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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148577/mouse-models-to-evaluate-the-role-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-skeletal-maintenance-and-adaptation
#1
REVIEW
Amanda M Rooney, Marjolein C H van der Meulen
Estrogen signaling and mechanical loading have individual and combined effects on skeletal maintenance and adaptation. Previous work investigating estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo using global estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene knockout mouse models has provided information regarding the role of ERα in regulating bone mass and adaptation to mechanical stimulation. However, these models have inherent limitations that confound interpretation of the data. Therefore, recent studies have focused on mice with targeted deletion of ERα from specific bone cells and their precursors...
November 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145961/vertical-femoral-neck-fractures-in-young-adults-a-closed-fixation-strategy-using-a-transverse-cancellous-lag-screw
#2
João Antonio Matheus Guimarães, Leonardo Rosa Rocha, Tito Henrique Noronha Rocha, Danielle Cabral Bonfim, Rafaela Sartore da Costa, Amanda Dos Santos Cavalcanti, Carlos Rodrigo Roesler, Jamila Alessandra Perini Machado, Diego Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Eugenia Leite Duarte
Vertical femoral neck fractures (Pauwels type III classification) in young adults generally occur as a consequence of high-energy trauma and are frequently seen in association with multiple injuries. Considering the controversies regarding the optimal fixation for this fracture, our aim was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a closed fixation strategy for vertical femoral neck fractures in young adults using two parallel and one transverse cancellous lag screws. This was a single-surgeon, prospective study including 20 young adults with average age of 38...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145010/the-use-of-hardened-bone-cement-as-an-impaction-grafting-extender-for-revision-hip-arthroplasty
#3
Mark Ruddy, David P FitzPatrick, Kenneth T Stanton
Impaction bone grafting is a method of restoring bone stock to patients who have suffered significant bone loss due to revision total hip surgery. The procedure requires morsellised cancellous bone (MCB) to be impacted into the site of bone loss in order to stabilise the prosthesis with the aim of long term resorption and reintegration of the impacted bone graft. Due to financial cost and the potential to transmit disease, the use of supplementary material, known as an extender, is frequently used to increase the graft material volume...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142619/the-formation-of-extragraft-bone-bridging-after-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-a-finite-element-analysis
#4
Shin Won Kwon, Chi Heon Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Tae Hyun Park, Su Heon Woo, Sung-Jae Lee, Seung Heon Yang
Objective: In addition to bone bridging inside a cage or graft (intragraft bone bridging, InGBB), extragraft bone bridging (ExGBB) is commonly observed after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with a stand-alone cage. However, solid bony fusion without the formation of ExGBB might be a desirable condition. We hypothesized that an insufficient contact area for InGBB might be a causative factor for ExGBB. The objective was to determine the minimal area of InGBB by finite element analysis...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134816/liquifying-pldlla-anchor-fixation-in-achilles-reconstruction-for-insertional-tendinopathy
#5
Stephanie A Boden, Allison L Boden, Danielle Mignemi, Jason T Bariteau
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) is a frequent cause of posterior heel pain and is often associated with Haglund's deformity. Surgical correction for refractory cases of IAT has been well studied; however, the method of tendon fixation to bone in these procedures remains controversial, and to date, no standard technique has been identified for tendon fixation in these surgeries. Often, after Haglund's resection, there is large exposed cancellous surface for Achilles reattachment, which may require unique fixation to optimize outcomes...
November 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134323/single-stage-treatment-of-infected-tibial-non-unions-and-osteomyelitis-with-bone-marrow-granulocytes-precursors-protecting-bone-graft
#6
Philippe Hernigou, Arnaud Dubory, Yasuhiro Homma, Charles Henri Flouzat Lachaniette, Nathalie Chevallier, Helene Rouard
PURPOSE: Infected non-unions present a clinical challenge, especially with risk of recurrent infection. Bone marrow contains granulocyte precursors identified in vitro as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) have a prophylactic action against infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors added to a standard bone graft could decrease the risk of recurrence of infection when single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions is performed with bone graft...
November 13, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133001/effects-of-low-bone-mineral-status-on-biomechanical-characteristics-in-idiopathic-scoliotic-spinal-deformity
#7
Xiao-Xing Song, Lin-Yu Jin, Xin-Feng Li, Lie Qian, Hong-Xing Shen, Zu-De Liu, Bu-Wei Yu
BACKGROUND: Low bone mass in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients has been well reported. Poor bone quality was regarded as a new and unique prognostic factor in aggravating the curve progression. However, the potential biomechanical correlation between them remains unclear. METHODS: Three-dimensional finite element models of idiopathic scoliotic spine with different bone mineral status were created for axial loading simulation. Axial load of three different body weights were applied on different bone mineral mass models...
