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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192407/de-novo-lipogenesis-and-desaturation-of-fatty-acids-during-adipogenesis-in-bovine-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Yongli Yue, Lichun Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Xueling Li, Haiquan Yu
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are useful cell model to study adipogenesis and energy metabolism. However, the biological characteristics of bovine ADSCs (bADSCs) remain unclear. This study aimed to isolate and identify bADSCs and further investigate fatty acid (FA)-related gene expression and composition of FAs during adipogenesis. The growth curve showed the bADSCs of P5 cells had rapid proliferation superior to P10-P50. The colony formation assay showed colony number of P5 cells was higher than that of P50 cells (51...
November 30, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123635/er-yag-laser-and-cyclosporin-a-effect-on-cell-cycle-regulation-of-human-gingival-fibroblast-cells
#2
Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Yousef Sadeghi, Akram Safaei, Mona Zamanian-Azodi, Maryam Sadat Khoramgah, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani
Introduction: Periodontitis is a set of inflammatory disorders characterized by periodontal attachment loss and alveolar bone resorption. Because of deficiency in periodontitis mechanical therapy, this study was aimed to explore the molecular influence of the erbiumdoped: yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser and cyclosporin A (CsA) on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) for improvement in periodontal diseases therapy. Methods: We focused on articles that studied the proteome profiles of HGFs after treatment with laser irradiation and application of CsA...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108233/mitoketoscins-novel-mitochondrial-inhibitors-for-targeting-ketone-metabolism-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#3
Bela Ozsvari, Federica Sotgia, Katie Simmons, Rachel Trowbridge, Richard Foster, Michael P Lisanti
Previous studies have now well-established that epithelial cancer cells can utilize ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and aceto-acetate) as mitochondrial fuels, to actively promote tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. The two critical metabolic enzymes implicated in this process are OXCT1 and ACAT1, which are both mitochondrial proteins. Importantly, over-expression of OXCT1 or ACAT1 in human breast cancer cells is sufficient to genetically drive tumorigenesis and/or lung metastasis, validating that they indeed behave as metabolic "tumor promoters"...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097366/quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-of-macrophage-cholesterol-metabolism-and-crispr-cas9-editing-implicate-an-acat1-truncation-as-a-causal-modifier-variant
#4
Qimin Hai, Brian Ritchey, Peggy Robinet, Alexander M Alzayed, Greg Brubaker, Jinying Zhang, Jonathan D Smith
OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol metabolism is a dynamic process involving intracellular trafficking, cholesterol esterification, and cholesterol ester hydrolysis. Our objective was to identify genes that regulate macrophage cholesterol metabolism. APPROACHES AND RESULTS: We performed quantitative trait loci mapping of free and esterified cholesterol levels and the ratio of esterified to free cholesterol in acetylated low-density lipoprotein-loaded bone marrow-derived macrophages from an AKR×DBA/2 strain intercross...
November 2, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097185/serum-starvation-of-arpe-19-changes-the-cellular-distribution-of-cholesterol-and-fibulin3-in-patterns-reminiscent-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#5
Dinusha Rajapakse, Katherine Peterson, Sanghamitra Mishra, Graeme Wistow
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has been implicated as key source of cholesterol-rich deposits at Bruch's membrane (BrM) and in drusen in aging human eye. We have shown that serum-deprivation of confluent RPE cells is associated with upregulation of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC). Here we investigate the cellular processes involved in this response. We compared the distribution and localization of UC and esterified cholesterol (EC); the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) associated EFEMP1/Fibulin3 (Fib3); and levels of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA): cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) ACAT1, ACAT2 and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in ARPE-19 cells cultured in serum-supplemented and serum-free media...
