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Hypoxia and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926865/effects-of-hypoxia-during-continuous-and-intermittent-exercise-on-glycaemic-control-and-selected-markers-of-vascular-function-in-type-1-diabetes
#1
Barbara Hall, Aleksandra Zebrowska, Tomasz Kaminski, Arkadiusz Stanula, Anna Robins
Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent exercise in hypoxia on glycaemic control and selected markers of vascular function in patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods 12 patients suffering from T1D for 12.1±6.0 years and 12 healthy adults performed: continuous exercise (ExC) and intermittent exercise (ExInt) in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO₂=15.1%). Glycaemia and proangiogenic factors concentrations were measured at rest and immediately after exercise. Results T1D patients' glycaemia decreased in response to ExC (p<0...
September 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923139/cerebral-hemodynamics-and-executive-function-during-exercise-and-recovery-in-normobaric-hypoxia
#2
Jon Stavres, Hayden D Gerhart, Jung-Hyun Kim, Ellen L Glickman, Yongsuk Seo
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia and exercise each exhibit opposing effects on executive function, and the mechanisms for this are not entirely clear. This study examined the influence of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia (NH) and normoxia (N). METHODS: There were 18 subjects who completed cycling trials in NH (12.5% FIo2) and N (20.93% FIo2). Right prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAbv) were collected during executive function challenges [mathematical processing and running memory continuous performance task (RMCPT)] at baseline, following 30 min of acclimation, during 20 min of cycling (60% Vo2max), and at 1, 15, 30, and 45 min following exercise...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914359/changes-in-acid-base-and-ion-balance-during-exercise-in-normoxia-and-normobaric-hypoxia
#3
Olaf Lühker, Marc Moritz Berger, Alexander Pohlmann, Lorenz Hotz, Tilmann Gruhlke, Marcel Hochreiter
PURPOSE: Both exercise and hypoxia cause complex changes in acid-base homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether during intense physical exercise in normoxia and hypoxia, the modified physicochemical approach offers a better understanding of the changes in acid-base homeostasis than the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 19 healthy males completed an exercise test until voluntary fatigue on a bicycle ergometer on two different study days, once during normoxia and once during normobaric hypoxia (12% oxygen, equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m)...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862384/atrial-septostomy-with-a-predefined-diameter-using-a-novel-occlutech-atrial-flow-regulator-improves-symptoms-and-cardiac-index-in-patients-with-severe-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Ramasamy Rajeshkumar, Sreeja Pavithran, Kothandam Sivakumar, Joseph J Vettukattil
OBJECTIVES: A novel Occlutech atrial flow regulator (AFR) implantation gives an atrial septal predefined predictable fenestration. BACKGROUND: Atrial septostomy relieves syncope in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by improving left heart filling, cardiac output and systemic oxygen transport despite hypoxia. Symptoms recur when small fenestrations close spontaneously. METHODS: AFR was implanted after informed consent in patients with severe PAH presenting with syncope and right heart failure...
September 1, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859408/fuel-use-in-mammals-conserved-patterns-and-evolved-strategies-for-aerobic-locomotion-and-thermogenesis
#5
Grant B McClelland, Sulayman A Lyons, Cayleih E Robertson
Effective aerobic locomotion depends on adequate delivery of oxygen and an appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. The use of metabolic substrates during exercise follows a predictive pattern of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation that is similar in lowland native cursorial mammals. We have found that in two highland lineages of mice (Phyllotis and Peromyscus) the fuel use pattern is shifted to a greater reliance on carbohydrates compared to their lowland conspecifics and congenerics. However, there is variation between lineages in the importance of phenotypic plasticity in the expression of this metabolic phenotype...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859401/do-bar-headed-geese-train-for-high-altitude-flights
#6
Lucy A Hawkes, Nyambayar Batbayar, Patrick J Butler, Beverley Chua, Peter B Frappell, Jessica U Meir, William K Milsom, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Nicole Parr, Graham R Scott, John Y Takekawa, Martin WikeIski, Matthew J Witt, Charles M Bishop
Exercise at high altitude is extremely challenging, largely due to hypobaric hypoxia (low oxygen levels brought about by low air pressure). In humans, the maximal rate of oxygen consumption decreases with increasing altitude, supporting progressively poorer performance. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) are renowned high altitude migrants and, although they appear to minimize altitude during migration where possible, they must fly over the Tibetan Plateau (mean altitude 4800 m) for much of their annual migration...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857147/safety-and-ergogenic-properties-of-combined-aminophylline-and-ambrisentan-in-hypoxia
#7
Thies Schroeder, Claude A Piantadosi, Michael J Natoli, Julie Autmizguine, Michael Cohen-Wolkowieczs, Karyn L Hamilton, Christopher Bell, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, David C Irwin, Robert J Noveck
