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cancellous bone

M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Kedong Song, Wenfang Li, Hai Wang, Yu Zhang, Liying Li, Yiwei Wang, Hong Wang, Ling Wang, Tianqing Liu
Biological treatment using engineered osteochondral composites has received growing attention for the repair of cartilage defects. Osteochondral composites combined with a dynamic culture provide great potential for improving the quality of constructs and cartilage regeneration as dynamic conditions mimic the in vivo condition where cells were constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, biophasic composites were produced in vitro consisting of cell-hydrogel (CH) and cell-cancellous bone (CB) constructs, followed by culturing in a dynamic system in a spinner flask...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Ryoko Uesato, Satoshi Toh, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Keiichiro Maniwa, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
In scaphoid fractures, delayed diagnosis and nonunion are fairly common as a result of several factors, including the difficulty of radiographic diagnosis of non-displaced fractures and underestimation of the injury by the patient. Main factors to consider when deciding treatment are the type of fracture and fracture stability. In the stable nonunion (Type D1 according to the Filan and Herbert classification, or linear type of Ikeda's classification), percutaneous screw fixation without bone graft is recommended...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Mette H Hjorth, Maiken Stilling, Kjeld Søballe, Poul Torben Nielsen, Poul H Christensen, Søren Kold
Background and purpose - Short-term experimental studies have confirmed that there is superior fixation of cementless implants inserted with compaction compared to broaching of the cancellous bone. Patients and methods - 1-stage, bilateral primary THA was performed in 28 patients between May 2001 and September 2007. The patients were randomized to femoral bone preparation with broaching on 1 side and compaction on the other side. 8 patients declined to attend the postoperative follow-up, leaving 20 patients (13 male) with a mean age of 58 (36-70) years for evaluation...
October 19, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Georgi I Wassilew, Viktor Janz, Lisa Renner, Carsten Perka, Axel Pruss
The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results of periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) using Kirschner wire fixation and an allogeneic cancellous bone graft. This retrospective cohort study included 73 patients (85 PAOs). The allografts were processed from distal femur of cadaveric donors, defatted, sterilized with a peracetic-acid ethanol solution and freeze-dried. The clinical outcome, as measured by the Harris Hip Scores (HHS), the complication rate and the acetabular correction, as measured by radiological parameters, were compared...
October 18, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Yukimori Isoda, Eisaku Imamura, Daisuke Ueno, Tsubasa Akaike, Yoshiki Hamada
Iliac particulate cancellous bone and marrow (PCBM) is still the most predictable autogenous graft material for vertical ridge reconstruction because of its high cell content as well as osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. However, postoperative meralgia paresthetica, gait disturbance, pain, and bleeding have been reported following conventional harvesting from the anterior iliac crest. We present a case of minimally invasive harvesting of iliac PCBM. A short incision was made, and the iliac crest was exposed after elevation of the periosteal membrane...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Mansi Manish Oswal, Ulhas N Amasi, Manish S Oswal, Ashish S Bhagat
PURPOSE: Clinical success of implant prosthodontics is dependent in part upon the type of implant thread design. The selection of implant thread design plays an important role in the outcome of the treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of stress distribution using a finite element analysis; hence, the area which would be bearing maximum load for a given design would be arrived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three implants with different thread designs, namely V-thread, buttress, and reverse buttress thread designs were considered and dimensions were standardized...
October 2016: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Alena-Svenja Wagner, Kristina Glenske, Verena Wolf, Daniela Fietz, Sybille Mazurek, Thomas Hanke, Andreas Moritz, Stefan Arnhold, Sabine Wenisch
The effects of extracellular calcium on osteogenic differentiation capacity of human bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with special regard to connexin 43 (cx43) have been investigated by means of cell culture experiments. Mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from human cancellous bone were cultured on tissue culture plates at different calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1.8mmoll(-1), 10mmoll(-1), 20mmoll(-1)). Cell responses were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and Lucifer Yellow fluorescence uptake experiments...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Yuan Chen, Enrico Dall Ara, Erika Sales, Krishnagoud Manda, Robert Wallace, Pankaj Pankaj, Marco Viceconti
Non-destructive 3D micro-computed tomography (microCT) based finite element (microFE) models are used to estimate bone mechanical properties at tissue level. However, their validation remains challenging. Recent improvements in the quantification of displacements in bone tissue biopsies subjected to staged compression, using refined Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) techniques, now provide a full field displacement information accurate enough to be used for microFE validation. In this study, three specimens (two humans and one bovine) were tested with two different experimental set-ups, and the resulting data processed with the same DVC algorithm...
September 17, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Yuko Fujiwara, Marilina Piemontese, Yu Liu, Jeff D Thostenson, Jinhu Xiong, Charles A O'Brien
The cytokine receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) produced by osteocytes is essential for osteoclast formation in cancellous bone under physiological conditions and RANKL production by B lymphocytes is required for the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. Here, we examined whether RANKL produced by osteocytes is also required for the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. Mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes were protected from the increase in osteoclast number and the bone loss caused by ovariectomy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Andrea Di Luca, Alessia Longoni, Giuseppe Criscenti, Carlos Mota, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Lorenzo Moroni
Guiding bone regeneration poses still unmet challenges due to several drawbacks of current standard treatments in the clinics. A possible solution may rely on the use of three-dimensional scaffolds with optimized structural properties in combination with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bone presents a radial gradient structure from the outside, where the cortical bone is more compact (porosity ranging from 5% to 10%), toward the inner part, where the cancellous bone is more porous (porosity ranging from 50% to 90%)...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
Q S Chen, X Ding, H M Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of three types of material homogeneities(isotropy, transverse isotropy, and orthotropy) of mandible on the finite element analysis of implant. Methods: Three-dimensional model of complete mandible containing an implant was constructed and analyzed with isotropic, transversely isotropic, and orthotropic models, respectively. Results: The effective stress, tensile stress, and compressive stress of cortical bone of the orthogonal model were 1.2, 1.2, and 1.1 times larger than that of the isotropic model...
