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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166458/mog-igg-associated-optic-neuritis-is-not-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Bruna Klein da Costa, Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Jefferson Becker, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Autoantibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been reported in patients with inflammatory central nervous system disorders including isolated optic neuritis (ON). We compared our MOG-IgG ON patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients presenting with ON. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among the total of 38 patients with optic neuropathies, six patients with isolated ON were MOG-IgG positive and eight patients with ON fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MS. All MS patients were negative for MOG-IgG using a cell-based assay...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166135/application-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-quantitatively-monitoring-chronic-constriction-injury-of-rabbit-sciatic-nerves-correlation-with-histological-and-functional-changes
#2
Wenjun Wu, Yanfeng Niu, Xiangquan Kong, Dingxi Liu, Xi Long, Shenglei Shu, Xiaoyun Su, Bing Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Yamei Ma, Lixia Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in quantitatively monitoring chronic constriction injuries (CCI) of sciatic nerves and to analyze the association of DTI parameters with nerve histology and limb function. METHODS: CCI was created on sciatic nerves in the right hind legs of 20 rabbits with the left as control. DTI parameters -- fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) -- and limb function were longitudinally evaluated...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165835/the-function-of-contactin-2-tag-1-in-oligodendrocytes-in-health-and-demyelinating-pathology
#3
Lida Zoupi, Maria Savvaki, Katerina Kalemaki, Ilias Kalafatakis, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Domna Karagogeos
The oligodendrocyte maturation process and the transition from the pre-myelinating to the myelinating state are extremely important during development and in pathology. In the present study, we have investigated the role of the cell adhesion molecule CNTN2/TAG-1 on oligodendrocyte proliferation, differentiation, myelination, and function during development and under pathological conditions. With the combination of in vivo, in vitro, ultrastructural, and electrophysiological methods, we have mapped the expression of CNTN2 protein in the oligodendrocyte lineage during the different stages of myelination and its involvement on oligodendrocyte maturation, branching, myelin-gene expression, myelination, and axonal function...
November 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164611/serial-electrophysiology-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-retrospective-cohort-and-case-by-case-multicentre-analysis
#4
J Ibrahim, A-M Grapperon, F Manfredonia, P Y van den Bergh, S Attarian, Y A Rajabally
OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of serial electrophysiology in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in a multicenter setting and the reasons for change in electrodiagnostic subtypes with serial studies. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed serial electrophysiology of 51 patients with GBS from 4 European centres. Proportions of subtypes were determined at each timing. Individual case analyses were also performed where diagnostic changes occurred with either criteria, to ascertain if changes were due to disease progression or criteria inadequacy...
November 21, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163350/differential-diagnosis-of-vertigo-in-the-emergency-department-a-prospective-validation-study-of-the-standing-algorithm
#5
Simone Vanni, Rudi Pecci, Jonathan A Edlow, Peiman Nazerian, Rossana Santimone, Giuseppe Pepe, Marco Moretti, Andrea Pavellini, Cosimo Caviglioli, Claudia Casula, Sofia Bigiarini, Paolo Vannucchi, Stefano Grifoni
Objective: We investigated the reliability and accuracy of a bedside diagnostic algorithm for patients presenting with vertigo/unsteadiness to the emergency department. Methods: We enrolled consecutive adult patients presenting with vertigo/unsteadiness at a tertiary hospital. STANDING, the acronym for the four-step algorithm we have previously described, based on nystagmus observation and well-known diagnostic maneuvers includes (1) the discrimination between SponTAneous and positional nystagmus, (2) the evaluation of the Nystagmus Direction, (3) the head Impulse test, and (4) the evaluation of equilibrium (staNdinG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163172/central-administration-of-5z-7-oxozeaenol-protects-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-by-inhibiting-microglia-activation
#6
Lingli Lu, Xiuping Zhang, Huichun Tong, Wenlong Zhang, Pingyi Xu, Shaogang Qu
Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a vital upstream integrator of multiple pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, mediates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. Investigations targeting TAK1 provide new therapeutic options for chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. However, the role and mechanism of the TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-oxozeaenol in treating autoimmune demyelinating diseases remain unclear. This work aimed to identify whether 5Z-7-oxozeaenol exerts neuroprotective effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159817/long-term-safety-of-adalimumab-in-clinical-trials-in-adult-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-or-ulcerative-colitis
#7
J-F Colombel, W J Sandborn, W Reinisch, L Peyrin-Biroulet, R Panaccione, P Rutgeerts, S B Hanauer, S Ghosh, G Van Assche, A M Robinson, W Lau, J-F Maa, B Huang, B Pappalardo, H Read
BACKGROUND: Adalimumab is used to treat moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) when conventional therapies fail. AIM: To update long-term adalimumab safety from CD and UC trials; the previous report was CD only, 3160 patients/3402 patient-years (PYs). METHODS: Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs; first dose to 70 days after last dose/December 31, 2015) in adults in phase 2/3 and 3/3b trials and open-label extensions were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA-v18...
