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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723556/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#1
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
The innate immune response is critical for animal homeostasis and is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. This response depends on specialized cells that recognize, internalize, and destroy microbial invaders through phagocytosis. This is coupled to autonomous or non-autonomous cellular signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production. Lipids are known signaling factors in this process, as the acute phase response of macrophages is accompanied by systemic lipid changes that help resolve inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722058/activation-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-attenuates-lanthanum-chloride-induced-injuries-in-primary-rat-astrocytes
#2
Lijin Zhang, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Cuihong Jin, Xiaobo Lu, Xiaoyu Hu, Yaling Sun, Xiang Gao, Yuan Cai
Lanthanum (La) exposure can lead to learning and memory disorder in animals; however, the underlying mechanism of La induced neurotoxicity is still unknown. It has been demonstrated that Nrf2 activation by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) results in neuroprotection against brain injuries. However, little study has been done with respect to its effect on La induced neurotoxicity. Herein, experiments are undertaken to determine if there is a correlation between La damaged astrocytes and the Nrf2/ARE signalling pathway...
July 19, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720506/arecoline-activates-latent-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-via-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-buccal-fibroblasts-suppression-by-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
#3
Yu-Ping Hsieh, King-Jean Wu, Hsin-Ming Chen, Yi-Ting Deng
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by the chewing of areca nut (AN). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of OSF. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2) and early growth response-1 (Egr-1) are important mediators in the fibrotic response to TGFβ in several fibrotic disorders including OSF. Arecoline, a major AN alkaloid, induced the synthesis of CCN2 and Egr-1 in human buccal mucosal fibroblast (BMFs)...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720385/differences-of-lipid-membrane-modulation-and-oxidative-stress-by-digoxin-and-21-benzylidene-digoxin
#4
Lilian Nd Silva, Silmara Lg Alves, Jessica Venugopal, Vanessa F Cortes, Herica L Santos, José Afp Villar, Leandro A Barbosa
Cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are compounds which bind to the Na,K-ATPase, leading to its inhibition and in some cases initiating signaling cascades. Long utilized as a treatment for congestive heart disease, CTS have more recently been observed to inhibit proliferation and cause apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. A synthetic derivative of the CTS digoxin, called 21-benzylidene digoxin (21-BD), activates the Na,K-ATPase rather than cause its inhibition, as its parent compound does. Here, the mechanism behind the unique effects of 21-BD are further explored...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719807/evaluation-of-a-novel-radiotracer-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Alan A Wilson, Oleg Sadovski, José N Nobrega, Roger J Raymond, Francis R Bambico, Mina G Nashed, Armando Garcia, Peter M Bloomfield, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Junchao Tong
INTRODUCTION: Few, if any, radiotracers are available for the in vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system. ROS play a critical role in normal cell processes such as signaling and homeostasis but overproduction of ROS is implicated in several disorders. We describe here the radiosynthesis and initial ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]hydromethidine ([(11)C]HM) as a radiotracer to image ROS using positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: [(11)C]HM and its deuterated isotopologue [(11)C](4) were produced using [(11)C]methyl triflate in a one-pot, two-step reaction and purified by high performance liquid chromatography...
June 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718972/enhancement-of-mtor-signaling-contributes-to-acquired-x-ray-and-c-ion-resistance-in-mouse-squamous-carcinoma-cell-line
#6
Katsutoshi Sato, Rikako Azuma, Takashi Imai, Takashi Shimokawa
Our aim was to evaluate whether repetition of C-ion (carbon ion beam) irradiation induces radioresistance as well as repeated X-ray irradiation in cancer cell lines, and to find the key molecular pathway for radioresistance by comparing radioresistant cancer cells with their parental cells. A mouse squamous cell carcinoma cell line, NR-S1, and radioresistant cancer cells, NR-S1-C30 (C30) and NR-S1-X60 (X60) established by repetition of C-ion and X-ray irradiation respectively, were used. X-ray and C-ion sensitivity, changes in lysosome, mitochondria, intracellular ATP and ROS (reactive oxygen species) level, and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling were evaluated...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718813/suppression-of-nrf2-activity-by-chestnut-leaf-extract-increases-chemosensitivity-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-to-paclitaxel
#7
Yaejin Woo, Jisun Oh, Jong-Sang Kim
Due to metastatic potential and drug resistance, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have become a critical target for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies showed that CSCs highly express NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes and thereby retain relatively low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since anticancer agents usually utilize ROS as an arsenal for killing cancer cells, we hypothesized that inhibition of Nrf2 activity could increase the sensitivity of CSCs to anticancer drugs, and thus enhancing their therapeutic efficacy...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718669/fruit-peel-polyphenolic-extract-induced-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-is-associated-with-ros-production-and-modulation-of-p38mapk-erk1-2-and-the-akt-signaling-pathway
