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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431070/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#1
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416208/fetal-and-perinatal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration-moving-forward-to-the-paracrine-era
#2
C Balbi, S Bollini
Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue. The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential...
April 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411900/contemporary-approaches-to-patients-with-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Sumeet S Mitter, Clyde W Yancy
Incident heart failure and the burden of hospitalization may be demonstrating a decline. However, as the population ages, the prevalence of heart failure continues to increase. Mortality among heart failure patients is increasingly due to non-cardiovascular causes. Current evidence-based therapy for heart failure has improved heart failure related mortality. Current efforts should be directed toward optimizing evidence based medical and device therapy, reducing morbidity, and increasing quality of life with heart failure...
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387893/regenerative-medicine-in-cardiovascular-diseases-an-update
#4
Y Cao, P-Y Zhang
The unique ability of regenerative medicine to differentiate into any cell of the three germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm) is of immense clinical importance. They have an unique capacity for unlimited self-renewal. Furthermore, pluripotent stem cells (PSC), including human embryonic (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold great potential as an unlimited source of functional as well as transplantable cells applications. Specifically, in the context of cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, it is believed that hESC-derived endothelial cells (hESC- ECs) could be used to stimulate angiogenesis or vasculogenesis in ischemic tissues, thereby restoring blood supply to the affected area...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379378/symmetric-dimethylarginine-high-density-lipoproteins-and-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Stephen Zewinger, Marcus E Kleber, Lucia Rohrer, Marlene Lehmann, Sarah Triem, Richard T Jennings, Ioannis Petrakis, Alexander Dressel, Philipp M Lepper, Hubert Scharnagl, Andreas Ritsch, Barbara Thorand, Margit Heier, Christa Meisinger, Tonia de Las Heras Gala, Wolfgang Koenig, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Edzard Schwedhelm, Rainer H Böger, Ulrich Laufs, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ulf Landmesser, Thomas F Lüscher, Danilo Fliser, Winfried März, Andreas Meinitzer, Thimoteus Speer
Aims: The vascular effects of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) differ under certain clinical conditions. The composition of HDL is modified in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As a consequence, uremic HDL induces endothelial dysfunction. We have previously shown that accumulation of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in HDL causes these adverse effects of HDL in CKD. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of the accumulation of SDMA on the association between HDL and mortality...
March 31, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355297/transcription-factor-induced-activation-of-cardiac-gene-expression-in-human-c-kit-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#6
Tareq Al-Maqtari, Kyung U Hong, Bathri N Vajravelu, Afsoon Moktar, Pengxiao Cao, Joseph B Moore, Roberto Bolli
Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) significantly alleviates post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction, generation of cardiomyocytes by exogenous CPCs in the recipient heart has often been limited. Inducing robust differentiation would be necessary for improving the efficacy of the regenerative cardiac cell therapy. We assessed the hypothesis that differentiation of human c-kit+ CPCs can be enhanced by priming them with cardiac transcription factors (TFs). We introduced five different TFs (Gata4, MEF2C, NKX2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339564/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#7
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
October 6, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337852/turning-potential-into-action-using-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-understand-heart-development-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#8
Hananeh Fonoudi, Alexis Bosman
Pluripotent stem cells hold enormous potential for regenerative therapies, however their ability to provide insight into early human development and the origins of disease could arguably provide an even greater outcome. This is primarily due to their contribution to the establishment of a powerful knowledge base of human development, something which all researchers and clinicians can potentially benefit from. Modeling human heart development and disease using pluripotent stem cells has already provided many important insights into cardiogenesis and cardiovascular disease mechanisms however, it is important to be aware of the complexities of this model system...
March 24, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324469/stem-cells-in-cardiovascular-medicine-the-road-to-regenerative-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Christopher W Anderson, Nicole Boardman, Jiesi Luo, Jinkyu Park, Yibing Qyang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of current trends in stem cell research and its applications in cardiovascular medicine. Researches on different stem cell sources, their inherent characteristics, and the limitations they have in medical applications are discussed. Additionally, uses of stem cells for both modeling and treating cardiovascular disease are discussed, taking note of the obstacles these engineered interventions must overcome to be clinically viable...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320483/human-and-feline-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-have-comparable-phenotype-immunomodulatory-functions-and-transcriptome
#10
Kaitlin C Clark, Fernando A Fierro, Emily Mills Ko, Naomi J Walker, Boaz Arzi, Clifford G Tepper, Heather Dahlenburg, Andrew Cicchetto, Amir Kol, Lyndsey Marsh, William J Murphy, Nasim Fazel, Dori L Borjesson
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell therapy to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Development of appropriate pre-clinical animal models is critical to determine safety and attain early efficacy data for the most promising therapeutic candidates. Naturally occurring diseases in cats already serve as valuable models to inform human clinical trials in oncologic, cardiovascular, and genetic diseases. The objective of this study was to complete a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of human and feline ASCs, with an emphasis on their immunomodulatory capacity and transcriptome...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320452/compared-to-the-amniotic-membrane-wharton-s-jelly-may-be-a-more-suitable-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cardiovascular-tissue-engineering-and-clinical-regeneration
#11
Lei Pu, Mingyao Meng, Jian Wu, Jing Zhang, Zongliu Hou, Hui Gao, Hui Xu, Boyu Liu, Weiwei Tang, Lihong Jiang, Yaxiong Li
BACKGROUND: The success of developing cardiovascular tissue engineering (CTE) grafts greatly needs a readily available cell substitute for endothelial and interstitial cells. Perinatal annexes have been proposed as a valuable source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the potential of human Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJ-MSCs) and amniotic membrane MSCs (AM-MSCs) as a seeding cell in CTE and cardiovascular regenerative medicine...
