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Saba Samet, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Mark S Mandelcorn, Efrem D Mandelcorn, Martin J Steinbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients with bilateral central field loss develop peripheral retinal loci (PRLs) in the functional eccentric retina. PRL characteristics and visual performance in the better-seeing eye (BE) of these patients have previously been reported. In this study, we determined the test-retest repeatability of fixation parameters, including fixation stability, PRL eccentricity, and PRL span in the worse-seeing eye (WE). DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Fei Fu, Linyao Li, Qingman Luo, Qingjin Li, Tingrui Guo, Mengqun Yu, Yang Song, Erqun Song
The simple, economic, rapid, and sensitive detection of lysozyme has an important significance for disease diagnosis since it is a potential biomarker. In this work, a new detection strategy for lysozyme was developed based on the change of the plasmon resonance light scattering (PRLS) signal of peptidoglycan stabilized gold nanoparticles (PGN-AuNPs). Peptidoglycan (PGN) was employed as a stabilizer to prepare PGN-AuNPs which have the properties of a uniform particle size, good stability, and a specific biological function...
February 26, 2018: Analyst
Bilgehan Atılgan Acar, Mustafa Atahan Gürkan Acar, Türkan Acar, Ceyhun Varım, Aybala Neslihan Alagöz, Enis Bekir Demiryürek, Belma Doğan Güngen, Yeşim Güzey Aras
INTRODUCTION: Given the limited data on autonomic dysfunction in patients with primary restless legs syndrome (pRLS), we compared the autonomic dysfunction and presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among patients with pRLS with those among control patients. METHODS: Consecutive adult drug-naïve patients with pRLS, and age- and gender-matched healthy control patients were enrolled in this study. Diagnoses, based on validated self-reported questionnaires, were made using the following guidelines: the Rome III Classification System for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders for IBS; the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for the presence of anxiety and depression, respectively; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for severity of sleep disturbances; and Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) for autonomic dysfunction...
January 26, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Maria J Barraza-Bernal, Katharina Rifai, Siegfried Wahl
Subjects develop a preferred retinal locus of fixation (PRL) under simulation of central scotoma. If systematic relocations are applied to the stimulus position, PRLs manifest at a location in favor of the stimulus relocation. The present study investigates whether the induced PRL is transferred to important visual tasks in daily life, namely pursuit eye movements, signage reading, and text reading. Fifteen subjects with normal sight participated in the study. To develop a PRL, all subjects underwent a scotoma simulation in a prior study, where five subjects were trained to develop the PRL in the left hemifield, five different subjects on the right hemifield, and the remaining five subjects could naturally chose the PRL location...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Murat Erbezci, Taylan Ozturk
PURPOSE: An evaluation of the preferred retinal locus (PRL) in patients with age-related macular degeneration and a central scotoma is becoming a standard of care in the practice of low-vision rehabilitation. This is a retrospective study of PRL specifications and whether they have a correlation with the best-corrected visual acuities of patients with age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with macular degeneration (144 eyes) were included in the study...