We hypothesized that concomitant pharmacological inhibition of the endothelin and adenosine pathway is safe and improves exercise performance in hypoxic humans, via a mechanism that does not involve augmentation of blood oxygenation. To test this hypothesis, we established safety and drug interactions for aminophylline (500mg) plus ambrisentan (5mg) in normoxic volunteers. Subsequently, a placebo-controlled study was employed to test the combination in healthy resting and exercising volunteers at simulated altitude (4,267m)...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855602/cognitive-function-during-exercise-under-severe-hypoxia
#8
Takaaki Komiyama, Keisho Katayama, Mizuki Sudo, Koji Ishida, Yasuki Higaki, Soichi Ando
Acute exercise has been demonstrated to improve cognitive function. In contrast, severe hypoxia can impair cognitive function. Hence, cognitive function during exercise under severe hypoxia may be determined by the balance between the beneficial effects of exercise and the detrimental effects of severe hypoxia. However, the physiological factors that determine cognitive function during exercise under hypoxia remain unclear. Here, we examined the combined effects of acute exercise and severe hypoxia on cognitive function and identified physiological factors that determine cognitive function during exercise under severe hypoxia...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852828/exercise-related-sensations-contribute-to-decrease-power-during-repeated-cycle-sprints-with-limited-influence-on-neural-drive
#9
Olivier Girard, François Billaut, Ryan J Christian, Paul S Bradley, David J Bishop
PURPOSES: We manipulated the inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) to examine the effects of physiological perturbations on exercise-related sensations and the neural drive of the quadriceps during repeated, brief, maximal cycle sprints. METHODS: Nine active males completed a repeated sprint cycle protocol (10 × 4-s maximal sprints with 30 s of passive recovery) in normoxia (NM; FiO2 0.21) and severe normobaric hypoxia (HY; FiO2 0.13). Peak power, quadriceps Root Mean Squared electromyography (RMS EMG), physiological (heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual responses were recorded...
August 29, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846046/the-use-of-simulated-altitude-techniques-for-beneficial-cardiovascular-health-outcomes-in-nonathletic-sedentary-and-clinical-populations-a-literature-review
#10
Catherine A Lizamore, Michael J Hamlin
Lizamore, Catherine A., and Michael J. Hamlin. The use of simulated altitude techniques for beneficial cardiovascular health outcomes in nonathletic, sedentary, and clinical populations: A literature review. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017. BACKGROUND: The reportedly beneficial improvements in an athlete's physical performance following altitude training may have merit for individuals struggling to meet physical activity guidelines. AIM: To review the effectiveness of simulated altitude training methodologies at improving cardiovascular health in sedentary and clinical cohorts...
August 28, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843676/ventilatory-response-to-carbon-monoxide-during-exercise-in-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia
#11
George H Crocker, Jenny Kwon, Philip H Kass, James H Jones
We tested if the addition of CO to inspired gases with different inspired O2 and CO2 fractions (FIO2 and FICO2) stimulates ventilation at rest or during submaximal exercise. We measured minute ventilation (VE) in goats breathing combinations of FIO2 ranging from 0.21 to 0.06 and FICO2 from 0 to 0.05, both with and without inspired CO resulting in carboxyhemoglobin fractions (FHbCO) of 0.02 (no CO added), 0.15, or 0.45. We did this while they stood on a treadmill, walked at 1.4, or trotted at 2.5ms(-1). Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and exercise, alone and in combination, increased ventilation compared to breathing air at rest...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819305/cardiorespiratory-pathogenesis-of-sickle-cell-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Jun Ren, Xiuqing Ding, Marie Trudel, John J Greer, Joanna E MacLean
The nature and development of cardiorespiratory impairments associated with sickle cell disease are poorly understood. Given that the mechanisms of these impairments cannot be addressed adequately in clinical studies, we characterized cardiorespiratory pathophysiology from birth to maturity in the sickle cell disease SAD mouse model. We identified two critical phases of respiratory dysfunction in SAD mice; the first prior to weaning and the second in adulthood. At postnatal day 3, 43% of SAD mice showed marked apneas, anemia, and pulmonary vascular congestion typical of acute chest syndrome; none of these mice survived to maturity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819003/skeletal-muscle-signaling-metabolism-and-performance-during-sprint-exercise-in-severe-acute-hypoxia-after-the-ingestion-of-antioxidants
#13
David Morales-Alamo, Borja Guerra, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Alfredo Santana, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Roser Cussó, Cecilia Dorado, Jose A L Calbet
The aim of this study was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) could play a role in blunting Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after sprint exercise in hypoxia and to elucidate the potential signaling mechanisms responsible for this response. Nine volunteers performed a single 30s sprint (Wingate test) in two occasions while breathing hypoxic gas (PIO2=75 mmHg): one after the ingestion of placebo (P) and another following the intake of antioxidants (A) (α-lipoic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E), with a randomized double-blind design...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818999/short-term-arrival-strategies-for-endurance-exercise-performance-at-moderate-altitude