#8
Martin Kello, Lucia Kulikova, Janka Vaskova, Alexandra Nagyova, Jan Mojzis
Polyphenols represent a large group of natural substances with different biological properties. Currently, polyphenols are well studied due to their free radicals' scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, some studies indicate that polyphenols also exhibit pro-oxidant properties. In this study, the possible involvement of the pro-oxidant activities of fruit polyphenols was investigated in relation to apoptosis induction. To determine the type of cell death induced by fruit polyphenols (Flavine; F7), we assessed a series of assays, including measurements of caspase-7 activation, membrane mitochondrial potential changes, reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities, and PARP cleavage...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718286/functionalized-selenium-nanosystem-as-radiation-sensitizer-of-125i-seeds-for-precise-cancer-therapy
#9
Yahui Yang, Qiang Xie, Zhennan Zhao, Lizhen He, Leung Chan, Yingxiang Liu, Yongle Chen, Mingjun Bai, Tao Pan, Yanni Qu, Long Ling, Tianfeng Chen
Although radiotherapy has been extensively applied in cancer treatment, external beam radiation therapy is still difficult to avoid damage to adjacent normal tissues in the process of delivering a sufficient radiation dose to the tumor sites of patients. To overcome this limitation, chemoradiotherapy, as a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy of radioactive seed, has been proposed to decrease the damage for tumor surrounding tissues and enhance the radiosensitivity of solid tumors. In the study, we designed and synthesized folic acid-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (FA@SeNPs) as cancer-targeting agent, which could be synergistically enhanced by the radioactive 125I seeds to realize anticancer efficacy and inhibited colony formation ability...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717410/fish-scale-collagen-peptides-protect-against-cocl2-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-cytotoxicity-and-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-ros-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-hacat-cells
#10
Fazli Subhan, Hae Yeong Kang, Yeseon Lim, Muhammad Ikram, Sun-Yong Baek, Songwan Jin, Young Hun Jeong, Jong Young Kwak, Sik Yoon
Skin diseases associated with inflammation or oxidative stress represent the most common problem in dermatology. The present study demonstrates that fish scale collagen peptides (FSCP) protect against CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity and TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in human HaCaT keratinocyte cells. Our study is the first to report that FSCP increase cell viability and ameliorate oxidative injury in HaCaT cells through mechanisms mediated by the downregulation of key proinflammatory cytokines, namely, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and iNOS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717360/ethanol-enhances-high-salinity-stress-tolerance-by-detoxifying-reactive-oxygen-species-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-rice
#11
Huong Mai Nguyen, Kaori Sako, Akihiro Matsui, Yuya Suzuki, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Chien Van Ha, Maho Tanaka, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Yoshiki Habu, Motoaki Seki
High-salinity stress considerably affects plant growth and crop yield. Thus, developing techniques to enhance high-salinity stress tolerance in plants is important. In this study, we revealed that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the ethanol-induced tolerance, we performed microarray analyses using A. thaliana seedlings. Our data indicated that the expression levels of 1,323 and 1,293 genes were upregulated by ethanol in the presence and absence of NaCl, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717222/fty720-induces-autophagy-associated-apoptosis-in-human-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cells-in-part-through-a-reactive-oxygen-species-mcl-1-dependent-mechanism
#12
Li-Yuan Bai, Chang-Fang Chiu, Shih-Jiuan Chiu, Po-Chen Chu, Jing-Ru Weng
In this study, we interrogated the mechanism by which the immunosuppressant FTY720 mediates anticancer effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. FTY720 differentially suppressed the viability of the OSCC cell lines SCC4, SCC25, and SCC2095 with IC50 values of 6.1, 6.3, and 4.5 μM, respectively. This antiproliferative effect was attributable to the ability of FTY720 to induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. Mechanistic evidence suggests that FTY720-induced apoptosis was associated with its ability to inhibit Akt-NF-κB signaling, to facilitate the proteasomal degradation of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1, and to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716056/the-inhibitory-effect-of-isoliquiritigenin-on-the-proliferation-of-human-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell
#13
Tianbao Chen, Shaoxiong Deng, Rong Lin
BACKGROUND: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has various biological activities including as antioxidant and an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. However, both oxidative stress and activated PI3K/AKT signaling contribute to the aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study is aimed to explore the effect of ISL on the proliferation of human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BrdU incorporation, cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal or ISL treated HASMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715730/redox-regulation-of-proteasome-function
#14
Maria Lefaki, Nikoletta Papaevgeniou, Niki Chondrogianni
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) were initially regarded mainly as metabolic by-products with damaging properties. Over the last decade, our understanding of their role in metabolism was drastically changed and they were recognized as essential mediators in cellular signaling cascades, as well as modulators of biochemical pathways. Proteostasis is highly affected by the various levels of intracellular and extracellular free radicals with either mild or severe outcomes. As part of the proteostatic network, the proteasome system is equally affected by redox alterations...
