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Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Moritz Kronlage, Philip Bäumer, Daniel Schwarz, Ralf Gold, Martin Bendszus, Min-Suk Yoon
Background: We present a clinical, electrophysiological, sonographical and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) study examining the complementary role of two neuroimaging methods of the peripheral nervous system for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Furthermore, we explore the significance of cross-sectional area (CSA) increase through correlations with MRN markers of nerve integrity. Methods: A total of 108 nerve segments on the median, ulnar, radial, tibial and fibular nerve, as well as the lumbar and cervical plexus of 18 CIDP patients were examined with high-resonance nerve ultrasound (HRUS) and MRN additionally to the nerve conduction studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Makoto Hara, Eugenia Martinez-Hernandez, Helena Ariño, Thais Armangué, Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Albert Saiz, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical relevance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and IgM N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in several diseases, and whether the IgG antibodies occur in disorders other than anti-NMDAR encephalitis. METHODS: Evaluation of IgG, IgA, and IgM NMDAR antibodies in serum of 300 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, stroke, dementia, schizophrenia, or seronegative autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies and their effect on cultured neurons were examined with cell-based assays and brain and live neuronal immunostaining...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Patrick Belikan, Ulrike Bühler, Christina Wolf, Gautam K Pramanik, René Gollan, Frauke Zipp, Volker Siffrin
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Myelin-specific CD4+ Th lymphocytes are known to play a major role in both MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). CCR7 is a critical element for immune cell trafficking and recirculation, that is, lymph node homing, under homeostatic conditions; blocking CCR7+ central memory cells from egress of lymph nodes is a therapeutic approach in MS. To define the effect of CD4+ T cell-specific constitutive deletion of CCR7 in the priming and effector phase in EAE, we used an active EAE approach in T cell reconstituted Rag1-/- mice, as well as adoptive transfer EAE, in which mice received in vitro-primed CCR7-/- or CCR7+/+ myelin Ag TCR-transgenic 2d2 Th17 cells...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Peng Xia, Xiaoting Gong, Lin Xiao, Yida Wang, Tianzhuo Zhang, Qingyuan Liao, Xiaoning Mo, Xiaoyan Qiu, Jing Huang
CCDC134 (coiled-coil domain containing 134), a cytokine-like molecule, was previously reported to have antitumor effects via by augmenting CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunity. However, the dynamic change of CCDC134 expression pattern in spinal cords that may be involved in the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, remains unclear. In this study, we found that CCDC134 were markedly increased in the spinal cord during the progression of EAE. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CCDC134 significantly reduced the severity of EAE and slowed down the ongoing EAE, which correlated with reduced spinal cord inflammation and demyelination...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Neeraj Jain, Rajendra V Phadke, Gaurav Chauhan, S P Ambesh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Mario A Saporta, Renata de Moraes Maciel
The human skin is richly innervated by nerve fibers of different calibers and functions, including thickly myelinated large fibers that act as afferents for mechanoreceptors in the dermal papillae. Skin biopsies offer minimally invasive access to these myelinated fibers, in which each internode represents an individual myelinating Schwann cell. Using this approach, human myelinated nerve fibers can be analyzed by several methods, including immunostaining, morphometric and ultrastructural analysis, and molecular biology techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ke-Wei Tian, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Shu Han
The placenta has emerged as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of the absence of ethical issues, non-invasive access, and abundant yield. However, inflammatory cell invasion into grafts negatively impacts the survival and efficacy of transplanted cells. Previous studies have shown that synthetic C16 peptide can competitively block the transmigration of leukocytes into the central nerve system, while angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) can inhibit inflammation-induced blood vessel leakage and inflammatory cell infiltration in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christoph Niemietz, Christoph Röcken, Matthias Schilling, Jörg Stypman, Constantin E Uhlig, Hartmut H-J Schmidt
Transthyretin-related Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (ATTR Amyloidosis, former FAP, here called TTR-FAP) is a rare, progressive autosomal dominant inherited amyloid disease ending fatal within 5 - 15 years after final diagnosis. TTR-FAP is caused by mutations of transthyretin (TTR), which forms amyloid fibrils affecting peripheral and autonomic nerves, the heart and other organs. Due to the phenotypic heterogeneity and partly not specific enough clinical symptoms, diagnosis of TTR-FAP can be complicated...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
K Soelberg, A C Nilsson, C Nielsen, S Jarius, M Reindl, B Wildemann, S T Lillevang, N Asgari
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory optic neuropathy, where the genetic and autoimmune dependency remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autoimmune and immunogenetic aspects of ON. METHOD: In a prospective population-based cohort 51 patients with ON were included. At follow up 20 patients had progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS-ON). All patients were screened for neuronal and systemic autoantibodies. HLA genotypes and allele and genotype frequencies of the PTPN22 C1858T and the PD-1...
