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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538413/functional-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-different-forms-of-dementia
#2
Gerd Wallukat, Harald Prüss, Johannes Müller, Ingolf Schimke
Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease in particular is increasingly seen in association with autoimmunity being causatively or supportively involved in the pathogenesis. Besides classic autoantibodies (AABs) present in dementia patients, there is the new autoantibody class called functional autoantibodies, which is directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs; GPCR-AABs) and are seen as pathogenic players. However, less is known about dementia patients' burden with functional autoantibodies. We present here for the first time a study analyzing the prevalence of GPCR-AABs in patients with different dementia forms such as unclassified, Lewy body, vascular and Alzheimer's dementia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382141/zinc-carnosine-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Masahiro Kawahara, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Midori Kato-Negishi
Zinc (Zn) is abundantly present in the brain, and accumulates in the synaptic vesicles. Synaptic Zn is released with neuronal excitation, and plays essential roles in learning and memory. Increasing evidence suggests that the disruption of Zn homeostasis is involved in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, a vascular type of dementia, and prion diseases. Our and other numerous studies suggest that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) is protective against these neurodegenerative diseases...
January 29, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337447/-geriatric-medicine
#4
Gabriel Gold, Christophe Büla, Pierre Olivier Lang, Philippe Chassagne
2017 highlights benefits of prevention. Better control of cardiovascular risk reduces the incidence of dementia and monthly high-dose vitamin D the incidence of respiratory infections in nursing home. Pre-operative geriatric assessment lowers by 20% the rate of delirium after hip-fracture surgery and complications in vascular surgery. Deleterious effects are also reported. High-dose vitamin D triples the rate of falls in supplemented residents and doesn't improve gait speed in sedentary men. Widely used in cardiovascular prevention, antithrombotic therapy is associated with an astonishing risk of subdural bleeding that further increases with the number of drugs combined together...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317227/prolonged-exposure-to-1-25-oh-2-d-3-and-high-ionized-calcium-induces-fgf-23-production-in-intestinal-epithelium-like-caco-2-monolayer-a-local-negative-feedback-for-preventing-excessive-calcium-transport
#5
Mayuree Rodrat, Kannikar Wongdee, Nattapon Panupinthu, Jirawan Thongbunchoo, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Overdose of oral calcium supplement and excessive intestinal calcium absorption can contribute pathophysiological conditions, e.g., nephrolithiasis, vascular calcification, dementia, and cardiovascular accident. Since our previous investigation has indicated that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 could abolish the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ]-enhanced calcium absorption, we further hypothesized that FGF-23 produced locally in the enterocytes might be part of a local negative feedback loop to regulate calcium absorption...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#6
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
February 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183836/an-update-on-vinpocetine-new-discoveries-and-clinical-implications
#7
REVIEW
Yi-Shuai Zhang, Jian-Dong Li, Chen Yan
Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been clinically used in many countries for treatment of cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke and dementia for more than 30 years. Currently, vinpocetine is also available in the market as a dietary supplement to enhance cognition and memory. Due to its excellent safety profile, increasing efforts have been put into exploring the novel therapeutic effects and mechanism of actions of vinpocetine in various cell types and disease models. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel functions of vinpocetine, including anti-inflammation, antagonizing injury-induced vascular remodeling and high-fat-diet-induced atherosclerosis, as well as attenuating pathological cardiac remodeling...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171642/dietary-supplements-for-cognitive-impairment
#8
Javier Olivera-Pueyo, Carmelo Pelegrín-Valero
Alzheimer disease and the other neurodegenerative dementias as yet have no curative treatment. For this reason, the prevention of these conditions and non-pharmacological treatments are important fields of research at present. The Mediterranean diet (rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, and olive oil, with regular fish consumption and low consumption of dairy products and meats) has been shown to reduce the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and, probably, the conversion of MCI to dementia. Vitamins, especially vitamin E and the vitamins of the B group, have also been associated with the prevention of cognitive impairment due to their antioxidant effects...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169581/vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-executive-function-a-decade-later-data-from-the-women-s-healthy-ageing-project
#9
Alicia M Goodwill, Stephen Campbell, Steven Simpson, Maria Bisignano, Cherie Chiang, Lorraine Dennerstein, Cassandra Szoeke
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing whether this association manifests from midlife. Given the long prodromal stage of dementia, we investigated the association between midlife vitamin D and cognition 10 years later. STUDY DESIGN: 252 participants (aged 55-67 years) from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project had baseline (2002) vitamin D and neuropsychological measures assessed...