October 31, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026539/the-regulation-of-imf-deposition-in-pectoralis-major-of-fast-and-slow-growing-chickens-at-hatching
#6
Lu Liu, Huanxian Cui, Ruiqi Fu, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: The lipid from egg yolk is largely consumed in supplying the energy for embryonic growth until hatching. The remaining lipid in the yolk sac is transported into the hatchling's tissues. The gene expression profiles of fast- and slow-growing chickens, Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY), were determined to identify global differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways related to lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major at hatching. RESULTS: Between these two breeds, the absolute and weight-specific amounts of total yolk energy (TYE) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pectoralis major of fast-growing chickens were significantly higher (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918429/synergy-of-dendritic-cell-vaccines-and-avasimibe-in-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-mice
#7
Xin Chen, Qibin Song, Leiming Xia, Ximing Xu
BACKGROUND The main purpose of this study was to explore the antitumor effect and mechanisms of ACAT1 inhibitor combined with CSCs-DC vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS We isolated HNSCC CSCs and gained CSCs antigens, then used CSCs antigens to load dendritic cells (DC) and generated a CSCs-DC vaccine. We treated mice after surgical excision of established SCC7 tumors with CSCs-DC vaccine and/or ACAT1 inhibitor, and recorded local tumor relapse and host survival. T cells and B cells were harvested from mice treated with CSCs-DC vaccine and/or ACAT1 inhibitor...
September 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900085/-expression-of-mir-21-and-its-acat1-armcx1-and-pten-target-genes-in-liver-of-female-rats-treated-with-ddt-and-benzo-a-pyrene
#8
M D Chanyshev, D S Ushakov, L F Gulyaeva
MiR-21 is the most studied cancer-promoting oncomiR, which target numerous tumor suppressor genes associated with proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Here we have studied the synthesis of miR-21 and quantified the mRNA and protein levels for miR-21 potential target genes, i.e., Acat1, Armcx1, and Pten, in the livers of female Wistar rats after their treatment with either 1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) or benzo[a]pyrene (BP). The most important finding appears to be the significant decrease in the miR-21 level the day after treatment with DDT with subsequent rebound...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877685/positive-regulation-of-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-by-lipid-droplet-forming-and-processing-enzymes-dgat1-and-abhd5
#9
Ranjana Mitra, Thuc T Le, Priyatham Gorjala, Oscar B Goodman
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic cells proliferate rapidly and obtain requisite building blocks by reprogramming metabolic pathways that favor growth. Previously, we observed that prostate cancer cells uptake and store lipids in the form of lipid droplets, providing building blocks for membrane synthesis, to facilitate proliferation and growth. Mechanisms of lipid uptake, lipid droplet dynamics and their contribution to cancer growth have yet to be defined. This work is focused on elucidating the prostate cancer-specific modifications in lipid storage pathways so that these modified gene products can be identified and therapeutically targeted...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875337/clinical-and-molecular-analysis-of-6-chinese-patients-with-isoleucine-metabolism-defects-identification-of-3-novel-mutations-in-the-hsd17b10-and-acat1-gene
#10
Ling Su, Xiuzhen Li, Ruizhu Lin, Huiying Sheng, Zhichun Feng, Li Liu
Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase 10 (HSD10) and mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (β-KT) are two adjacent enzymes for the degradation of isoleucine, thus HSD10 and β-KT deficiencies are confusing at an early stage because of nearly the same elevation of typical metabolites in urine, such as 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid (2M3HBA) and tiglylglycine (TG). In order to better understand the differences between these two disorders, we described the clinical and molecular characteristics of two HSD10 deficiency patients and four β-KT deficiency patients...