March 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Yoshitoshi Kasuya, Hiroki Umezawa, Masahiko Hatano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) consists of three phases-acute, secondary, and chronic damages-and limiting the development of secondary damage possibly improves functional recovery after SCI. A major component of the secondary phase of SCI is regarded as inflammation-triggered events: induction of cytokines, edema, microglial activation, apoptosis of cells including oligodendrocytes and neurons, demyelination, formation of the astrocytic scar, and so on. Two major stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-are activated in various types of cells in response to cellular stresses such as apoptotic stimuli and inflammatory waves...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Margarita Villar, Lourdes Mateos-Hernandez, Jose de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Why an autoimmune disease that is the main cause of the acute neuromuscular paralysis worldwide has not yet a well-characterized cause or an effective treatment? The existence of different clinical variants for the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) coupled with the fact that a high number of pathogens can cause an infection that sometimes, but not always, precedes the development of the syndrome, confers a high degree of uncertainty for both prognosis and treatment. In the post-genomic era, the development of omics technologies for the high-throughput analysis of biological molecules is allowing the characterization of biological systems in a degree of depth unimaginable before...
March 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
P Heydarpour, A Manouchehrinia, O Beiki, S E Mousavi, A Abdolalizadeh, M Moradi -Lakeh, M A Sahraian
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder affecting young adults. Environmental factors and lifestyle behaviors are pivotal in MS pathophysiology. Smoking has been considered as an important risk factor in MS. Various recent studies have been conducted to measure the role of smoking on worsening disability in patients with MS, thus we intended to systematically assess effect of smoking on evolution of disability in this study. MATERIALS & METHODS: We queried MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library with following keywords "Multiple Sclerosis, Smoking, Tobacco Use, Disability" on December 1st 2016...
March 15, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Adriano Luís Soares De Souza, Stefan Rudin, Rui Chang, Keith Mitchell, Timothy Crandall, Shuning Huang, Ji-Kyung Choi, Shinji L Okitsu, Danielle L Graham, Blake Tomkinson, Tammy Dellovade
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2 × Ob1)F1 mouse in a dose-dependent fashion...
March 14, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Jeffrey A Allen, Kenneth C Gorson, Deborah Gelinas
Introduction: We explored adherence to the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) by reviewing data from a specialty pharmacy database. Materials and Methods: Clinical and electrophysiologic data were reviewed for 65 consecutive patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for CIDP. Three neuromuscular neurologists independently classified cases according to EFNS/PNS criteria as (1) fulfilling CIDP criteria; (2) non-CIDP (neither clinical nor electrophysiologic criteria met); or (3) unknown (insufficient information)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Cobra Payghani, Fatemeh Khani, Aryan Rafieezadeh, Parham Reisi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Bahman Rashidi
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which has no any known definitive treatment. Studies have shown that thyroid hormones (THs) in addition to their roles in the development of the nervous system and the production of myelin have important roles in the adult's brain function. Since the only way to treat MS is the restoration of myelin, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine on visual evoked potential (VEP) impairment following local injections of lysolecithin into the rat optic chiasm...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Changqing Lu, Lihua Dong, Hui Zhou, Qianmei Li, Guojiao Huang, Shu Jun Bai, Linchuan Liao
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A variety of brain disorders from "classical" demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, schizophrenia, depression, Down syndrome and autism, are shown myelination defects. Oligodendrocyte myelination is regulated by a complex interplay of intrinsic, epigenetic and extrinsic factors. Gpr17 (G protein-coupled receptor 17) is a G protein-coupled receptor, and has been identified to be a regulator for oligodendrocyte development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yasutaka Tajima, Mariko Matsumura, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito
A 27-year-old woman with optic neuritis and cervical myelitis developed hypertrophic demyelinating polyneuropathy. It was hypothesized that the diagnosis was combined central and peripheral demyelination. A hypertrophic nerve was observed subcutaneously, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked hypertrophy of the nerve roots. The patient was negative for anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. Her anti-neurofascin 155 antibody levels was slightly elevated, but it was not definitely positive. Pulsed steroid therapy and the administration of immunoglobulin ameliorated her symptoms...
2018: Internal Medicine
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Sunethra Senanayake
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of osmotic demyelination syndrome is not completely understood and usually occurs with severe and prolonged hyponatremia, particularly with rapid correction. It can occur even in normonatremic patients, especially who have risk factors like alcoholism, malnutrition and liver disease. Bilateral tongue fasciculations with denervation pattern in electromyogram is a manifestation of damage to the hypoglossal nucleus or hypoglossal nerves. Tongue fasciculations were reported rarely in some cases of osmotic demyelination syndrome, but the exact mechanism is not explained...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Evanthia Bernitsas
The spectrum of "demyelinating disorders" is broad and it includes various disorders with central nervous system (CNS) demyelination[...].
March 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
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