March 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296342/delivery-of-growth-factor-based-therapeutics-in-vascular-diseases-challenges-and-strategies
#12
REVIEW
He-Lin Xu, Wen-Ze Yu, Cui-Tao Lu, Xiao-Kun Li, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Either cardiovascular or peripheral vascular diseases have become the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, growth factors therapeutics, whatever administrated in form of exogenous growth factors or their relevant genes have been discovered to be an effective strategy for the prevention and therapy of vascular diseases, because of their promoting angiogenesis. Besides, as an alternative, stem cell-based therapy has been also developed in view of their paracrine-mediated effect or ability of differentiation toward angiogenesis-related cells under assistance of growth factors...
March 10, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281240/translational-challenges-in-cardiovascular-tissue-engineering
#13
Maximilian Y Emmert, Emanuela S Fioretta, Simon P Hoerstrup
Valvular heart disease and congenital heart defects represent a major cause of death around the globe. Although current therapy strategies have rapidly evolved over the decades and are nowadays safe, effective, and applicable to many affected patients, the currently used artificial prostheses are still suboptimal. They do not promote regeneration, physiological remodeling, or growth (particularly important aspects for children) as their native counterparts. This results in the continuous degeneration and subsequent failure of these prostheses which is often associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as well as the need for multiple re-interventions...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274146/optimizing-the-host-substrate-environment-for-cardiac-angiogenesis-arteriogenesis-and-myogenesis
#14
Kay Maeda, Emilio I Alarcon, Erik J Suuronen, Marc Ruel
The diseased host milieu, such as endothelial dysfunction (ED), decreased NO bioavailability, and ischemic/inflammatory post-MI environment, hamper the clinical success of existing cardiac regenerative therapies. Area covered: In this article, current strategies including pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches for improving the diseased host milieu are reviewed. Specifically, the authors provide focus on: i) the mechanism of ED in patients with cardiovascular diseases, ii) the current results of ED improving strategies in pre-clinical and clinical studies, and iii) the use of biomaterials as a novel modulator in damaged post-MI environment...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271994/nkx2-5-marks-angioblasts-that-contribute-to-hemogenic-endothelium-of-the-endocardium-and-dorsal-aorta
#15
Lyad Zamir, Reena Singh, Elisha Nathan, Ralph Patrick, Oren Yifa, Yfat Yahalom-Ronen, Alaa A Arraf, Thomas M Schultheiss, Shengbao Suo, Jing-Dong Jackie Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing, Yuliang Wang, Nathan Palpant, Patrick Pl Tam, Richard P Harvey, Eldad Tzahor
Novel regenerative therapies may stem from deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing cardiovascular lineage diversification. Using enhancer mapping and live imaging in avian embryos, and genetic lineage tracing in mice, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of cardiovascular progenitor populations. We show that expression of the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2.5 marks a mesodermal population outside of the cardiac crescent in the extraembryonic and lateral plate mesoderm, with characteristics of hemogenic angioblasts...
March 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261549/bioengineering-hearts-simple-yet-complex
#16
REVIEW
Doris A Taylor, Rohan B Parikh, Luiz C Sampaio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we focus on the multiple advancements in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine and the state-of-the art of building a heart. An organ is comprised of cells, but cells alone do not comprise an organ. We summarize the components needed, the hurdles, and likely translational steps defining the opportunities for discovery. RECENT FINDINGS: The therapies being developed in regenerative medicine aim not only to repair, but also to regenerate or replace ailing tissues and organs...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260040/antiproliferation-effect-of-the-uremic-toxin-para%C3%A2-cresol-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-is-related-to-its-antioxidant-activity
#17
Limin Pan, Xiaoting Ye, Jiguang Ding, Yu Zhou
Endothelial dysfunction and impaired endothelial regenerative capacity are key contributors to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uremic toxins are associated with this pathogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that a uremic toxin, para‑cresol (p‑cresol), exerts an antiproliferation effect on human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were confirmed to function as signaling molecules that regulate growth factor‑dependent EPC proliferation...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244829/regenerative-capacity-of-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-elderly-a-report-of-biomedical-outcomes
#18
Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Garza, Delia Elva Cruz-Vega
The occurrence of chronic diseases such as neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular degenerative disorders increases with age. Cell therapy is an emerging approach to the treatment of these conditions. Of particular interest is the application of autologous stem cells because it eliminates post-transplantation immune rejection and there are less ethical concerns associated with their use. The regenerative capacity of stem cells harvested from elderly people is however controversial. In this review, we analyze if self-renewal potential, differentiation capability and expression of stemness genes in stem cells collected from elderly patients validate their application in clinical trials and examine the results...
March 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229420/noninvasive-assessment-of-cell-fate-and-biology-in-transplanted-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Federico Franchi, Martin Rodriguez-Porcel
Recently, molecular imaging has become a conditio sine qua non for cell-based regenerative medicine. Developments in molecular imaging techniques, such as reporter gene technology, have increasingly enabled the noninvasive assessment of the fate and biology of cells after cardiovascular applications. In this context, bioluminescence imaging is the most commonly used imaging modality in small animal models of preclinical studies. Here, we present a detailed protocol of a reporter gene imaging approach for monitoring the viability and biology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplanted in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229407/assessment-of-energy-metabolic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#20
Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Martin C Harmsen
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are promising candidates for therapeutic applications in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. By definition, the phenotype ADSCs, e.g., the ubiquitous secretion of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix components is not met in vivo, which renders ADSC a culture "artefact." The medium constituents therefore impact the efficacy of ADSC. Little attention has been paid to the energy source in medium, i.e., glucose, which feeds the cell's power plants: mitochondria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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