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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610961/histone-acetylation-favours-the-cardiovascular-commitment-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#1
Elena De Falco, Antonella Bordin, Eleonora Scaccia, Francesca Pagano, Mohsen Ibrahim, Leonardo Schirone, Francesco Angelini, Silvia Palmerio, Michele Madonna, Luca Fianchini, Isotta Chimenti, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati
BACKGROUND: Although adipose stromal cells (ASCs) retain the ability to transdifferentiate at low rate towards the cardiac lineage, the potential mechanisms underlying such process have still to be elucidated. METHODS: Since chromatin state modifications are involved in several processes regulating the cellular cell fate commitment, we aimed at evaluating the role of histone protein acetylation in the cardiovascular-like transdifferentiation of ASCs. RESULTS: We found a clear increase of histone 3 acetylation status paralleled by a significant upregulation of cardiac TnI gene expression, in ASCs treated with the conditioned medium of primary cardiomyocyte cell cultures for 72h...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596337/cardiac-regeneration-strategies-staying-young-at-heart
#2
REVIEW
Eldad Tzahor, Kenneth D Poss
The human heart is continually operating as a muscular pump, contracting, on average, 80 times per minute to propel 8000 liters of blood through body tissues each day. Whereas damaged skeletal muscle has a profound capacity to regenerate, heart muscle, at least in mammals, has poor regenerative potential. This deficiency is attributable to the lack of resident cardiac stem cells, combined with roadblocks that limit adult cardiomyocytes from entering the cell cycle and completing division. Insights for regeneration have recently emerged from studies of animals with an elevated innate capacity for regeneration, the innovation of stem cell and reprogramming technologies, and a clearer understanding of the cardiomyocyte genetic program and key extrinsic signals...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587412/erk1-2-pathway-regulates-coxsackie-and-adenovirus-receptor-expression-in-mouse-cardiac-stem-cells
#3
Jingjin Liu, Qiang Sun, Yongshun Wang, Jinjin Cui, Maomao Zhang, Lili Li, Haibo Jia, Lulu Zhang, Bin Zhu, Miaomiao Jiang, Bo Yu, Shuo Zhang
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are the most promising and effective candidates for the therapy of cardiac regenerative diseases; however, they have marked limitations. For instance, the implantation of CSCs is hampered by factors such as their sustainability and long-term durability. Gene modification appears to be the most effective method of optimizing CSCs and gene therapy trials have demonstrated that efficient gene transfer is key to achieving therapeutic efficacy. However, the transduction ability of adenovirus (Ad) is limited...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583198/a-brief-review-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-therapeutic-potential-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Teng Ma, Jiacheng Sun, Zhenao Zhao, Wei Lei, Yueqiu Chen, Xu Wang, Junjie Yang, Zhenya Shen
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are easily obtained and expanded, and have emerged as a novel source of adult stem cells for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. These cells have been shown to have the capability of differentiating into cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, ADSCs secrete a series of paracrine factors to promote neovascularization, reduce apoptosis, and inhibit fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac regeneration. As a novel therapy in the regenerative field, ADSCs still face various limitations, such as low survival and engraftment...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576327/issue-noninvasive-molecular-imaging-and-theranostic-probes-new-concepts-in-myocardial-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Frank M Bengel
Cardiovascular applications continue to be a driving force for new developments in radionuclide imaging. Recent years have seen an evolution of myocardial perfusion imaging systems towards optimized radiation detection sensitivity, leading to fast and low dose studies with high image quality. Additional advances in hard- and software facilitated the integration of computed tomography and nuclear imaging, and enabled absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow. Finally, non-perfusion tracers and clinical indications outside of coronary artery disease (e...
May 31, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575280/global-position-paper-on-cardiovascular-regenerative-medicine-scientific-statement-of-the-transnational-alliance-for-regenerative-therapies-in-cardiovascular-syndromes-tactics-international-group-for-the-comprehensive-cardiovascular-application-of-regenerative
#6
Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Andreu M Climent, Lina Badimon, Roberto Bolli, Dominique Charron, Valentin Fuster, Stefan Janssens, Jens Kastrup, Hyo-Soo Kim, Thomas F Lüscher, John F Martin, Philippe Menasché, Robert D Simari, Gregg W Stone, Andre Terzic, James T Willerson, Joseph C Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554583/autologous-and-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic innovations to help restore cardiac structure and function after ischemic insults to the heart. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous "first-generation stem cells" have yielded inconsistent results in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients and have not produced the definitive evidence for their broad clinical application. Recently, new cell types such as cardiac stem cells (CSC) and new allogeneic sources have attracted the attention of researchers given their inherent biological, clinical and logistic advantages...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545505/direct-reprogramming-of-fibroblasts-into-cardiomyocytes
#8
REVIEW
Yueqiu Chen, Ziying Yang, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Zhenya Shen
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in the world. The limited regenerative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes is the major barrier for heart regeneration. After myocardial infarction, myofibroblasts are the dominant cell type in the infarct zone. Therefore, it is a good idea to reprogram terminally differentiated myofibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells directly, providing a good strategy to simultaneously reduce scar tissue and increase functional cardiomyocytes. Transcription factors were first identified to reprogram myofibroblasts into cardiomyocytes...