October 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Xuhong Qu, Zhijian Liu, Yunlong Wang, Yi Fang, Mingyuan Du, Hong He
OBJECTIVE: To identify dentofacial anatomic traits associated with lower incisor cancellous bone thickness (LICBT) and then to assess their separate contributions and their combined contributions to the variation in LICBT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive sample of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data taken in a university hospital within the same setting was retrospectively reviewed. Within the sample, CBCT data of 252 eligible subjects were reconstructed and measured for LICBT, facial traits, and mandibular symphyseal traits...
October 10, 2016: Angle Orthodontist
Zhiguo Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Chunxiang Hao, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Mingjie Wang, Mingxue Chen, Zhen Sun, Yichi Xu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng, Mei Yuan, Quan-Yi Guo
Tissue-engineered meniscus regeneration is a very promising treatment strategy for meniscus lesions. However, generating the scaffold presents a huge challenge for meniscus engineering as this has to meet particular biomechanical and biocompatibility requirements. In this study, we utilized acellular meniscus extracellular matrix (AMECM) and demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) to construct three different types of three-dimensional porous meniscus scaffold: AMECM, DCB, and AMECM/DCB, respectively. We tested the scaffolds' physicochemical characteristics and observed their interactions with meniscus fibrochondrocytes to evaluate their cytocompatibility...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Serra Ucer, Srividhya Iyer, Ha-Neui Kim, Li Han, Christine Rutlen, Kelly Allison, Jeff D Thostenson, Rafael de Cabo, Robert L Jilka, Charles O'Brien, Maria Almeida, Stavros C Manolagas
Old age and sex steroid deficiency are the two most critical factors for the development of osteoporosis. It remains unknown, however, whether the molecular culprits of the two conditions are similar or distinct. We show herein that at 19.5 months of age - a time by which the age-dependent decline of cortical and cancellous bone mass and cortical porosity were fully manifested in C57BL/6J mice - these animals remained functionally estrogen sufficient. Transgenic mice with conditional expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase - a potent H2 O2 inactivating enzyme - in cells of the myeloid lineage (mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice), were protected from the loss of cortical, but not cancellous, bone caused by gonadectomy in either sex...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Paolo Giannoni, Federico Villa, Cinzia Cordazzo, Luciano Zardi, Paolo Fattori, Rodolfo Quarto, Mauro Fiorini
Three different heterologous substitutes for bone regeneration, manufactured with equine-derived cortical powder (CP), cancellous chips (CC) and demineralized bone matrix granules (DBM), were compared in in vitro and in vivo settings. We tested: a commercially available bone paste (Osteoplant-Activagen™, consisting of aqueous collagenous carrier, CP, DBM; named A); a second-generation injectable paste (20 kDa polyethylene glycol/hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose-based hydrogel, CP, DBM; B); a pre-formed bone filler (400 kDa polyethylene oxide/hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose-based hydrogel, CP, CC, DBM; C)...
November 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Justin J Mitchell, Chase S Dean, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Tyler R Cram, Robert F LaPrade
Valgus knee alignment in excess of physiological valgus leads to excessive loading of the lateral compartment, which can potentially increase the risk of osteoarthritis and can place the medial knee structures at risk of chronic attenuation. Varus-producing distal femoral osteotomies have been proposed for correction of valgus malalignment, to relieve tension on medial-sided structures, as well as to off-load the lateral compartment. Understanding that symptomatic valgus deformity of the knee represents a complex problem that is magnified in the setting of lateral compartment arthritis or medial ligamentous incompetence, we present our preferred technique for a varus-producing distal femoral osteotomy using plate osteosynthesis and cancellous bone allograft...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
J Delgado-Calle, X Tu, R Pacheco-Costa, K McAndrews, R Edwards, G Pellegrini, K Kuhlenschmidt, N Olivos, A Robling, M Peacock, L I Plotkin, T Bellido
Osteocytes integrate the responses of bone to mechanical and hormonal stimuli by mechanisms poorly understood. We report here that mice with conditional deletion of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor 1 (Pth1r) in DMP1-8kb-expressing cells (cKO) exhibit a modest decrease in bone resorption leading to a mild increase in cancellous bone without changes in cortical bone. However, bone resorption in response to endogenous chronic elevation of PTH in growing or adult cKO mice induced by a low calcium diet remained intact, as the increased bone remodeling and bone loss was indistinguishable from that exhibited by control littermates...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Wei-Guang Shao, Dian-Mei Liu
The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca(2+) content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca(2+)-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca(2+)-water and water-Ca(2+) densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years and ≥80 years (P<0...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Chin-Wei Jeff Wang, Laurie K McCauley
Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both diseases characterized by bone resorption. Osteoporosis features systemic degenerative bone loss that leads to loss of skeletal cancellous microstructure and subsequent fracture, whereas periodontitis involves local inflammatory bone loss, following an infectious breach of the alveolar cortical bone, and it may result in tooth loss. Most cross-sectional studies have confirmed the association of osteoporosis and periodontitis primarily on radiographic measurements and to a lesser degree on clinical parameters...
September 30, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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