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865848/grain-challenge-affects-systemic-and-hepatic-molecular-biomarkers-of-inflammation-stress-and-metabolic-responses-to-a-greater-extent-in-holstein-than-jersey-cows
#11
T Xu, F C Cardoso, A Pineda, E Trevisi, X Shen, F Rosa, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Long-term feeding of high-grain diets to dairy cows often results in systemic inflammation characterized by alterations in acute-phase proteins and other biomarkers, both in plasma and immune-responsive tissues like the liver. The molecular and systemic changes that characterize an acute grain feeding challenge remain unclear. The current study involved 6 Holstein and 6 Jersey cows in a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square. Periods (10 d) were divided into 4 stages (S): S1, d 1 to 3, served as baseline with total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum; S2, d 4, served as restricted feeding, with cows offered 50% of the average daily intake observed in S1; S3, d 5, a grain challenge was performed, in which cows were fed a TMR ad libitum without (CON) or with an additional pellet wheat-barley (1:1; HIG) at 20% of dry matter intake top-dressed onto the TMR; S4, d 6 to 10, served as recovery during which cows were allowed ad libitum access to the TMR...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726122/beta-ketothiolase-deficiency-presenting-with-metabolic-stroke-after-a-normal-newborn-screen-in-two-individuals
#12
Monica H Wojcik, Klaas J Wierenga, Lance H Rodan, Inderneel Sahai, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Casie A Genetti, Meghan C Towne, Roy W A Peake, Philip M James, Alan H Beggs, Catherine A Brownstein, Gerard T Berry, Pankaj B Agrawal
Beta-ketothiolase (mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired isoleucine catabolism and ketone body utilization that predisposes to episodic ketoacidosis. It results from biallelic pathogenic variants in the ACAT1 gene, encoding mitochondrial beta-ketothiolase. We report two cases of beta-ketothiolase deficiency presenting with acute ketoacidosis and "metabolic stroke." The first patient presented at 28 months of age with metabolic acidosis and pallidal stroke in the setting of a febrile gastrointestinal illness...
July 20, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689740/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-in-a-series-of-32-patients-with-2-methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme-a-thiolase-mat-deficiency
#13
Sarah Catharina Grünert, Robert Niklas Schmitt, Sonja Marina Schlatter, Corinne Gemperle-Britschgi, Mehmet Cihan Balcı, Volker Berg, Mahmut Çoker, Anibh M Das, Mübeccel Demirkol, Terry G J Derks, Gülden Gökçay, Sema Kalkan Uçar, Vassiliki Konstantopoulou, G Christoph Korenke, Amelie Sophia Lotz-Havla, Andrea Schlune, Christian Staufner, Christel Tran, Gepke Visser, Karl Otfried Schwab, Toshiyuki Fukao, Jörn Oliver Sass
2-methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (MAT) deficiency, also known as beta-ketothiolase deficiency, is an inborn error of ketone body utilization and isoleucine catabolism. It is caused by mutations in the ACAT1 gene and may present with metabolic ketoacidosis. In order to obtain a more comprehensive view on this disease, we have collected clinical and biochemical data as well as information on ACAT1 mutations of 32 patients from 12 metabolic centers in five countries. Patients were between 23months and 27years old, more than half of them were offspring of a consanguineous union...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550509/possible-involvement-of-acss2-gene-in-alcoholism
#14
Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Roseli Boerngen de Lacerda, Diego Correia, Ana Lúcia Brunialti-Godard, Débora Marques de Miranda, Valdir Ribeiro Campos, Valéria Fernandes de Souza, Angela Maria Ribeiro
Alcoholism is a psychiatric disorder that composes one of the principal causes of health disabilities in the world population. Furthermore, the available pharmacotherapy is limited. Therefore, this research was carried out to better understand the basis of the underlying neurobiological processes of this disorder and to discover potential therapeutic targets. Real-time PCR analysis was performed in the amygdala nuclei region of the brain of mice exposed to a chronic three-bottle free-choice model (water, 5 and 10% v/v ethanol)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436483/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-reveals-key-proteins-affecting-muscle-growth-and-lipid-deposition-in-pigs
#15
Zhixiu Wang, Peng Shang, Qinggang Li, Liyuan Wang, Yangzom Chamba, Bo Zhang, Hao Zhang, Changxin Wu
Growth rate and meat quality, two economically important traits in pigs, are controlled by multiple genes and biological pathways. In the present study, we performed a proteomic analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle from six-month-old pigs from two Chinese native mini-type breeds (TP and DSP) and two introduced western breeds (YY and LL) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). In total, 4,815 peptides corresponding to 969 proteins were detected. Comparison of expression patterns between TP-DSP and YY-LL revealed 288 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), of which 169 were up-regulated and 119 were down-regulated...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393214/a-novel-mutation-c-121%C3%A2-13t-a-in-the-polypyrimidine-tract-of-the-splice-acceptor-site-of-intron-2-causes-exon-3-skipping-in-mitochondrial-acetoacetyl-coa-thiolase-gene