May 25, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532062/polylactide-and-polycaprolactone-based-substrates-enhance-angiogenic-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-implications-for-cardiovascular-repair
#9
Małgorzata Sekuła, Patrycja Domalik-Pyzik, Anna Morawska-Chochół, Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz, Elżbieta Karnas, Sylwia Noga, Dariusz Boruczkowski, Marta Adamiak, Zbigniew Madeja, Jan Chłopek, Ewa K Zuba-Surma
Recent approaches in tissue regeneration focus on combining innovative achievements of stem cell biology and biomaterial sciences to develop novel therapeutic strategies for patients. Growing recent evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells harvested from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (hUC-MSCs) are a new valuable source of cells for autologous as well as allogeneic therapies in humans. hUC-MSCs are multipotent, highly proliferating cells with prominent immunoregulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of widely used FDA approved poly(α-esters) including polylactide (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) on selected biological properties of hUC-MSCs in vitro...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#11
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488817/neladenoson-bialanate-hydrochloride-a-prodrug-of-a-partial-adenosine%C3%A2-a1-receptor-agonist-for-the-chronic-treatment-of-heart-diseases
#12
Daniel Meibom, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Nicole Diedrichs, Walter Hübsch, Raimund Kast, Thomas Krämer, Ursula Krenz, Hans-Georg Lerchen, Joachim Mittendorf, Peter G Nell, Frank Süssmeier, Alexandros Vakalopoulos, Katja Zimmermann
Adenosine is known to be released under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions to facilitate the protection and regeneration of injured ischemic tissues. The activation of myocardial adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) has been shown to inhibit myocardial pathologies associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury, suggesting several options for new cardiovascular therapies. When full A1 R agonists are used, the desired protective and regenerative cardiovascular effects are usually overshadowed by unintended pharmacological effects such as induction of bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) blocks, and sedation...
May 22, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468832/little-fish-big-data-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease
#13
REVIEW
Philipp Gut, Sven Reischauer, Didier Y R Stainier, Rima Arnaout
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are cornerstones of drug discovery as they allow identification of novel pharmacological targets by linking gene function with pathogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464769/adult-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiac-repair-in-patients-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-leading-to-ischemic-heart-failure-an-overview-of-evidence-from-the-recent-clinical-trials
#14
Rygiel Katarzyna
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) still represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide, despite the remarkable advances in interventional cardiology, cardiac surgery, and modern pharmacotherapy, particularly in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic ischemic heart failure (HF), cardiomyopathy (CM), and the associated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. A significant loss of cardiomyocytes that underlies all of these conditions was previously considered irreversible. However, current evidence indicates that the human heart has some potential for repair, and over the past decade, many research studies have been exploring the use of stem cells (SCs) to facilitate restoration of myocardium...
May 1, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455712/macrophages-role-in-tissue-disease-and-regeneration
#15
Lewis Gaffney, Paul Warren, Emily A Wrona, Matthew B Fisher, Donald O Freytes
Inflammation is an essential component of the normal mammalian host tissue response and plays an important role during cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases. Given the important role of inflammation on the host tissue response after injury, understanding this process represents essential aspects of biomedical research, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are central players during the inflammatory response with an extensive role during wound healing. These cells exhibit a spectrum of activation states that span from pro-inflammatory to pro-healing phenotypes...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437223/exercise-and-peripheral-nerve-grafts-as-a-strategy-to-promote-regeneration-after-acute-or-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Catherine C Theisen, Rahul Sachdeva, Scarlett Austin, Danielle Kulich, Victoria Kranz, John D Houle
Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury (SCI) routinely are designed to address multiple aspects of the primary and/or secondary damage that occurs. Exercise has a demonstrated efficacy for post-SCI complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, neuropathic pain, and chronic inflammation, yet there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which improvements might result from this non-invasive approach. Here we review several of our observations of molecular and cellular changes within the injured spinal cord following acute or delayed exercise regimens that illustrate the potential for positive effects on neuroprotection and rehabilitation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434817/the-protective-effect-of-hyperoside-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-chronic-liver-fibrosis-in-mice-via-upregulation-of-nrf2
#17
Liyi Zou, Shaoru Chen, Li Li, Tie Wu
CONTEXT: Hyperoside was used to treat cardiovascular disease for many years in China. It was shown great effect on regulation of lipid metabolism. But there is lack of reports about the effects of hyperoside on liver diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of hyperoside and the role of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2(NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the regulation on Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver fibrosis in mice...
April 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431070/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#18
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416208/fetal-and-perinatal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration-moving-forward-to-the-paracrine-era
#19
C Balbi, S Bollini
Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue. The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential...
April 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411900/contemporary-approaches-to-patients-with-heart-failure
#20
REVIEW
Sumeet S Mitter, Clyde W Yancy
Incident heart failure and the burden of hospitalization may be demonstrating a decline. However, as the population ages, the prevalence of heart failure continues to increase. Mortality among heart failure patients is increasingly due to non-cardiovascular causes. Current evidence-based therapy for heart failure has improved heart failure related mortality. Current efforts should be directed toward optimizing evidence based medical and device therapy, reducing morbidity, and increasing quality of life with heart failure...
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
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