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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734900/molecular-imaging-in-stem-cell-based-therapies-of-cardiac-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Xiang Li, Marcus Hacker
In the past 15years, despite regenerative medicine has shown great potential for cardiovascular diseases, the outcome and safety of stem cell transplantation has shown controversial results in the published literature. Medical imaging might be useful for monitoring and quantification transplanted cells within the heart and to serially characterize the effects of stem cell therapy of the myocardium. From the multiple available noninvasive imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging by positron (PET) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) are the most used clinical approaches to follow the fate of transplanted stem cells in vivo...
July 19, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733351/multi-cellular-transcriptional-analysis-of-mammalian-heart-regeneration
#2
Gregory A Quaife-Ryan, Choon Boon Sim, Mark Ziemann, Antony Kaspi, Haloom Rafehi, Mirana Ramialison, Assam El-Osta, James E Hudson, Enzo R Porrello
Background -The inability of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate following injury represents a major barrier in cardiovascular medicine. In contrast, the neonatal mammalian heart retains a transient capacity for regeneration, which is lost shortly after birth. Defining the molecular mechanisms that govern regenerative capacity in the neonatal period remains a central goal in cardiac biology. Here, we assemble a transcriptomic framework of multiple cardiac cell populations during postnatal development and following injury, which enables comparative analyses of the regenerative (neonatal) versus non-regenerative (adult) state for the first time...
July 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685538/the-origin-in-vitro-differentiation-and-stemness-specificity-of-progenitor-cells
#3
W Kranc, J Budna, M Dudek, A Bryja, A Chachuła, S Ciesiółka, S Borys, M Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M Jeseta, L Porowski, P Antosik, D Bukowska, K P Brüssow, M Bruska, M Nowicki, M Zabel, B Kempisty
Since the successful collection of the first progenitor stem cells (SCs), there has been an increased interest in these cells as a model for undiscovered and unlimited potential of differentiation and development. Additionally, it was shown that SC populations display an ability to form pluripotent and/or totipotent cell populations. It was found that human ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) maintain a large capacity for differentiation into several other cell lineages, such as chondrogenic, osteogenic, neurogenic, and adipogenic, particularly during long-term, in vitro culture...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671660/acute-and-chronic-models-of-hyperglycemia-in-zebrafish-a-method-to-assess-the-impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-neurogenesis-and-the-biodistribution-of-radiolabeled-molecules
#4
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Imade Ait-Arsa, Emmanuelle Jestin, Olivier Meilhac, Nicolas Diotel
Hyperglycemia is a major health issue that leads to cardiovascular and cerebral dysfunction. For instance, it is associated with increased neurological problems after stroke and is shown to impair neurogenic processes. Interestingly, the adult zebrafish has recently emerged as a relevant and useful model to mimic hyperglycemia/diabetes and to investigate constitutive and regenerative neurogenesis. This work provides methods to develop zebrafish models of hyperglycemia to explore the impact of hyperglycemia on brain cell proliferation under homeostatic and brain repair conditions...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661931/splicing-regulators-in-endothelial-cell-differentiation
#5
Concetta Schiano, Monica Rienzo, Amelia Casamassimi, Andrea Soricelli, Claudio Napoli
AIMS: Alternative splicing represents a key mechanism of gene regulation. Despite its role in regulating cell pluripotency and differentiation being well known, the underlining mechanisms are still poorly studied. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of splicing regulators during the different steps of endothelial cell differentiation through expression studies on human circulating progenitors. METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from all cells and reverse-transcribed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649865/dental-stem-cells-recent-progresses-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#6
João Botelho, Maria Alzira Cavacas, Vanessa Machado, José João Mendes
Since the disclosure of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) there have been an intense investigation on the characteristics of these cells and their potentialities. Dental Stem Cells (DSCs) are MSC-like populations with self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential. Currently, there are five main DSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and Dental Follicle Precursor Cells (DFPCs)...