November 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#8
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159464/anti-mag-associated-cerebellar-ataxia-and-response-to-rituximab
#9
Panagiotis Zis, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao, Nigel Hoggard, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a glycoprotein specific to Schwann cells. Schwann cells produce myelin for nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system. MAG also plays a role in the central nervous system (CNS) by maintaining myelin integrity and inhibiting axonal regeneration from cerebellar neurons. There is a well-established link between distal demyelinating neuropathy and anti-MAG antibodies in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. We describe a series of five patients with anti-MAG antibodies with evidence of cerebellar rather than just sensory ataxia and our experience of treatment with rituximab...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159244/clinical-pathological-and-molecular-data-concerning-coenurus-cerebralis-in-sheep-in-egypt
#10
Said Amer, Ahmed ElKhatam, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Lamia I Bakr, Shereif Zidan, Ahmed Elsify, Mostafa A Mohamed, Chika Tada, Yutaka Nakai
This article contains information related to a recent study "Prevalence and Identity of Taenia multiceps cysts "Coenurus cerebralis" in Sheep in Egypt" (Amer et al., 2017) [1]. Specifically, affected sheep showed neurological disorders manifested as depression, head shaking and circling, altered head position, incoordination and paralysis in some cases. Brain-derived cysts were molecularly identified by PCR-sequence analysis at mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene marker. Cyst-induced pathological changes included degenerative changes and demyelination in brain tissue, infiltration of lymphocytes and histiocytes...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157616/the-peripheral-neuropathies-of-poems-syndrome-and-castleman-disease
#11
REVIEW
Michelle L Mauermann
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic disorder. The polyneuropathy can be the presenting symptom and is typically a painful, motor-predominant polyradiculoneuropathy often mimicking chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The presence of a lambda monoclonal protein, elevated vascular endothelial growth factor, systemic features, and treatment resistance are clues to the diagnosis. Castleman disease (CD) is seen in a subset of these patients, and when present the neuropathy is similar but less severe...
February 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157405/common-clinical-and-imaging-conditions-misdiagnosed-as-multiple-sclerosis-a-current-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Aksel Siva
Multiple Sclerosis is increasing, so is the number of misdiagnosed cases as MS. One major source of misdiagnosis is misinterpretation of nonspecific clinical and imaging findings and misapplication of MS diagnostic criteria resulting in an overdiagnosis of MS! Since nonspecific white matter abnormalities on brain MRI and other imaging findings that may mimic MS, as well as MS-nonspecific lesions that are seen in people with MS, neurologists should be aware of all possibilities and should be able to interpret the clinical and MRI findings well and by their selves! The differential diagnosis of MS includes MS variants and inflammatory astrocytopathies and other atypical inflammatory-demyelinating syndromes, as well as a number of systemic diseases with CNS involvement...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157404/anomalies-characteristic-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination-radiologically-isolated-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Christine Lebrun, Orhun H Kantarci, Aksel Siva, Daniel Pelletier, Darin T Okuda
Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) was defined in 2009 for asymptomatic patients who presented incidentally identified white matter anomalies within the central nervous system suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). Approximately one-third of RIS subjects will have a seminal clinical demyelinating event within 5 years of the identification of their abnormal MRI. Clinical evolution mirrors relapsing remitting or progressive forms of MS. Pejorative factors for clinical conversion are male gender, age younger than 35 years, and spinal cord lesions...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157398/new-advances-in-disease-modifying-therapies-for-relapsing-and-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Angela Vidal-Jordana
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss occurs from early stages of the disease. It mainly affects people between 20 and 40 years old, with a female predominance. Treatment options have been increasingly growing in the past years and newer drugs, some with novel mechanisms of action, are being developed for treating patients with MS. There is an increasing interest in developing new drugs that will promote neuroprotection and/or myelin repair through different mechanisms of action that may target the most degenerative component of the disease...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157392/multiple-sclerosis-mechanisms-of-disease-and-strategies-for-myelin-and-axonal-repair