July 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714931/correlation-between-oxidative-stress-nutrition-and-cancer-initiation
#15
REVIEW
Subbroto Kumar Saha, Soo Bin Lee, Jihye Won, Hye Yeon Choi, Kyeongseok Kim, Gwang-Mo Yang, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Ssang-Goo Cho
Inadequate or excessive nutrient consumption leads to oxidative stress, which may disrupt oxidative homeostasis, activate a cascade of molecular pathways, and alter the metabolic status of various tissues. Several foods and consumption patterns have been associated with various cancers and approximately 30-35% of the cancer cases are correlated with overnutrition or malnutrition. However, several contradictory studies are available regarding the association between diet and cancer risk, which remains to be elucidated...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714804/cellular-proliferation-and-differentiation-induced-by-single-layer-molybdenum-disulfide-and-mediation-mechanisms-of-proteins-via-the-akt-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-pathway
#16
Wei Zou, Xingli Zhang, Mengyang Zhao, Qixing Zhou, Xiangang Hu
Single-layer molybdenum disulfide (SLMoS2) is a novel kind of 2D nanosheet that has attracted great attention regarding its use in biosensors, drug delivery, tissue engineering and therapy. However, our results demonstrated that SLMoS2 accelerated proliferation and promoted myogenic differentiation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). The abnormal proliferation and differentiation of HELFs contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Specifically, SLMoS2 significantly stimulated the expression of myofibroblast- and mesenchymal-associated genes and proteins...
July 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714389/a-peptide-based-pro-drug-ameliorates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-in-vitro-sh-sy5y-cells
#17
Sourav Kumar, Ashim Paul, Sourav Kalita, Awanish Kumar, Saurabh Srivastav, Somoday Hazra, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Bhubaneswar Mandal, Amal Chandra Mondal
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common protein misfolding neurodegenerative disorder, is one of the most common forms of dementia. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derived amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins accumulated into interneuronal spaces and plays a crucial role in the disease progression and its pathology. The aggregated Aβ exerts its neurotoxic effects by inducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in neuronal cells. OBJECTIVES: We have investigated the effects of a synthesized Pro-Drug peptide (PDp) on Aβ1-40 induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, represents one of the most effective strategies in combating human AD...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714308/supersensitive-oxidation-responsive-biodegradable-peg-hydrogels-for-glucose-triggered-insulin-delivery
#18
Mei Zhang, Cheng-Cheng Song, Fu-Sheng Du, Zi-Chen Li
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive polymers and hydrogels represent an emerging family of intelligent materials owing to the key functions of ROS in physiological processes or pathological diseases. Nonetheless, the weaknesses such as low sensitivity, slow response, instability, or low mechanical strength are associated with the limited ROS-responsive polymeric or supramolecular hydrogels. In this study, a novel type of oxidation-responsive degradable hydrogels was fabricated by the redox initiated radical polymerization of a 4-arm-PEG acrylic macromonomer that possesses an H2O2-cleavable phenylboronic acid linker in each of the arms...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713895/role-of-quercetin-in-protecting-arpe%C3%A2-19-cells-against-h2o2%C3%A2-induced-injury-via-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-like-2%C3%A2-pathway-activation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inhibition
#19
Sisi Weng, Lei Mao, Yuanyuan Gong, Tao Sun, Qing Gu
Age‑related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in the western world. Research has demonstrated that degenerative and progressive conditions of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells are the key pathogenic mechanisms in AMD. Previous research has indicated the anti‑apoptosis, anti‑oxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑cancer properties of quercetin. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on the ARPE‑19 human retinal pigment epithelial cell line...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713890/ho%C3%A2-1-alleviates-cholesterol%C3%A2-induced-oxidative-stress-through-activation-of-nrf2-erk-and-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-pathways-in-endothelial-cells
#20
Xiaohan Jin, Zhongwei Xu, Rong Fan, Chengyan Wang, Wenjie Ji, Yongqiang Ma, Wei Cai, Yan Zhang, Ning Yang, Shuang Zou, Xin Zhou, Yuming Li
Heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1), as an inducible and cytoprotective enzyme, has a protective effect against cellular oxidative stress. In the present study, cholesterol was used to induce lipid overload and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress in EA.hy926 cells. In the present study, western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis were used to detect the expression level of important molecules in the metabolism process of cholesterol. It was confirmed that cholesterol stimulation upregulated the expression of HO‑1 in a time‑dependent manner via the activation and translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), activation of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and increasing intercellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) concentration...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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