June 24, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610961/histone-acetylation-favours-the-cardiovascular-commitment-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#7
Elena De Falco, Antonella Bordin, Eleonora Scaccia, Francesca Pagano, Mohsen Ibrahim, Leonardo Schirone, Francesco Angelini, Silvia Palmerio, Michele Madonna, Luca Fianchini, Isotta Chimenti, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati
BACKGROUND: Although adipose stromal cells (ASCs) retain the ability to transdifferentiate at low rate towards the cardiac lineage, the potential mechanisms underlying such process have still to be elucidated. METHODS: Since chromatin state modifications are involved in several processes regulating the cellular cell fate commitment, we aimed at evaluating the role of histone protein acetylation in the cardiovascular-like transdifferentiation of ASCs. RESULTS: We found a clear increase of histone 3 acetylation status paralleled by a significant upregulation of cardiac TnI gene expression, in ASCs treated with the conditioned medium of primary cardiomyocyte cell cultures for 72h...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596337/cardiac-regeneration-strategies-staying-young-at-heart
#8
REVIEW
Eldad Tzahor, Kenneth D Poss
The human heart is continually operating as a muscular pump, contracting, on average, 80 times per minute to propel 8000 liters of blood through body tissues each day. Whereas damaged skeletal muscle has a profound capacity to regenerate, heart muscle, at least in mammals, has poor regenerative potential. This deficiency is attributable to the lack of resident cardiac stem cells, combined with roadblocks that limit adult cardiomyocytes from entering the cell cycle and completing division. Insights for regeneration have recently emerged from studies of animals with an elevated innate capacity for regeneration, the innovation of stem cell and reprogramming technologies, and a clearer understanding of the cardiomyocyte genetic program and key extrinsic signals...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587412/erk1-2-pathway-regulates-coxsackie-and-adenovirus-receptor-expression-in-mouse-cardiac-stem-cells
#9
Jingjin Liu, Qiang Sun, Yongshun Wang, Jinjin Cui, Maomao Zhang, Lili Li, Haibo Jia, Lulu Zhang, Bin Zhu, Miaomiao Jiang, Bo Yu, Shuo Zhang
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are the most promising and effective candidates for the therapy of cardiac regenerative diseases; however, they have marked limitations. For instance, the implantation of CSCs is hampered by factors such as their sustainability and long-term durability. Gene modification appears to be the most effective method of optimizing CSCs and gene therapy trials have demonstrated that efficient gene transfer is key to achieving therapeutic efficacy. However, the transduction ability of adenovirus (Ad) is limited...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583198/a-brief-review-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-therapeutic-potential-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Teng Ma, Jiacheng Sun, Zhenao Zhao, Wei Lei, Yueqiu Chen, Xu Wang, Junjie Yang, Zhenya Shen
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are easily obtained and expanded, and have emerged as a novel source of adult stem cells for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. These cells have been shown to have the capability of differentiating into cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, ADSCs secrete a series of paracrine factors to promote neovascularization, reduce apoptosis, and inhibit fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac regeneration. As a novel therapy in the regenerative field, ADSCs still face various limitations, such as low survival and engraftment...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576327/issue-noninvasive-molecular-imaging-and-theranostic-probes-new-concepts-in-myocardial-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Frank M Bengel
Cardiovascular applications continue to be a driving force for new developments in radionuclide imaging. Recent years have seen an evolution of myocardial perfusion imaging systems towards optimized radiation detection sensitivity, leading to fast and low dose studies with high image quality. Additional advances in hard- and software facilitated the integration of computed tomography and nuclear imaging, and enabled absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow. Finally, non-perfusion tracers and clinical indications outside of coronary artery disease (e...