#15
REVIEW
Hernan Nicolas Lemus, Arthur E Warrington, Moses Rodriguez
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a variety of presentations and unclear pathogenesis. Multiple sclerosis has been associated with the term autoimmunity as a surrogate for pathogenesis. Multiple sclerosis is an organ-specific disease with immune-mediated myelin destruction. Understanding the complex etiology of multiple sclerosis and the importance of axon integrity is critical for clinicians who treat the disease. This review discusses the immune and autoimmune aspects of multiple sclerosis based on the current published data and novel evidence of strategies that promote remyelination and protect axons...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155769/a-simple-approach-to-induce-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-functional-and-neuropathological-assessments
#16
David G Gonsalvez, Jessica L Fletcher, Sang Won Yoo, Rhiannon J Wood, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a well-appreciated experimental model of autoimmune peripheral demyelinating diseases. EAN disease is induced by immunizing mice with neurogenic peptides to direct an inflammatory attack toward components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recent advances have enabled the induction of EAN in the relatively resistant C57BL/6 mouse line using myelin protein zero (P0)106-125 or P0180-199 peptides delivered in adjuvant combined with the injection of pertussis toxin...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155646/combination-treatment-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-and-all-trans-retinoic-acid-atra-inhibit-il-17-and-ror%C3%AE-t-gene-expression-in-pbmcs-of-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ateke Mousavi Nasl-Khameneh, Abbas Mirshafiey, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Reza Chahardoli, Maryam Mahmoudi, Karim Parastouei, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder with a complex autoimmune pathophysiology. Its initiation and progression correlate with IL-17 and the related transcription factor, RORγt. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an active metabolite of omega-3 fatty acid; both have immunomodulatory effects in many immune disorders. This study investigated the effects of DHA and ATRA individually and in combination on IL-17 and RORγt gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who were receiving interferon beta (IFN-β)...
November 18, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155576/chronic-arsenic-exposure-increases-a%C3%AE-1-42-production-and-rage-expression-in-rat-brain
#18
Sandra Aurora Niño, Guadalupe Martel-Gallegos, Adriana Castro-Zavala, Benita Ortega-Berlanga, Juan Manuel Delgado, Hector Hernandez-Mendoza, E Romero-Guzman, Judith Rios-Lugo, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, María Esther Jiménez-Capdeville, Sergio Zarazua
Chronic arsenic exposure during development is associated with alterations of chemical transmission and demyelination, which result in cognitive deficits and peripheral neuropathies. At cellular level, arsenic toxicity involves increased generation of reactive species that induce severe cellular alterations such as DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation. It has been proposed that arsenic-associated neurodegeneration could evolve to Alzheimer disease in later life.1,2 In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (3 ppm by drinking water) in Wistar rats on the production and elimination of Amyloid-β (Aβ) were evaluated...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154836/a-new-promising-simultaneous-approach-for-attenuating-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-inos-inhibition-and-neuroregeneration
#19
Abhilasha Ahlawat, Saurabh Sharma
In view of the pathologic basis for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, it is important to enhance nerve regeneration as well as prevent nerve degeneration. So, in the present study, we have investigated the effect of S-Methylisothiourea Sulfate (selective iNOS inhibitor) and Citicoline, alone and in combination, on Type II Diabetes Mellitus induced neuropathic pain in wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by providing high fat diet and low dose of Streptozotocin for 35 days in rats. Type II Diabetes Mellitus was assessed in terms of increased glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL levels, glucose tolerance and decrease in HDL levels...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153981/movement-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-algerian-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#20
S A Hatteb, S Daoudi
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system. Except for cerebellar tremor, occurence of other movement disorders remains rare. Our study aimed to evaluate their prevalence in our population of patients with multiple sclerosis, and to compare it with literature data. Our results showed higher prevalence compared to European studies, raising the question of mechanisms of the disorder. MRI correlation was also studied, in 3 cases over 8 and a possible correlation was found...
November 16, 2017: Revue Neurologique
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