Read by QxMD icon Read


Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl
One of the most frequent statements, provided in different variations in the introduction of experimental studies on multiple sclerosis (MS), is that "Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating autoimmune disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a suitable model to study its pathogenesis". However, so far, no single experimental model covers the entire spectrum of the clinical, pathological, or immunological features of the disease. Many different models are available, which proved to be highly useful for studying different aspects of inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system...
October 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz, Sara L Colpitts, Christopher Kircher, Eli J Kasper, Kiel M Telesford, Sakhina Begum-Haque, Anudeep Pant, Lloyd H Kasper
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether as an orally delivered treatment, teriflunomide, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase approved to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, could affect gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) immune responses functionally. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were treated orally with teriflunomide and flow cytometric analysis of immune GALT cells performed ex vivo, and adoptive transfer experiments were used to test the protective effects of GALT regulatory T (Treg) cells...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Keiko Yamada, Junhui Yuan, Tomoo Mano, Hiroshi Takashima, Masahiko Shibata
BACKGROUND: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II with WNK1/HSN2 gene mutation is a rare disease characterized by early-onset demyelination sensory loss and skin ulceration. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of an autonomic disorder have been reported clearly in a patient with WNK/HSN2 gene mutation and only one case of a Japanese patient with the WNK/HSN2 gene mutation of HSAN type II was previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a 54-year-old woman who had an early childhood onset of insensitivity to pain; superficial, vibration, and proprioception sensation disturbances; and several symptoms of autonomic failure (e...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
F Mashayekhi, Z Salehi
In the central nervous system (CNS) the main proteins of myelin are proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and CNPase. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a minor component of the myelin sheath, but is an important autoantigen linked to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). CNPase is expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes in the CNS, and the appearance of CNPase seems to be one of the earliest events of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Panagiotis Kokotis, Martin Schmelz, Aikaterini E Papagianni, Thomas Zambelis, Nikos Karandreas
INTRODUCTION: In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP) the impairment of unmyelinated nerve fibers appears unexpected. The measurement of the electrically induced axon flare reflex is a clinical test to assess the peripheral C-nociceptor function. In this study we compared the flare area in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 18 patients fulfilling the criteria for CIDP (11 male, mean age 51...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Ozan Erol, Erdinç Aydın
BACKGROUND: Hemifacial spasm is a sudden, involuntary and synchronous spasm of the facial muscles. The most frequent cause of this condition is compression of the facial nerves due to vascular pathologies. The most commonly used method of treatment is Botulinum toxin injection. However, the gold standard treatment is surgical treatment. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old male patient with hemifacial spasms, which had occurred due to a rare parotid mass that had been surgically treated, is presented in this case...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Athanasios Papathanasiou, Ioannis Markakis
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is mainly classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Although diagnosis of GBS requires progressive weakness and universal areflexia or hyporeflexia, cases of GBS with preserved or increased deep tendon reflexes (DTRs) have been increasingly recognized. We report three cases of GBS, presenting at a single unit in six months. Our first case presented with pure sensory symptoms. The second case had nonspecific generalized weakness, while the third presented with typical ascending weakness...
2016: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
W Oliver Tobin, Chiara Costanzi, Yong Guo, Joseph E Parisi, Stephen D Weigand, Claudia F Lucchinetti
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of central nervous system-idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (CNS-IIDD) in the elderly is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a cohort of 30 pathologically proven CNS-IIDD patients ⩾65 years. METHODS: Elderly multiple sclerosis (MS)/clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients were compared to a cohort of 125 patients with pathologically proven MS/CIS and symptom onset <65 years...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Anastasiya G Trenova, Georgi S Slavov, Maria G Manova, Jana B Aksentieva, Lyuba D Miteva, Spaska A Stanilova
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a socially significant immune-mediated disease, characterized by demyelination, axonal transection and oligodendropathy in the central nervous system. Inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration lead to brain atrophy and cognitive deficit in up to 75% of the patients. Cognitive dysfunctions impact significantly patients' quality of life, independently from the course and phase of the disease. The relationship between pathological brain findings and cognitive impairment is a subject of intensive research...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Yasuyuki Osanai, Takeshi Shimizu, Takuma Mori, Yumiko Yoshimura, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu, Yoshitaka Kimori, Shinsuke Koyama, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes myelinate neuronal axons during development and increase conduction velocity of neuronal impulses in the central nervous system. Neuronal axons extend from multiple brain regions and pass through the white matter; however, whether oligodendrocytes ensheath a particular set of axons or do so randomly within the mammalian brain remains unclear. We developed a novel method to visualize individual oligodendrocytes and axon derived from a particular brain region in mouse white matter using a combinational injection of attenuated rabies virus and adeno-associated virus...
