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Eli Kisilevsky, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Mark S Mandelcorn, Michael H Brent, Samuel N Markowitz, Martin J Steinbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients with central vision loss develop preferred retinal loci (PRLs) in the eccentric retina. The characteristics of the PRLs for the better eye (BE) are well studied, but not those of the worse eye (WE). We examined the distribution of monocular PRLs in the visual field (VF), as well as visual acuity, fixation stability, and PRL eccentricity for the BE and WE of patients with central vision loss. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 87 BE and 50 WE of patients with central vision loss...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Yunpeng Bai, Hong-Ming Zhou, Lujuan Zhang, Yuanshu Dong, Qi Zeng, Weinian Shou, Zhong-Yin Zhang
The PRL phosphatases are oncogenic when overexpressed but their in vivo biological function is less well understood. Previous gene deletion study revealed a role for PRL2 in spermatogenesis. We report here the first knockout mice lacking PRL1, the most related homolog of PRL2. We found that loss of PRL1 does not affect spermatogenesis and reproductive ability of male mice, likely due to functional compensation by the relatively higher expression of PRL2 in the testes. However, PRL1(-/-)/PRL2(+/-) male mice show testicular atrophy phenotype similar to PRL2(-/-) mice...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoling Dun, Zhangsheng Tao, Jie Wang, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bilgehan Atılgan Acar, Türkan Acar, Aybala Neslihan Alagöz, Alper Karacan, Ceyhun Varım, Mehmet Şevki Uyanık, Tezcan Kaya, Ramazan Akdemir
In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of definite migraine in primary restless legs syndrome (pRLS) patients and matched control patients (CPs) were investigated. We evaluated 63 consecutive adult pRLS patients and 141 age- and sex-matched controls in this case-control study. The diagnosis of migraine and its subtypes were defined based on The International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. Only those with "definite" migraine were included in the study. The mean age of 63 adult pRLS patients (15 men and 48 women) who participated in the study was 49...
August 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Yunpeng Bai, Zhi-Hong Yu, Zhong-Yin Zhang
Overexpression of PRL phosphatases (PRL1, PRL2, and PRL3) has been found in a variety of late-stage tumors and their distant metastatic sites. Therefore, the oncogenic PRL phosphatases represent intriguing targets for cancer therapy. There is considerable interest in identifying small molecule inhibitors targeting PRLs as novel anticancer agents. However, it has been difficult to acquire phosphatase activity-based PRL inhibitors due to the unusual wide and shallow catalytic pockets of PRLs revealed by crystal structure studies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jason P Breves, Mayu Inokuchi, Yoko Yamaguchi, Andre P Seale, Bethany L Hunt, Soichi Watanabe, Darren T Lerner, Toyoji Kaneko, E Gordon Grau
Aquaporins (Aqps) are expressed within key osmoregulatory tissues where they mediate the movement of water and selected solutes across cell membranes. We leveraged the functional plasticity of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium to examine how Aqp3, an aquaglyceroporin, is regulated in response to osmoregulatory demands. Particular attention was paid to the actions of critical osmoregulatory hormones, namely, prolactin (Prl), growth hormone and cortisol. Branchial aqp3 mRNA levels were modulated following changes in environmental salinity, with enhanced aqp3 mRNA expression upon transfer from seawater to freshwater (FW)...
September 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Yoko Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Moriyama, Darren T Lerner, E Gordon Grau, Andre P Seale
Prolactin (PRL) is a vertebrate hormone with diverse actions in osmoregulation, metabolism, reproduction, and in growth and development. Osmoregulation is fundamental to maintaining the functional structure of the macromolecules that conduct the business of life. In teleost fish, PRL plays a critical role in osmoregulation in fresh water. Appropriately, PRL cells of the tilapia are directly osmosensitive, with PRL secretion increasing as extracellular osmolality falls. Using a model system that employs dispersed PRL cells from the euryhaline teleost fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, we investigated the autocrine regulation of PRL cell function...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Hans Vasen, Isaura Ibrahim, Carmen Guillen Ponce, Emily P Slater, Elvira Matthäi, Alfredo Carrato, Julie Earl, Kristin Robbers, Anneke M van Mil, Thomas Potjer, Bert A Bonsing, Wouter H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Wilma Bergman, Martin Wasser, Hans Morreau, Günter Klöppel, Christoph Schicker, Martin Steinkamp, Jens Figiel, Irene Esposito, Evelina Mocci, Enrique Vazquez-Sequeiros, Alfonso Sanjuanbenito, Maria Muñoz-Beltran, José Montans, Peter Langer, Volker Fendrich, Detlef K Bartsch
PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis. Hereditary factors play a role in the development of PDAC in 3% to 5% of all patients. Surveillance of high-risk groups, may facilitate detection of PDAC at an early stage. The aim of this study was to assess whether surveillance aids detection of early-stage PDAC or precursor lesions (PRLs) and improves the prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Screening outcomes were collected from three European centers that conduct prospective screening in high-risk groups including families with clustering of PDAC (familial pancreatic cancer [FPC]) or families with a gene defect that predisposes to PDAC...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
German Loffler
Evolutionary anthropologists explain menopause and the start of a post reproductive lifespan (PRLS), as beneficiary for older women who can now help contribute to their children/grandchildren's wellbeing. This paper presents a new model with the aim to elucidate when, where, and for whom, such benefits may have arisen. In foraging societies, women contribute nutrients to their social groups/family units to a greater degree as overall effective temperatures (ETs) rise. Where the ET is favorable for women's contributions (ETs between 15 and 20), selection does lengthen the PRLS of women because women contribute sufficiently to enhance their own inclusive fitness...
