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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538665/molecular-basis-of-alcohol-related-gastric-and-colon-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Na, Ja Young Lee
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537893/alpha-mangostin-induces-apoptosis-through-activation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-ask1-p38-signaling-pathway-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#2
Chien-Hsing Lee, Tsung-Ho Ying, Hui-Ling Chiou, Shu-Ching Hsieh, Shiua-Hua Wen, Ruey-Hwang Chou, Yi-Hsien Hsieh
Alpha-mangostin, a natural xanthonoid, has been reported to possess the anti-cancer property in various types of human cancer. However, its effects and mechanism of α-mangostin in cervical cancer remain unclear. We found that α-mangostin effectively inhibited cell viability, resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), release of cytochrome C, increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-9/caspase-3 cascade in cervical cancer cells. Alpha-mangostin elevated the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate p38...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535537/triggering-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-exemestane
#3
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Rosi Bissinger, Hang Cao, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The steroidal aromatase inactivator exemestane blocks estrogen biosynthesis and is thus employed for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Exemestane is in part effective by stimulation of suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Side effects of exemestane treatment include anemia. At least in theory, exemestane induced anemia could be secondary to stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
May 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535079/the-tomato-kinase-pti1-contributes-to-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-response-to-two-flagellin-derived-peptides-and-promotes-resistance-to-pseudomonas-syringae-infection
#4
Simon Schwizer, Christine M Kraus, Diane M Dunham, Yi Zheng, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Marina A Pombo, Zhangjun Fei, Suma Chakravarthy, Gregory Martin
The Pti1 kinase was identified from a reverse genetic screen as contributing to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). This was unexpected because Pti1 was originally identified as an interactor of the Pto kinase and was implicated in effector-triggered immunity. The tomato genome has two Pti1 genes, referred to as Pti1a and Pti1b. A hairpin-Pti1 (hpPti1) construct was developed and used to generate two independent stable transgenic tomato lines, which had reduced transcript abundance of both genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534509/a-novel-interaction-of-pak4-with-ppar%C3%AE-to-regulate-nox1-and-radiation-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioma
#5
D Kesanakurti, D Maddirela, Y K Banasavadi-Siddegowda, T-H Lai, Z Qamri, N K Jacob, D Sampath, S Mohanam, B Kaur, V K Puduvalli
Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM) is, in part, attributed to increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced tumor cell dissemination in adjacent brain parenchyma after ionizing radiation (IR). EMT is associated with aggressive behavior, increased stem-like characteristics and treatment resistance in malignancies; however, the underlying signaling mechanisms that regulate EMT are poorly understood. We identified grade-dependent p21-activated kinases 4 (PAK4) upregulation in gliomas and further determined its role in mesenchymal transition and radioresistance...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533545/treatment-effects-of-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-shenks-in-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-through-regulation-of-tgf-beta-smad3-signaling-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Haiyan Chu, Ying Shi, Shuai Jiang, Qicheng Zhong, Yongqiang Zhao, Qingmei Liu, Yanyun Ma, Xiangguang Shi, Weifeng Ding, Xiaodong Zhou, Jimin Cui, Li Jin, Gang Guo, Jiucun Wang
Pulmonary fibrosis is a kind of devastating interstitial lung disease due to the limited therapeutic strategies. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practices have put forth Shenks as a promising treatment approach. Here, we performed in vivo study and in vitro study to delineate the anti-fibrotic mechanisms behind Shenks treatment for pulmonary fibrosis. We found that regardless of the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, Shenks was able to attenuate BLM-induced-fibrosis in mice, down regulate extracellular matrix genes expression, and reduce collagen production...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532757/redox-redux-and-nadph-oxidase%C3%A2-nox-even-more-complicated-than-we-thought%C3%A2-it%C3%A2-might-be
#7
Frank L Meyskens, Feng Liu-Smith
The NOX (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase) family includes seven unique members that are involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including extensive interaction with UVR and the skin. NOX1 is uniquely present and activated by UVB radiation with biphasic expression of the enzyme immediately and then after a several-hour delay. Specific inhibition of both early and late NOX1 activation leads to evidence of decreased photocarcinogenesis in in vitro keratinocytes and in well-characterized mouse models in which antitumor efficacy has been shown; inhibiting only late NOX activation does not exhibit such effects...
