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Dementia supplement vascular

Genevieve Z Steiner, Danielle C Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A Camfield, Nerida L Klupp, Sai W Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Christian Baastrup Søndergaard, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Christine Krarup Hansen, Hanne Christensen
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Gerhard W Eschweiler
Depressive disorders in elderly persons are frequent and can either first be manifested at a younger age and show a recurrent pattern during later life (ICD 10, F33.*) or have an onset beyond 60 years, which is termed late onset depression (LOD). This LOD has a higher tendency to chronification and implies an increased risk of progression, especially to vascular dementia. The multifactorial genesis of depression in old age includes psychosocial, vascular and metabolic factors and requires multimodal therapy modules at the biological and psychosocial level, which is now increasingly being empirically proven...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
Background The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. Purpose To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. Material and Methods NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
January 1, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Dewen Meng, Akram A Hosseini, Richard J Simpson, Quratulain Shaikh, Christopher R Tench, Robert A Dineen, Dorothee P Auer
Purpose To investigate associations between neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascular disease, including lesion topography and extent and severity of strategic and global cerebral tissue injury, and cognition in carotid artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods All participants gave written informed consent to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised. One hundred eight patients with symptomatic CAD but no dementia were included, and a score less than 82 represented cognitive impairment...
February 2017: Radiology
Jürgen Kern, Silke Kern, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Margda Waern, Xinxin Guo, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Ingmar Skoog, Svante Östling
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether calcium supplementation is associated with the development of dementia in women after a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: This was a longitudinal population-based study. The sample was derived from the Prospective Population Study of Women and H70 Birth Cohort Study in Gothenburg, Sweden, and included 700 dementia-free women aged 70-92 years. At baseline in 2000-2001, and at follow-up in 2005-2006, the women underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric and somatic examinations...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Yuichiro Ii, Hidenao Fukuyama, Masayuki Maeda, Hidekazu Tomimoto
The patient was an 81-year-old man who had been treated for hypertension for several decades. In 2012, he developed gait disturbance and mild amnesia. One year later, his gait disturbance worsened, and he developed urinary incontinence. Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging using T 2 -weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery showed multiple lacunar infarctions. These findings fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. However, susceptibility weighted imaging showed multiple lobar microbleeds in the bilateral occipitoparietal lobes, and double inversion recovery and 3-D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical microinfarctions in the left parietal-temporo-occipito region...
January 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Atticus H Hainsworth, Natalie E Yeo, Erica M Weekman, Donna M Wilcock
Homocysteine is produced physiologically in all cells, and is present in plasma of healthy individuals (plasma [HCy]: 3-10μM). While rare genetic mutations (CBS, MTHFR) cause severe hyperhomocysteinemia ([HCy]: 100-200μM), mild-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia ([HCy]: 10-100μM) is common in older people, and is an independent risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. As B-vitamin supplementation (B6, B12 and folate) has well-validated homocysteine-lowering efficacy, this may be a readily-modifiable risk factor in vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID)...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
Age-associated cognitive decline and dementia are conditions in which there is deterioration in memory, thinking, and behavior, with profound effects on the ability to perform everyday activities and well-being. Even if dementia mainly affects older persons, it is not a normal part of aging. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60-75% of dementia cases. The number of persons affected will increase in the next decades in parallel with aging of the world population. Hence, unless some approach is found to reduce age-related deterioration of cognitive functions, health care costs will continue to rise exponentially...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Pooja Naik, Luca Cucullo
Tobacco smoke (TS) is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. In addition to a host of well characterized diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oral and peripheral cancers and cardiovascular complications, epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic smokers are at equal risk to develop neurological and neurovascular complications such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, vascular dementia and small vessel ischemic disease (SVID). Unfortunately, few direct neurotoxicology studies of tobacco smoking and its pathogenic pathways have been produced so far...
October 31, 2015: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Huagang Li, Jing Wang, Pu Wang, Yan Rao, Liping Chen
BACKGROUND: Dementia is the most prevalent neurological disease in aged people. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is one of the causes of vascular dementia (VaD) and is also an etiological factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, effective therapy for those two diseases is still missing. Resveratrol is a polyphenol produced by plants that have multiple biological functions, such as increased life span and delay in the onset of diseases associated with aging. It is known supplement with resveratrol could exert neuroprotection against multiple injury factors induced neuronal death and degeneration, as well as the cognitive decline of CCH rat model...