#16
Yuka Aoyama, Hideo Sasai, Elsayed Abdelkreem, Hiroki Otsuka, Mina Nakama, Sandeep Kumar, Shrikiran Aroor, Anju Shukla, Toshiyuki Fukao
Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) (gene symbol: ACAT1) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting isoleucine catabolism and ketone body utilization. In this study, mutational analysis of an Indian T2-deficient patient revealed a homozygous mutation (c.121‑13T>A) located at the polypyrimidine tract of the splice acceptor site of intron 2, and exon 3 skipping was identified by cDNA analysis using cycloheximide. We made three mutant constructs (c.121‑13T>A, T>C, and T>G substitutions) followed by making a wild-type minigene construct that included an ACAT1 segment from exon 2 to 4 for a splicing experiment...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385599/intramyocellular-lipid-content-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-responses-following-a-single-bout-of-resistance-type-exercise-differ-between-young-and-older-men
#17
Kostas Tsintzas, Francis B Stephens, Tim Snijders, Benjamin T Wall, Scott Cooper, Joanne Mallinson, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
The aim of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and the expression of genes associated with IMCL turnover, fat metabolism, and inflammation during recovery from an acute bout of resistance type exercise in old versus young men. Seven healthy young (23±2years, 77.2±2.9kg) and seven healthy older (72±1years, 79.3±4.9kg) males performed a single bout of resistance exercise involving 6 sets of 10 repetitions of leg press and 6 sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension at 75% one-repetition maximum (1-RM)...
July 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361105/single-nucleotide-substitution-t-to-a-in-the-polypyrimidine-stretch-at-the-splice-acceptor-site-of-intron-9-causes-exon-10-skipping-in-the-acat1-gene
#18
Hideo Sasai, Yuka Aoyama, Hiroki Otsuka, Elsayed Abdelkreem, Mina Nakama, Tomohiro Hori, Hidenori Ohnishi, Lesley Turner, Toshiyuki Fukao
BACKGROUND: β-ketothiolase (T2, gene symbol ACAT1) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder, affecting isoleucine and ketone body metabolism. We encountered a patient (GK03) with T2 deficiency whose T2 mRNA level was <10% of the control, but in whom a previous routine cDNA analysis had failed to find any mutations. Genomic PCR-direct sequencing showed homozygosity for c.941-9T>A in the polypyrimidine stretch at the splice acceptor site of intron 9 of ACAT1. Initially, we regarded this variant as not being disease-causing by a method of predicting the effect of splicing using in silico tools...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220263/characterization-and-outcome-of-41-patients-with-beta-ketothiolase-deficiency-10%C3%A2-years-experience-of-a-medical-center-in-northern-vietnam
#19
Khanh Ngoc Nguyen, Elsayed Abdelkreem, Roberto Colombo, Yuki Hasegawa, Ngoc Thi Bich Can, Thao Phuong Bui, Hai Thanh Le, Mai Thi Chi Tran, Hoan Thi Nguyen, Hung Thanh Trinh, Yuka Aoyama, Hideo Sasai, Seiji Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Fukao, Dung Chi Vu
Beta-ketothiolase (T2) deficiency is an inherited disease of isoleucine and ketone body metabolism caused by mutations in the ACAT1 gene. Between 2005 and 2016, a total of 41 patients with T2 deficiency were identified at a medical center in northern Vietnam, with an estimated incidence of one in 190,000 newborns. Most patients manifested ketoacidotic episodes of varying severity between 6 and 18 months of age. Remarkably, 28% of patients showed high blood glucose levels (up to 23.3 mmol/L). Ketoacidotic episodes recurred in 43% of patients...
May 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039067/prenatal-betaine-exposure-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-inhibition-of-cyp27a1-expression-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-chickens-associated-with-its-promoter-dna-methylation
#20
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yibo Zong, Jie Liu, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by degrading cholesterol to bile acids. Betaine can alleviate high-fat diet-induced hepatic cholesterol accumulation and maternal betaine treatment programs the hepatic expression of CYP27A1 in offspring. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes hepatic cholesterol deposition in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether prenatal betaine modulates CORT-induced cholesterol accumulation in chicken liver later in life and whether it involves epigenetic gene regulation of CYP27A1...
May 15, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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