October 19, 2016: Glia
J Pakpoor, D Saylor, I Izbudak, L Liu, E M Mowry, D M Yousem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The increasing use of the emergency department MR imaging scanner at our institution raises questions about its added value to certain patient groups. We hypothesized that the use of emergency department MR imaging for identifying active demyelination in MS patients presenting with new neurologic symptoms would be of low yield. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic medical records were reviewed for patients with MS who had emergency department MR imaging scans for a suspected MS exacerbation between March 1, 2014, and March 1, 2016...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Ke-Wei Tian, Fan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), and results in CNS inflammation and damage to myelin. In this study, we examined the possible synergistic effects of C16, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2) in alleviating inflammation in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We employed multiple histological, morphological and iconographic assays to examine the effect of those drugs on disease onset, clinical scores and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Nabil K El Ayoubi, Samia J Khoury
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Only a few biomarkers are available in MS clinical practice, such as cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands and immunoglobulin index, serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, and serum anti-John Cunningham virus antibodies. Thus, there is a significant unmet need for biomarkers to assess prognosis, response to therapy, or potential treatment complications. Here we describe emerging biomarkers that are in development, focusing on those from peripheral blood...
October 18, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Dustin Anderson, Grayson Beecher, Trevor Steve, Ho Jen, Richard Camicioli, Douglas W Zochodne
INTRODUCTION: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a common lymphoid malignancy rarely associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). In most cases, GBS does not precede HL. METHODS: We describe a patient with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) who fulfilled criteria for GBS that heralded undiagnosed HL. RESULTS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed albuminocytologic dissociation with significant protein elevation (250 mg/dL)...
October 18, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Stefanie Albrecht, Karin Hagemeier, Marc Ehrlich, Claudia Kemming, Jacqueline Trotter, Tanja Kuhlmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: PloS One
Volkan Solmaz, Selçuk Yavuz, Ahmet İnanr, Dürdane Aksoy, Elmas Pektaş, Aslan Tekataş, Semiha Gulsum Kurt
INTRODUCTION: our aim was to determine if there are electro diagnostic (EDX) differences between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), CTS+hypothyroidism (HT), CTS+fibromyalgia (FMS), CTS+rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and idiopathic CTS cases by comparing nerve conduction studies (NCS). METHOD: This research examined electrophysiological studies of untreated 47 HT+CTS, 47 DM+CTS, 49 RA+CTS, 52 FMS+CTS, 50 idiopathic CTS cases, and a healthy control group of 50 individuals (total of 293 patients and 433 hands with CTS)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Yusuf A Rajabally, Fu Liong Hiew
INTRODUCTION: The most efficient method of performing electrophysiology for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed electrophysiological data of 97 consecutive GBS patients from Birmingham, U.K. (2001-12) studied ≤3 weeks post-onset. RESULTS: The sensitivity of electrophysiology for each GBS subtype was dependent on the tested upper and lower limb nerves. In acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), abnormalities were predominant in the arms, whereas leg abnormalities predominated in axonal GBS...
October 17, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Ana Luiza M Amorim, Nadia C Cabral, Fabiane M Osaku, Claudio A Len, Enedina M L Oliveira, Maria Teresa Terreri
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Autoimmunity in patients with demyelinating disease and in their families has been broadly investigated and discussed. Recent studies show a higher incidence of rheumatic autoimmune diseases among adult patients with MS or NMO and their families, but there are no studies in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association of MS and NMO with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in pediatric patients...
September 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Mohammad A Al-Qudah, Ahmed Al-Dwairi
Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that are synthesized as pre-pro-neurotrophins on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are subsequently processed and then secreted as mature proteins. During synthesis, neurotrophins are sorted in the trans-Golgi apparatus into 2 pathways of secretion; the constitutive and the regulated pathways. Neurotrophins in the constitutive pathway are secreted cautiously without any trigger, while in the regulated pathway of secretion an external stimulus elevates the calcium concentration intracellularly leading to neurotrophin release...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Yu Kobayashi, Jun Tohyama, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Shinichi Magara, Hideshi Kawashima, Noriyuki Akasaka, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto
Cerebral folate deficiency due to folate receptor 1 gene (FOLR1) mutations is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a brain-specific folate transport defect. It is characterized by late infantile onset, severe psychomotor regression, epilepsy, and leukodystrophy. We describe a consanguineous girl exhibiting severe developmental regression, intractable epilepsy, polyneuropathy, and profound hypomyelination with cortical involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical disturbances in addition to profound hypomyelination and cerebellar atrophy...
October 12, 2016: Brain & Development
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"