November 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122282/masquelet-technique-with-external-locking-plate-for-recalcitrant-distal-tibial-nonunion
#8
Ching-Hou Ma, Yen-Chun Chiu, Kun-Ling Tsai, Yuan-Kun Tu, Cheng-Yo Yen, Chin-Hsien Wu
OBJECTIVE: In the present retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the results of treatment for recalcitrant distal tibial nonunion using Masquelet technique with locking plate as a definitive external fixator. MATERIALS: We included 15 consecutive cases of distal tibial nonunion treated at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2015. The reconstructive procedure comprised debridement of the nonunion site, deformity correction, stabilization with an external locked plate, defect filling with cement spacer for inducing membrane formation, and bone reconstruction using a cancellous bone autograft (Masquelet technique)...
October 26, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115612/isopsoralen-regulates-ppar%C3%A2-%C3%AE-wnt-to-inhibit-oxidative-stress-in-osteoporosis
#9
Jian Wang, Gang Wang, Li Gong, Guanwen Sun, Bin Shi, Huhe Bao, Yan Duan
The present study aimed to examine the effects of isopsoralen against postmenopausal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model. The ovariectomized rats were treated with three days 10 mg/kg isopsoralen or with three days 20 mg/kg isopsoralen. Alkaline phosphatase, the oxidative stress indicators and caspase‑3/9 were measured using ELISA assay kits. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure collagen type I (Col I), osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA levels. Wnt, β‑catenin and peroxisome proliferators‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) were analyzed using western blot analysis...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114187/use-of-fibular-bone-graft-and-cancellous-screw-fixation-in-the-management-of-neglected-femur-neck-fractures-in-young-patients
#10
Ghulam Mustafa Kaim Khani, Kamran Hafeez, Muhammad Bux, Nusrat Rasheed, Naveed Ahmed, M Perwez Anjum
Objective: To present the clinical outcome of patients with neglected femur neck fracture treated with fibular bone graft. Methods: During May 2010-February 2013, 15 patients younger than 35 years of age with neglected fracture neck of femur were managed with non-vascularized fibular graft and cannulated screws. Fractures were classified according to Sandhu Classification. Hip function was assessed using Harris hip score. Results: Fifteen patients with mean age of 28...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109848/a-hemangioma-of-the-zygomatic-bone-management-ensuring-good-reconstructive-and-aesthetic-results
#11
REVIEW
Gabriele Bocchialini, Andrea Castellani, Anna Bozzola, Alessandro Rossi
Hemangiomas are benign tumors representing only 0.7 to 1% of all bone tumors; those that arise in the zygomatic region are rarely described in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with a mass in the right orbitozygomatic region. She was diagnosed on the basis of preoperative clinical manifestations, data from an earlier histopathological examination, and computed tomography (CT). The CT scan revealed a lesion in the right zygomatic region at the level of the cancellous component...
December 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109841/mandibular-reconstruction-with-lateral-tibial-bone-graft-an-excellent-option-for-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery
#12
Ana Lucia Carpi Miceli, Livia Costa Pereira, Thiago da Silva Torres, Mônica Diuana Calasans-Maia, Rafael Seabra Louro
Autogenous bone grafts are the gold standard for reconstruction of atrophic jaws, pseudoarthroses, alveolar clefts, orthognathic surgery, mandibular discontinuity, and augmentation of sinus maxillary. Bone graft can be harvested from iliac bone, calvarium, tibial bone, rib, and intraoral bone. Proximal tibia is a common donor site with few reported problems compared with other sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of proximal tibia as a donor area for maxillofacial reconstructions, focusing on quantifying the volume of cancellous graft harvested by a lateral approach and to assess the complications of this technique...