January 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989574/protection-of-the-brain-through-supplementation-with-larch-arabinogalactan-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#10
Sun Ha Lim, Jongwon Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular dementia (VaD) caused by reduced blood supply to the brain manifests as white matter lesions accompanying demyelination and glial activation. We previously showed that arabinoxylan consisting of arabinose and xylose, and arabinose itself attenuated white matter injury in a rat model of VaD. Here, we investigated whether larch arabinogalactan (LAG) consisting of arabinose and galactose could also reduce white matter injury. MATERIALS/METHODS: We used a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), in which the bilateral common carotid arteries were exposed and ligated permanently with silk sutures...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936936/-treatment-of-dementia
#11
K Blom, G A H van den Elsen, H L Koek, J B Sanders, H C Kruithof, J A H R Claassen
- Treatment options for patients with dementia are limited. This article provides an overview of possible interventions, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical, for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia.- Pharmaceutical treatment options include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and experimental medication. Cholinesterase inhibitors are only recommended for Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia, not for vascular dementia or mild cognitive impairment. There is no proof of effectiveness for the other pharmaceutical options...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488208/erythropoietin-rescues-memory-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-the-epo-r-jak2-stat5-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway
#12
Shengli Ma, Juwu Chen, Chen Chen, Na Wei, Jingjing Xu, Guohui Yang, Nan Wang, Yu Meng, Jia Ren, Zongchao Xu
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia in older people and is characterized by the sudden onset of impairments in thinking skills and behavior, which generally occur following a stroke. Unfortunately, effective therapy for vascular dementia remains inadequate. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. Recently, a prominent role for EPO has been defined in the nervous system, and there is growing interest in the potential therapeutic use of EPO for neuroprotection...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303161/a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies-examining-nutritional-and-herbal-therapies-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-neuroimaging-methods-study-characteristics-and-intervention-efficacy
#13
REVIEW
Genevieve Z Steiner, Danielle C Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A Camfield, Nerida L Klupp, Sai W Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254515/hereditary-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Christian Baastrup Søndergaard, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Christine Krarup Hansen, Hanne Christensen
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105501/-diagnostics-and-multimodal-treatment-of-depression-in-old-age-new-developments
#15
REVIEW
Gerhard W Eschweiler
Depressive disorders in elderly persons are frequent and can either first be manifested at a younger age and show a recurrent pattern during later life (ICD 10, F33.*) or have an onset beyond 60 years, which is termed late onset depression (LOD). This LOD has a higher tendency to chronification and implies an increased risk of progression, especially to vascular dementia. The multifactorial genesis of depression in old age includes psychosocial, vascular and metabolic factors and requires multimodal therapy modules at the biological and psychosocial level, which is now increasingly being empirically proven...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#16
REVIEW
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687251/fully-automated-structural-mri-of-the-brain-in-clinical-dementia-workup
#17
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
Background The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. Purpose To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. Material and Methods NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
June 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598537/lesion-topography-and-microscopic-white-matter-tract-damage-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-symptomatic-carotid-artery-disease
#18
Dewen Meng, Akram A Hosseini, Richard J Simpson, Quratulain Shaikh, Christopher R Tench, Robert A Dineen, Dorothee P Auer
Purpose To investigate associations between neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascular disease, including lesion topography and extent and severity of strategic and global cerebral tissue injury, and cognition in carotid artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods All participants gave written informed consent to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised. One hundred eight patients with symptomatic CAD but no dementia were included, and a score less than 82 represented cognitive impairment...
February 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534711/calcium-supplementation-and-risk-of-dementia-in-women-with-cerebrovascular-disease
#19
Jürgen Kern, Silke Kern, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Margda Waern, Xinxin Guo, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Ingmar Skoog, Svante Östling
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether calcium supplementation is associated with the development of dementia in women after a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: This was a longitudinal population-based study. The sample was derived from the Prospective Population Study of Women and H70 Birth Cohort Study in Gothenburg, Sweden, and included 700 dementia-free women aged 70-92 years. At baseline in 2000-2001, and at follow-up in 2005-2006, the women underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric and somatic examinations...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782037/detection-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-3-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-in-a-patient-with-subcortical-ischaemic-vascular-dementia
#20
Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Yuichiro Ii, Hidenao Fukuyama, Masayuki Maeda, Hidekazu Tomimoto
The patient was an 81-year-old man who had been treated for hypertension for several decades. In 2012, he developed gait disturbance and mild amnesia. One year later, his gait disturbance worsened, and he developed urinary incontinence. Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging using T 2 -weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery showed multiple lacunar infarctions. These findings fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. However, susceptibility weighted imaging showed multiple lobar microbleeds in the bilateral occipitoparietal lobes, and double inversion recovery and 3-D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical microinfarctions in the left parietal-temporo-occipito region...
January 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
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