October 23, 2017: Retina
Jason P Breves, Paige L K Keith, Bethany L Hunt, K Keano Pavlosky, Mayu Inokuchi, Yoko Yamaguchi, Darren T Lerner, Andre P Seale, E Gordon Grau
Teleosts inhabiting fresh water (FW) depend upon ion-absorptive ionocytes to counteract diffusive ion losses to the external environment. A Clc Cl(-) channel family member, Clc-2c, was identified as a conduit for basolateral Cl(-) transport by Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (Ncc2)-expressing ionocytes in stenohaline zebrafish (Danio rerio). It is unresolved whether Clc-2c/clc-2c is expressed in euryhaline species and how extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors modulate branchial clc-2c mRNA. Here, we investigated whether environmental salinity, prolactin (Prl) and osmotic conditions modulate clc-2c expression in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Rochelle Frankson, Zhi-Hong Yu, Yunpeng Bai, Qinglin Li, Ruo-Yu Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are exciting and novel targets for cancer drug discovery that work in concert with protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) in controlling cellular homeostasis. Given the activating role that some PTKs play in initiating growth factor-mediated cellular processes, PTPs are usually perceived as the negative regulators of these events and therefore tumor suppressive in nature. However, mounting evidence indicate that PTPs do not always antagonize the activity of PTKs in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation, but can also play dominant roles in the initiation and progression of signaling cascades that regulate cell functions...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Noriko Uetani, Serge Hardy, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Silke Kiessling, Adam Pietrobon, Nau Nau Wong, Valérie Chénard, Nicolas Cermakian, Julie St-Pierre, Michel L Tremblay
Magnesium (Mg2+) plays pleiotropic roles in cellular biology, and it is essentially required for all living organisms. Although previous studies demonstrated intracellular Mg2+ levels were regulated by the complex of phosphatase of regenerating liver 2 (PRL2) and Mg2+ transporter of cyclin M (CNNMs), physiological functions of PRL2 in whole animals remain unclear. Interestingly, Mg2+ was recently identified as a regulator of circadian rhythm-dependent metabolism; however, no mechanism was found to explain the clock-dependent Mg2+ oscillation...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
Yoko Yamaguchi, Jason P Breves, Maria C Haws, Darren T Lerner, E Gordon Grau, Andre P Seale
Osmoregulation in vertebrates is largely controlled by the neuroendocrine system. Prolactin (PRL) is critical for the survival of euryhaline teleosts in fresh water by promoting ion retention. In the euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), pituitary PRL cells release two PRL isoforms, PRL188 and PRL177 , in response to a fall in extracellular osmolality. Both PRLs function via two PRL receptors (PRLRs) denoted PRLR1 and PRLR2. We conducted a comparative study using the Nile tilapia (O. niloticus), a close relative of Mozambique tilapia that is less tolerant to increases in environmental salinity, to investigate the regulation of PRLs and PRLRs upon acute hyperosmotic challenges in vivo and in vitro...
February 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Theoni Photopoulou, Ines M Ferreira, Peter B Best, Toshio Kasuya, Helene Marsh
BACKGROUND: A substantial period of life after reproduction ends, known as postreproductive lifespan (PRLS), is at odds with classical life history theory and its causes and mechanisms have puzzled evolutionary biologists for decades. Prolonged PRLS has been confirmed in only two non-human mammals, both odontocete cetaceans in the family Delphinidae. We investigate the evidence for PRLS in a third species, the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens, using a quantitative measure of PRLS and morphological evidence from reproductive tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
Tommaso Verdina, Vivienne C Greenstein, Andrea Sodi, Stephen H Tsang, Tomas R Burke, Ilaria Passerini, Rando Allikmets, Gianni Virgili, Gian Maria Cavallini, Stanislao Rizzo
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to investigate morpho-functional features of the preferred retinal location (PRL) and the transition zone (TZ) in a series of patients with recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). METHODS: Fifty-two STGD1 patients with at least one ABCA4 mutation, atrophy of the central macula (MA) and an eccentric PRL were recruited for the study. Microperimetry, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed...
July 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Huizhi Zhang, Guennadi Kozlov, Xinlu Li, Howie Wu, Irina Gulerez, Kalle Gehring
The phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs) are involved in tumorigenesis and metastatic cancer yet their cellular function remains unclear. Recent reports have shown PRL phosphatases bind tightly to the CNNM family of membrane proteins to regulate magnesium efflux. Here, we characterize the interactions between the CBS-pair (Bateman) domain of CNNM3 and either PRL2 or PRL3 using X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and activity assays. We report four new crystal structures of PRL proteins bound to the CNNM3 CBS-pair domain that reveal the effects of cysteine disulphide formation and nucleotide binding on complex formation...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria J Barraza-Bernal, Katharina Rifai, Siegfried Wahl
Patients with central vision loss obtain visual information by fixating on an object eccentrically with a preferred retinal locus of fixation (PRL). Patients do not always choose the most efficient PRL position, and as a consequence, visual performance is not always fully exploited. This study investigates whether PRLs can be induced by applying systematic stimulus relocations. The PRL was trained using a central scotoma simulation in 15 healthy subjects. They performed different visual tasks during four sessions, after which their reading performance was evaluated...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Aurélie Calabrèse, Tingting Liu, Gordon E Legge
Individuals with macular degeneration often develop a Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) used in place of the impaired fovea. It is known that many people adopt a PRL left of the scotoma, which is likely to affect reading by occluding text to the right of fixation. For such individuals, we examined the possibility that reading vertical text, in which words are rotated 90° with respect to the normal horizontal orientation, would be beneficial for reading. Vertically oriented words would be tangential to the scotoma instead of being partially occluded by it...