June 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532211/rotenone-induces-nephrotoxicity-in-rats-oxidative-damage-and-apoptosis
#8
Xiao-Wen Jiang, Lu Qiao, Xin-Xin Feng, Lin Liu, Qing-Wei Wei, Xue-Wei Wang, Wen-Hui Yu
Previous studies have examined rotenone toxicity on the human central nervous system, especially in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, but few have investigated the effects of rotenone on the kidney. Here, rotenone-induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated by determining morphological, biochemical, oxidative stress-related, and apoptotic factor alterations in rat renal tissue. Morphological and biochemical analyses showed that rotenone administration to rats damaged renal tissue. Western blot results revealed that rotenone induced oxidative damage, causing overproduction of glutathione, malonaldehyde, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity...
May 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532055/gold-nanoparticles-prevent-cognitive-deficits-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-sporadic-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#9
Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Gabriela K Ferreira, Allison José Pires, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Débora Laureano de Souza, Joice de Abreu Brandolfi, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Marcos M S Paula, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia in the aged brain. Even though its etiology is unknown, factors such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impaired insulin signaling may play a role. We used a sporadic AD model in rats generated by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (i.c.v.-STZ) injection to test the therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference between the STZ+GNPs group and the STZ group in the analyzed markers...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531112/effects-of-polyphenols-on-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury-in-cardiomyocytes
#10
REVIEW
Rosanna Mattera, Monica Benvenuto, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Ilaria Tresoldi, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Laura Masuelli, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528741/in-vitro-immune-toxicity-of-ochratoxin-a-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-a-role-for-the-ros-relative-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway
#11
Haibin Xu, Shu Hao, Fang Gan, Hong Wang, Jing Xu, Dandan Liu, Kehe Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) frequently contaminates a wide variety of food and feeds, inducing immune toxicity of animals. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) cell line 3D4/21 were chosen as a model, and treated by various concentrations of OTA. The results showed that OTA induced immune toxicity of PAMs in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by cell viability, LDH release, Annexin V/PI staining, Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression...
May 18, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528294/isoliquiritigenin-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-alleviates-mitochondrial-impairment-by-sirt1-activation-in-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#12
Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Ashutosh Kumar
Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527699/at1-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
REVIEW
Tatsuo Kawai, Steven J Forrester, Shannon O'Brien, Ariele Baggett, Victor Rizzo, Satoru Eguchi
The importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has been well described whereas the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) is one of the key players in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The AT1 receptor promotes various intracellular signaling pathways resulting in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and end organ damage. Accumulating evidence shows the complex picture of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling; AT1 receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein-dependent signaling, transactivation of growth factor receptors, NADPH oxidase and ROS signaling, G protein-independent signaling, including the β-arrestin signals and interaction with several AT1 receptor interacting proteins...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525935/design-synthesis-and-characterization-of-doped-titanium-oxide-nanomaterials-with-environmental-and-angiogenic-applications
#14
Susheel Kumar Nethi, Neeraja Aparna Anand P, Beatriz Rico-Oller, Antonio Rodríguez-Diéguez, Santiago Gómez-Ruiz, Chitta Ranjan Patra
Since the last decade, the metal composite nanostructures have evolved as promising candidates in regard to their wide applications in the fields of science and engineering. Recently, several investigators identified the titanium based nanomaterials as excellent agents for multifunctional environmental and biomedical applications. In this perspective, we have developed a series of zinc-doped (2 and 5%) titanium oxide-based nanomaterials using various reaction conditions and calcination temperatures (TZ1-TZ3: calcined at 500°C, TZ4-TZ6: calcined at 600°C and TZ7-TZ9: calcined at 700°C)...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525621/ros-induced-store-operated-ca2-entry-coupled-to-parp-1-hyperactivation-is-independent-of-parg-activity-in-necrotic-cell-death