#14
Joshua L Foss, Keren Constantini, Timothy D Mickleborough, Robert F Chapman
For sea level-based endurance athletes who compete at moderate and high altitudes, many are not logistically able to arrive at altitude weeks prior to the event to fully acclimatize. For those who can only arrive at altitude the night before competition, we asked if there is a physiological and performance advantage in reducing altitude exposure time to two hours prior to competition. On three separate visits, ten cyclists completed overnight laboratory exposures of: 1) a 14-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (16...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811274/hypoxia-in-combination-with-muscle-contraction-improves-insulin-action-and-glucose-metabolism-in-human-skeletal-muscle-via-the-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway
#15
Sven W Görgens, Tim Benninghoff, Kristin Eckardt, Christian Springer, Alexandra Chadt, Anita Melior, Jakob Wefers, Andrea Cramer, Jørgen Jensen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon, Hadi Al-Hasani, Jürgen Eckel
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes, and develops long before the onset of the disease. It is well accepted that physical activity improves glycemic control but the knowledge on underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects remains incomplete. Exercise is accompanied by a decrease in intramuscular oxygen levels resulting in induction of HIF-1α. HIF-1α is a master regulator of gene expression and might play an important role in skeletal muscle function and metabolism...
August 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798202/aerobic-exercise-elevates-markers-of-angiogenesis-and-macrophage-il6-gene-expression-in-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-overweight-to-obese-adults
#16
Douglas W Van Pelt, Lisa M Guth, Jeffrey F Horowitz
Alterations in the inflammatory state, metabolic function, and structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) can impact the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Exercise can improve metabolic health in obesity, but the effects of exercise on SAT are not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute exercise and habitual exercise training on mRNA expression of markers of lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, and hypoxia/angiogenesis in SAT, as well as adipocyte cell size...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782598/physiological-and-performance-effects-of-nitrate-supplementation-during-roller-skiing-in-normoxia-and-normobaric-hypoxia
#17
Linn Nybäck, Caroline Glännerud, Gustav Larsson, Eddie Weitzberg, Oliver Michael Shannon, Kerry McGawley
The present study examined the effects of acute nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation ingested in the form of concentrated beetroot juice on cross-country roller-ski performance in normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H). Eight competitive cross-country skiers (five males: age 22 ± 3 years, V·O2max 71.5 ± 4.7 mL kg(-1)·min(-1); three females: age 21 ± 1 years, V·O2max 58.4 ± 2.5 mL kg(-1)·min(-1)) were supplemented with a single dose of NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (BRJ, ∼13 mmol NO3(-)) or a NO3(-)-depleted placebo (PL, ∼0 mmol NO3(-)) and performed 2 x 6-min submaximal exercise bouts and a 1000-m time-trial (TT) on a treadmill in N (20...
August 4, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775065/effect-of-hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-on-exercise-performance-in-healthy-individuals-and-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-a-systematic-review
#18
Silvia Ulrich, Simon Raphael Schneider, Konrad E Bloch
Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763443/intermittent-hypoxic-training-improves-anaerobic-performance-in-competitive-swimmers-when-implemented-into-a-direct-competition-mesocycle
#19
Miłosz Czuba, Robert Wilk, Jakub Karpiński, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk, Adam Zajac, Józef Langfort
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on anaerobic and aerobic capacity and swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. Sixteen male swimmers were randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n = 8), which trained in a normobaric hypoxia environment, and a control (C) group (n = 8), which exercised under normoxic conditions. However, one participant left the study without explanation. During the experiment group H trained on land twice per week in simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 15...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762914/-adaptation-to-intermittent-hypoxia-hyperoxia-in-the-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-exercise-tolerance-and-quality-of-life
#20
A L Syrkin, O S Glazachev, F Y Kopylov, E N Dudnik, E E Zagaynaya, D S Tuter
AIM: to assess effect of interval hypoxic-hyperoxic training (IT) on exercise tolerance and quality of life of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) receiving optimal medical therapy, as well as the safety of IHHT use. METHODS: Patients with stable IHD with functional class II and III angina (n=46) were randomized into two groups: IHHT (n=27, 15 treatments in 3 weeks), and IHHT imitation (n=19). Cardiopulmonary stress test was performed to evaluate the following parameters of exercise tolerance: peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak, VO2peak/kg), % of predicted peak oxygen consumption (%VO2 peak) and anaerobic threshold (VO2AT)...
May 2017: Kardiologiia
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