2017: PloS One
Paula Giménez-Mascarell, Iker Oyenarte, Serge Hardy, Tilman Breiderhoff, Marchel Stuiver, Elie Kostantin, Tammo Diercks, Angel L Pey, June Ereño-Orbea, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, Reham Khalaf-Nazzal, Felix Claverie-Martin, Dominik Müller, Michel L Tremblay, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz
Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), the most oncogenic of all protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), play a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Recent findings established a new paradigm by uncovering that their association with magnesium transporters of the cyclin M (CNNM) family causes a rise in intracellular magnesium levels that promote oncogenic transformation. Recently, however, essential roles for regulation of the circadian rhythm and reproduction of the CNNM family have been highlighted...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Irina Gulerez, Yosuke Funato, Howie Wu, Meng Yang, Guennadi Kozlov, Hiroaki Miki, Kalle Gehring
PRLs (phosphatases of regenerating liver) are frequently overexpressed in human cancers and are prognostic markers of poor survival. Despite their potential as therapeutic targets, their mechanism of action is not understood in part due to their weak enzymatic activity. Previous studies revealed that PRLs interact with CNNM ion transporters and prevent CNNM4-dependent Mg2+ transport, which is important for energy metabolism and tumor progression. Here, we report that PRL-CNNM complex formation is regulated by the formation of phosphocysteine...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Taylor Brin, Mark S Mandelcorn, Anne-Catherine Scherlen, Efrem D Mandelcorn, Martin J Steinbach
PURPOSE: People with normal vision perform activities of daily living binocularly, while changing viewing distance frequently and effortlessly. Typically, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), fixation stability is recorded with monocular instruments at a fixed viewing distance (i.e. optical infinity) to determine the location and precision of the preferred retinal loci (PRLs)-the part of the functional retina that fulfills the role of a pseudo-fovea. Fixation stability recorded with these instruments has been related to performance on visual tasks at shorter viewing distances, although it is not known how viewing distance affects the precision of ocular motor control in these patients...
February 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Eli Kisilevsky, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Mark S Mandelcorn, Michael H Brent, Samuel N Markowitz, Martin J Steinbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients with central vision loss develop preferred retinal loci (PRLs) in the eccentric retina. The characteristics of the PRLs for the better eye (BE) are well studied, but not those of the worse eye (WE). We examined the distribution of monocular PRLs in the visual field (VF), as well as visual acuity, fixation stability, and PRL eccentricity for the BE and WE of patients with central vision loss. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 87 BE and 50 WE of patients with central vision loss...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Yunpeng Bai, Hong-Ming Zhou, Lujuan Zhang, Yuanshu Dong, Qi Zeng, Weinian Shou, Zhong-Yin Zhang
The PRL phosphatases are oncogenic when overexpressed but their in vivo biological function is less well understood. Previous gene deletion study revealed a role for PRL2 in spermatogenesis. We report here the first knockout mice lacking PRL1, the most related homolog of PRL2. We found that loss of PRL1 does not affect spermatogenesis and reproductive ability of male mice, likely due to functional compensation by the relatively higher expression of PRL2 in the testes. However, PRL1(-/-)/PRL2(+/-) male mice show testicular atrophy phenotype similar to PRL2(-/-) mice...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoling Dun, Zhangsheng Tao, Jie Wang, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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