#15
Frances M Munoz, Fengjiao Zhang, Argel Islas-Robles, Serrine S Lau, Terrence J Monks
2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a potent nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of benzene and hydroquinone, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing DNA strand breaks and the subsequent activation of DNA repair enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1. Under robust oxidative DNA damage, PARP-1 is hyperactivated, resulting in the depletion of NAD+ and ATP with accompanying elevations in intracellular calcium concentrations (iCa2+), and ultimately necrotic cell death...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525387/sestrin-2-suppresses-cells-proliferation-through-ampk-mtorc1-pathway-activation-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Jin-Lai Wei, Min Fang, Zhong-Xue Fu, Shou-Ru Zhang, Jin-Bao Guo, Rong Wang, Zhen-Bing Lv, Yong-Fu Xiong
Sestrin 2 is a conserved antioxidant protein that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We previously showed that sestrin 2 is abnormally decreased in colorectal cancer (CRC). To elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the potential contribution of sestrin 2 to CRC, we used a lentiviral expression vector system to determine the effects of sestrin 2 overexpression on human CRC cells. We found that sestrin 2 overexpression decreased ROS production, inhibited cell growth, and stimulated apoptosis in two CRC cell lines...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525376/exploiting-ros-and-metabolic-differences-to-kill-cisplatin-resistant-lung-cancer
#17
Medhi Wangpaichitr, Chunjing Wu, Ying Ying Li, Dan J M Nguyen, Hande Kandemir, Sumedh Shah, Shumei Chen, Lynn G Feun, Jeffrey S Prince, Macus T Kuo, Niramol Savaraj
Cisplatin resistance remains a major problem in the treatment of lung cancer. We have discovered that cisplatin resistant (CR) lung cancer cells, regardless of the signaling pathway status, share the common parameter which is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and undergo metabolic reprogramming. CR cells were no longer addicted to the glycolytic pathway, but rather relied on oxidative metabolism. They took up twice as much glutamine and were highly sensitive to glutamine deprivation. Glutamine is hydrolyzed to glutamate for glutathione synthesis, an essential factor to abrogate high ROS via xCT antiporter...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524642/polydatin-reduces-staphylococcus-aureus-lipoteichoic-acid-induced-injury-by-attenuating-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-tlr2-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling
#18
Gan Zhao, Kangfeng Jiang, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng, Xiuli Peng
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes severe inflammation in various infectious diseases, leading to high mortality. The clinical application of antibiotics has gained a significant curative effect. However, it has led to the emergence of various resistant bacteria. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the protective effect of polydatin (PD), a traditional Chinese medicine extract, on S. aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced injury in vitro and in vivo. First, a significant improvement in the pathological conditions of PD in vivo was observed, suggesting that PD had a certain protective effect on LTA-induced injury in a mouse model...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524116/inhibition-of-autophagy-promotes-salinomycin-induced-apoptosis-via-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-pi3k-akt-mtor-and-erk-p38-mapk-dependent-signaling-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#19
Kwang-Youn Kim, Kwang-Il Park, Sang-Hun Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Sul-Gi Park, Young Woo Kim, Young-Kyo Seo, Jin-Yeul Ma, Soon-Cheol Ahn
Recently, the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis has become an important factor in chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Inhibition of autophagy may be an effective strategy to improve the treatment of chemo-resistant cancer by consistent exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. However, no reports have clearly elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, we assessed whether salinomycin, a promising anticancer drug, induces apoptosis and elucidated potential antitumor mechanisms in chemo-resistant prostate cancer cells...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523458/the-respiratory-chain-inhibitor-rotenone-affects-peroxisomal-dynamics-via-its-microtubule-destabilising-activity
#20
Josiah B Passmore, Sonia Pinho, Maria Gomez-Lazaro, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes and mitochondria in mammalian cells are closely linked subcellular organelles, which maintain a redox-sensitive relationship. Their interplay and role in ROS signalling are supposed to impact on age-related and degenerative disorders. Whereas the generation of peroxisome-derived oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial morphology and function, little is known about the impact of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress on peroxisomes. Here, we investigated the effect of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone on peroxisomal and mitochondrial membrane dynamics...
May 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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