December 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103890/large-osseous-defect-reconstruction-using-a-custom-three-dimensional-printed-titanium-truss-implant
#13
Eric So, Vincent H Mandas, Lee Hlad
Treatment of large osseous defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Autografts and allografts have been known to undergo late collapse, because these options are not specifically designed to withstand the high loads of the foot and ankle. The inability to achieve the correct shape for reconstruction further limits their application. Large osseous defects will result during salvage after failed Lapidus bunionectomy, explantation of failed total ankle replacements, and nonunion of Evans calcaneal osteotomy...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100205/influence-of-cement-compressive-strength-and-porosity-on-augmentation-performance-in-a-model-of-orthopedic-screw-pull-out
#14
Michael Pujari-Palmer, Celine Robo, Cecilia Persson, Philip Procter, Håkan Engqvist
Disease and injuries that affect the skeletal system may require surgical intervention and internal fixation, i.e. orthopedic plate and screw insertion, to stabilize the injury and facilitate tissue repair. If the surrounding bone quality is poor the screws may migrate, or the bone may fail, resulting in fixation failure. While numerous studies have shown that cement augmentation of the interface between bone and implant can increase screw pull-out force, the physical properties of cement that influence pull-out force have not been investigated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098380/bone-morphogenic-protein-2-use-in-revision-total-hip-arthroplasty-with-acetabular-defects
#15
Scott R Nodzo, Keely K Boyle, Sonja Pavlesen, Sridhar Rachala
INTRODUCTION: The restoration of acetabular bone stock during revision hip arthroplasty remains a challenge. There have been no clinical series reporting the efficacy of bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in the revision hip setting. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the radiographs and records of 15 patients who received rhBMP-2 mixed with allograft bone chips (+BMP), and 14 who received allograft bone chips alone (-BMP) for their acetabular defect during revision total hip arthroplasty with a mean two-year follow up...
November 3, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096123/in-vitro-validation-of-a-novel-mechanical-model-for-testing-the-anchorage-capacity-of-pedicle-screws-using-physiological-load-application
#16
Christian Liebsch, Julia Zimmermann, Nicolas Graf, Christoph Schilling, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Annette Kienle
Biomechanical in vitro tests analysing screw loosening often include high standard deviations caused by high variabilities in bone mineral density and pedicle geometry, whereas standardized mechanical models made of PU foam often do not integrate anatomical or physiological boundary conditions. The purpose of this study was to develop a most realistic mechanical model for the standardized and reproducible testing of pedicle screws regarding the resistance against screw loosening and the holding force as well as to validate this model by in vitro experiments...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093341/effects-of-the-antiepileptic-drugs-phenytoin-gabapentin-and-levetiracetam-on-bone-strength-bone-mass-and-bone-turnover-in-rats
#17
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Yoshiko Kobayashi, Kenji Onodera, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is accompanied by reduced bone mass that is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Although phenytoin has been reported to adversely influence bone metabolism, little is known pertaining to more recent AEDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gabapentin or levetiracetam on bone strength, bone mass, and bone turnover in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered phenytoin (20 mg/kg), gabapentin (30 or 150 mg/kg), or levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092537/fast-decomposition-of-two-ultrasound-longitudinal-waves-in-cancellous-bone-using-a-phase-rotation-parameter-for-bone-quality-assessment-simulation-study
#18
Hirofumi Taki, Yoshiki Nagatani, Mami Matsukawa, Hiroshi Kanai, Shin-Ichi Izumi
Ultrasound signals that pass through cancellous bone may be considered to consist of two longitudinal waves, which are called fast and slow waves. Accurate decomposition of these fast and slow waves is considered to be highly beneficial in determination of the characteristics of cancellous bone. In the present study, a fast decomposition method using a wave transfer function with a phase rotation parameter was applied to received signals that have passed through bovine bone specimens with various bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) ratios in a simulation study, where the elastic finite-difference time-domain method is used and the ultrasound wave propagated parallel to the bone axes...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081701/role-of-bone-grafts-and-bone-graft-substitutes-in-isolated-subtalar-joint-arthrodesis
#19
Ashish Shah, Sameer Naranje, Ibukunoluwa Araoye, Osama Elattar, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Cesar DE Cesar
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare union rates for isolated subtalar arthrodesis with and without the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 135 subtalar fusions with a mean follow-up of 18 ± 14 months. The standard approach was used for all surgeries. Graft materials included b-tricalcium phosphate, demineralized bone matrix, iliac crest autograft and allograft, and allograft cancellous chips. Successful subtalar fusion was determined clinically and radiographically...
September 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081377/the-effect-of-switching-from-teriparatide-to-anti-rankl-antibody-on-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-in-ovariectomized-mice
#20
Toshinobu Omiya, Jun Hirose, Tomoka Hasegawa, Norio Amizuka, Yasunori Omata, Naohiro Izawa, Hisataka Yasuda, Yuho Kadono, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeshi Miyamoto, Sakae Tanaka
We examined the effect of teriparatide, and switching from teriparatide to anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) monoclonal antibody, in ovariectomized mice. Twelve-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized or sham operated. Four weeks after surgery, ovariectomized mice were subjected to one of the following four treatments: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 8weeks; teriparatide for 4weeks followed by PBS for 4weeks (PTH4W group); teriparatide for 8weeks (PTH8W group); or teriparatide for 4weeks followed by anti-RANKL antibody (single subcutaneous injection of 5mg/kg) (SWITCH group)...
November 2, 2017: Bone
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