May 31, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575280/global-position-paper-on-cardiovascular-regenerative-medicine-scientific-statement-of-the-transnational-alliance-for-regenerative-therapies-in-cardiovascular-syndromes-tactics-international-group-for-the-comprehensive-cardiovascular-application-of-regenerative
#12
Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Andreu M Climent, Lina Badimon, Roberto Bolli, Dominique Charron, Valentin Fuster, Stefan Janssens, Jens Kastrup, Hyo-Soo Kim, Thomas F Lüscher, John F Martin, Philippe Menasché, Robert D Simari, Gregg W Stone, Andre Terzic, James T Willerson, Joseph C Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554583/autologous-and-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic innovations to help restore cardiac structure and function after ischemic insults to the heart. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous "first-generation stem cells" have yielded inconsistent results in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients and have not produced the definitive evidence for their broad clinical application. Recently, new cell types such as cardiac stem cells (CSC) and new allogeneic sources have attracted the attention of researchers given their inherent biological, clinical and logistic advantages...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545505/direct-reprogramming-of-fibroblasts-into-cardiomyocytes
#14
REVIEW
Yueqiu Chen, Ziying Yang, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Zhenya Shen
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in the world. The limited regenerative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes is the major barrier for heart regeneration. After myocardial infarction, myofibroblasts are the dominant cell type in the infarct zone. Therefore, it is a good idea to reprogram terminally differentiated myofibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells directly, providing a good strategy to simultaneously reduce scar tissue and increase functional cardiomyocytes. Transcription factors were first identified to reprogram myofibroblasts into cardiomyocytes...
May 25, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532062/polylactide-and-polycaprolactone-based-substrates-enhance-angiogenic-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-implications-for-cardiovascular-repair
#15
Małgorzata Sekuła, Patrycja Domalik-Pyzik, Anna Morawska-Chochół, Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz, Elżbieta Karnas, Sylwia Noga, Dariusz Boruczkowski, Marta Adamiak, Zbigniew Madeja, Jan Chłopek, Ewa K Zuba-Surma
Recent approaches in tissue regeneration focus on combining innovative achievements of stem cell biology and biomaterial sciences to develop novel therapeutic strategies for patients. Growing recent evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells harvested from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (hUC-MSCs) are a new valuable source of cells for autologous as well as allogeneic therapies in humans. hUC-MSCs are multipotent, highly proliferating cells with prominent immunoregulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of widely used FDA approved poly(α-esters) including polylactide (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) on selected biological properties of hUC-MSCs in vitro...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#17
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488817/neladenoson-bialanate-hydrochloride-a-prodrug-of-a-partial-adenosine%C3%A2-a1-receptor-agonist-for-the-chronic-treatment-of-heart-diseases
#18
Daniel Meibom, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Nicole Diedrichs, Walter Hübsch, Raimund Kast, Thomas Krämer, Ursula Krenz, Hans-Georg Lerchen, Joachim Mittendorf, Peter G Nell, Frank Süssmeier, Alexandros Vakalopoulos, Katja Zimmermann
Adenosine is known to be released under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions to facilitate the protection and regeneration of injured ischemic tissues. The activation of myocardial adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) has been shown to inhibit myocardial pathologies associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury, suggesting several options for new cardiovascular therapies. When full A1 R agonists are used, the desired protective and regenerative cardiovascular effects are usually overshadowed by unintended pharmacological effects such as induction of bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) blocks, and sedation...
May 22, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468832/little-fish-big-data-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease
#19
REVIEW
Philipp Gut, Sven Reischauer, Didier Y R Stainier, Rima Arnaout
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are cornerstones of drug discovery as they allow identification of novel pharmacological targets by linking gene function with pathogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464769/adult-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiac-repair-in-patients-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-leading-to-ischemic-heart-failure-an-overview-of-evidence-from-the-recent-clinical-trials
#20
Rygiel Katarzyna
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) still represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide, despite the remarkable advances in interventional cardiology, cardiac surgery, and modern pharmacotherapy, particularly in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic ischemic heart failure (HF), cardiomyopathy (CM), and the associated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. A significant loss of cardiomyocytes that underlies all of these conditions was previously considered irreversible. However, current evidence indicates that the human heart has some potential for repair, and over the past decade, many research studies have been exploring the use of stem cells (SCs) to facilitate restoration of myocardium...
May 1, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
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