin is a recently identified myokine which brings increases in energy expenditure and contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise through the browning of white adipose tissues. However, its effects in the heart remains unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of irisin on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and its relationship with HDAC4. Wild type and stable HDAC4-overexpression cells were generated from H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. HDAC4 overexpression cells and wild type H9c2 cells were exposed to 24 hours of hypoxia followed by one hour of reoxygenation in vitro in the presence or absence of irisin (5 ng/ml)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864638/effects-of-caffeine-on-neuromuscular-fatigue-and-performance-during-high-intensity-cycling%C3%A2-exercise-in-moderate-hypoxia
#18
Bruno P C Smirmaul, Antonio Carlos de Moraes, Luca Angius, Samuele M Marcora
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of caffeine on performance, neuromuscular fatigue and perception of effort during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. METHODS: Seven adult male participants firstly underwent an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer in conditions of acute normobaric hypoxia (fraction inspired oxygen = 0.15) to establish peak power output (PPO). In the following two visits, they performed a time to exhaustion test (78 ± 3% PPO) in the same hypoxic conditions after caffeine ingestion (4 mg kg(-1)) and one after placebo ingestion in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861273/thermodilution-determined-internal-jugular-venous-flow
#19
Peter Rasmussen, Mario Widmer, Matthias P Hilty, Mike Hug, Henrik Sørensen, Shigehiko Ogoh, Kohei Sato, Niels H Secher, Marco Maggiorini, Carsten Lundby
PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases ~20% during whole body exercise although a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF is reported to remain stable; a discrepancy that could reflect evaluation of arterial vs. internal jugular venous (IJV) flow and/or that CBF is influenced by posture. Here we test the hypothesis that IJV flow, as determined by retrograde thermodilution increases during exercise when body position is maintained. METHODS: Introducing retrograde thermodilution, IJV flow was measured in 8 healthy humans at supine and upright rest and during exercise in normoxia and hypoxia with results compared to changes in ultrasound-derived IJV flow and middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean)...
November 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854133/focusing-on-developmental-origins-and-disease-inception-for-the-prevention-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Bradley A Maron, Steven H Abman
Despite the growing armamentarium of therapies, pulmonary vascular disease continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonates, children and adults in diverse clinical settings. To address this challenge, a strategic shift is underway that emphasizes disease recognition prior to the onset of clinical signs and symptoms when substantial pulmonary vascular remodeling is already present. Specifically, there is growing interest regarding the i) molecular events that define pulmonary vascular disease inception, ii) range of early cardiopulmonary hemodynamic measures that are associated with adverse outcome, and iii) widening utility of exercise for risk-stratification...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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