April 2016: Medical Hypotheses
H J Nichols, L Zecherle, K Arbuckle
While menopause has long been known as a characteristic trait of human reproduction, evidence for post-reproductive lifespan (PRLS) has recently been found in other mammals. Adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of PRLS, but formal tests of these are rare. We use a phylogenetic approach to evaluate hypotheses for the evolution of PRLS among mammals. In contrast to theoretical models predicting that PRLS may be promoted by male philopatry (which increases relatedness between a female and her group in old age), we find little evidence that male philopatry led to the evolution of a post-reproductive period...
February 2016: Biology Letters
Lucio Vinicius, Andrea Bamberg Migliano
Post-reproductive lifespans (PRLSs) of men vary across traditional societies. We argue that if sexual selection operates on male age-dependent resource availability (or 'reproductive market values') the result is variation in male late-life reproduction across subsistence systems. This perspective highlights the uniqueness of PRLS in both women and men.
March 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Brian Sullivan, Laura Walker
Patients with central vision loss (CVL) typically adopt eccentric viewing strategies using a preferred retinal locus (PRL) in peripheral retina. Clinically, the PRL is defined monocularly as the area of peripheral retina used to fixate small stimuli. It is not clear if this fixational PRL describes the same portion of peripheral retina used during dynamic binocular eye-hand coordination tasks. We studied this question with four participants each with a unique CVL history. Using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, we measured participants' monocular visual fields and the location and stability of their fixational PRLs...
November 2015: Vision Research
Ana Lilia Ramírez-Tapia, Lidia Baylón-Pacheco, Patricia Espíritu-Gordillo, José Luis Rosales-Encina
Protein tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of phosphatases that has not been broadly studied in protozoan parasites. In humans, PRLs are involved in metastatic cancer, the promotion of cell migration and invasion. PTPs have been increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. We characterized the only putative protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (PTP EhPRL) in the eukaryotic human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we reported that the EhPRL protein possessed the classical HCX5R catalytic motif of PTPs and the CAAX box characteristic of the PRL family and exhibited 31-32% homology with the three human PRL isoforms...
December 2015: Experimental Parasitology
Mayu Inokuchi, Jason P Breves, Shunsuke Moriyama, Soichi Watanabe, Toyoji Kaneko, Darren T Lerner, E Gordon Grau, Andre P Seale
This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality...
November 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Dylan Rose, Peter Bex
Individuals with healthy vision can spontaneously form a stable preferred retinal locus (PRL) over a period of several hours during eccentric viewing tasks. This process is poorly understood and does not appear to be driven by selection of retinal regions that optimize performance. It is also unknown whether PRL formation can be guided by training or attention, or whether the initial process of PRL formation speeds or retards subsequent PRL reformation. Addressing these questions may help individuals with central visual field loss by informing a training program that promotes PRL development in high utility regions and supports PRL retraining in response to disease progression or remediation...
2015: Journal of Vision
Sven Stadlbauer, Pablo Rios, Ken Ohmori, Keisuke Suzuki, Maja Köhn
Natural polyphenols like oligomeric catechins (procyanidins) derived from green tea and herbal medicines are interesting compounds for pharmaceutical research due to their ability to protect against carcinogenesis in animal models. It is nevertheless still unclear how intracellular pathways are modulated by polyphenols. Monomeric polyphenols were shown to affect the activity of some protein phosphatases (PPs). The three phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs) are close relatives and promising therapeutic targets in cancer...
2015: PloS One
Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Moshe Eizenman, Natalie Landon-Brace, Samuel N Markowitz, Martin J Steinbach, Esther G González
PURPOSE: We present a new method for identifying the absolute location (i.e., relative to the optic disc) of the preferred retinal location (PRL) simultaneously for the two eyes of patients with central vision loss. For this, we used a binocular eye-tracking system that determines the pupillary axes of both eyes without a user calibration routine. METHODS: During monocular viewing, we measured the pupillary axis and the angle between it and the visual axis (angle Kappa) for 10 eyes with normal vision...
August 2015: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Elizabeth Barnett Pathak, Meg M Comins, Colin J Forsyth, Joel A Strom
OBJECTIVE: To quantify possible revenue losses from proposed ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient diversion policies for small hospitals that lack high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability status (ie, 'STEMI referral hospitals'). BACKGROUND: Negative financial impacts on STEMI referral hospitals have been discussed as an important barrier to implementing regional STEMI bypass/transfer protocols. However, there is little empirical data available that directly quantifies this potential financial impact...
2015: Open Heart
Andrew M Haun, Eli Peli
PURPOSE: To determine whether people with central field loss (CFL) from macular degeneration have improved ability to recognize a particularly difficult spatial configuration embedded in noise, the peripherally-viewed 'ladder contour'. The visibility of these configuration has been linked to general contour integration ability and crowding limitations in peripheral vision. METHODS: We used a trial-based yes-no task. CFL patients and normally-sighted controls performed the task, looking for ladder contours embedded in a field of randomly oriented Gabor patches, at a range of stimulus presentation times (varying stimulus difficulty)...
2015: PloS One
Harold E Bedell, Joshua D Pratt, Arunkumar Krishnan, Eli Kisilevsky, Taylor A Brin, Esther G González, Martin J Steinbach, Luminita Tarita-Nistor
PURPOSE: Visual performance in patients with bilateral central field loss is related to fixation stability. This study evaluated the repeatability of visual-fixation parameters in patients with bilateral central field loss, measured with the MP-1 microperimeter for fixation durations on the order of 15 to 30 seconds. METHODS: Bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA), and the eccentricity and meridian of the preferred retinal locus (PRL) were determined in 56 eyes of 56 patients, sampled at two investigational sites...
April 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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