January 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Joshua W Miller, Danielle J Harvey, Laurel A Beckett, Ralph Green, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Bruce R Reed, John M Olichney, Dan M Mungas, Charles DeCarli
IMPORTANCE: Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is associated with brain structural abnormalities, cognitive decline, and incident dementia. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between VitD status and trajectories of change in subdomains of cognitive function in a cohort of ethnically diverse older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal multiethnic cohort study of 382 participants in an outpatient clinic enrolled between February 2002 and August 2010 with baseline assessment and yearly follow-up visits...
November 2015: JAMA Neurology
C P Hutton, N Déry, E Rosa, J A Lemon, C D Rollo, D R Boreham, M Fahnestock, D deCatanzaro, J M Wojtowicz, S Becker
Severe chronic stress can have a profoundly negative impact on the brain, affecting plasticity, neurogenesis, memory and mood. On the other hand, there are factors that upregulate neurogenesis, which include dietary antioxidants and physical activity. These factors are associated with biochemical processes that are also altered in age-related cognitive decline and dementia, such as neurotrophin expression, oxidative stress and inflammation. We exposed mice to an unpredictable series of stressors or left them undisturbed (controls)...
November 12, 2015: Neuroscience
P K Kamat, J C Vacek, A Kalani, N Tyagi
A high serum level of homocysteine, known as hyperhomocystenemia (HHcy) is associated with vascular dysfunction such as altered angiogenesis and increased membrane permeability. Epidemiological studies have found associations between HHcy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression that eventually leads to vascular dementia (VaD). VaD is the second most common cause of dementia in people older than 65, the first being AD. VaD affects the quality of life for those suffering by drastically decreasing their cognitive function...
2015: Open Neurology Journal
Aaron Ritter, Jagan A Pillai
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is used to describe the entire spectrum of cognitive dysfunction-ranging from mild impairment to dementia-attributable to all forms of cerebrovascular disease. Accurate assessment and management of vascular risk factors are a top priority in the treatment of VCI, particularly early in the disease when prevention strategies may prove to be more effective. There are limited treatment options to improve cognition and function in VCI...
August 2015: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Helmut M Hügel
Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Buster Mannheimer, Ove Törring, David Nathanson
Intoxication with vitamin D may lead to severe hypercalcemia, renal failure and occasionally to death. An increasing amount of vitamin D supplement is sold over-the-counter (OTC) or over the internet. Here we present a case were a person obtained vitamin D over the internet and administered 50 000 IE daily to his father for a period of six months, in the pursuit to stop or reverse the progression of a vascular dementia. The treatment resulted in a severe hypercalcemia and recurrent hospitalizations. In cases with an unexplained hypercalcemia, being associated with high levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D3 the possibility of intake of D-vitamin sold without a doctor's prescription should be investigated...
June 2, 2015: Läkartidningen
Cinta Valls-Pedret, Aleix Sala-Vila, Mercè Serra-Mir, Dolores Corella, Rafael de la Torre, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Montserrat Fitó, Ana Pérez-Heras, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros
IMPORTANCE: Oxidative stress and vascular impairment are believed to partly mediate age-related cognitive decline, a strong risk factor for development of dementia. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet, an antioxidant-rich cardioprotective dietary pattern, delays cognitive decline, but clinical trial evidence is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a Mediterranean diet supplemented with antioxidant-rich foods influences cognitive function compared with a control diet...
July 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
Sarah T Pendlebury, Ping-Jen Chen, Sarah J V Welch, Fiona C Cuthbertson, Rose M Wharton, Ziyah Mehta, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive outcomes in cohorts and trials are often based only on face-to-face clinic assessment. However, cognitive impairment is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality, leading to substantial loss to clinic follow-up. In the absence of previous population-based data, we determined the effect of such attrition on measured risk of dementia after transient ischemic attack and stroke. METHODS: Patients with transient ischemic attack or stroke prospectively recruited (2002-2007) into the Oxford Vascular (OXVASC) study had baseline clinical/cognitive assessment and follow-up to 2014...
June 2015: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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