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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324211/comparison-of-in-vitro-osteogenic-potential-of-iliac-crest-and-degenerative-facet-joint-bone-autografts-for-intervertebral-fusion-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#1
Jeroen Geurts, Daniela Ramp, Stefan Schären, Cordula Netzer
PURPOSE: The promotion of spinal fusion using bone autografts is largely mediated by the osteoinductive potential of progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that reside in the marrow spaces of cancellous bone. Iliac crest is the common autograft donor site, but its use presents an increased risk for donor site pain, morbidity and infection. Degenerative bone samples harvested during facetectomy might provide an alternative viable source of osteoinductive autografts. In this study, we conducted an intra-individual comparison of the osteogenic potential of isolated low passage MSC from both sources...
March 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323963/an-antibody-to-notch2-reverses-the-osteopenic-phenotype-of-hajdu-cheney-mutant-male-mice
#2
Ernesto Canalis, Archana Sanjay, Jungeun Yu, Stefano Zanotti
Notch receptors play a central role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS), a disease characterized by osteoporosis and fractures, is associated with gain-of-NOTCH2 function mutations. To study HCS, we created a mouse model harboring a point 6955C>T mutation in the Notch2 locus upstream of the proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S) and threonine (T) domain leading to a Q2319X change at the amino acid level. Notch2Q2319X heterozygous mutants exhibited cancellous and cortical bone osteopenia...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315820/evaluating-differential-nuclear-dna-yield-rates-and-osteocyte-numbers-among-human-bone-tissue-types-a-synchrotron-radiation-micro-ct-approach
#3
Janna M Andronowski, Amy Z Mundorff, Isaac V Pratt, Jon M Davoren, David M L Cooper
Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315764/development-of-nanocomposite-scaffolds-based-on-tio2-doped-in-grafted-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-by-freeze-drying-method-and-evaluation-of-biocompatibility
#4
Saber Abd-Khorsand, Samaneh Saber-Samandari, Saeed Saber-Samandari
Porous three-dimensional scaffolds with potential for application as cancellous bone graft substitutes were prepared using the freeze-drying technique. Hydroxyapatite with different weight ratio were embedded in the network of poly(acrylic acid) grafted chitosan accompanied by using TiO2 as an auxiliary component to fabricate porous nanocomposite bone scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis and mechanical tests were carried out to characterize the prepared scaffolds...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315346/inhibition-of-osteoporosis-by-the-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-antagonist-of-rhodostomin-variants
#5
Tzu-Hung Lin, Rong-Sen Yang, Huang-Ju Tu, Houng-Chi Liou, Yen-Ming Lin, Woie-Jer Chuang, Wen-Mei Fu
Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction. The vitronectin and osteopontin receptor αvβ3 integrin has increased expression levels and is implicated in the adhesion, activation, and migration of osteoclasts on the bone surface as well as osteoclast polarization. αvβ3 integrin plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation and resorption. In addition, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides, small molecular inhibitors, and antibodies to αvβ3 integrin have been shown to inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306746/localized-tissue-mineralization-regulated-by-bone-remodelling-a-computational-approach
#6
Marcelo Berli, Carlos Borau, Oscar Decco, George Adams, Richard B Cook, José Manuel García Aznar, Peter Zioupos
Bone is a living tissue whose main mechanical function is to provide stiffness, strength and protection to the body. Both stiffness and strength depend on the mineralization of the organic matrix, which is constantly being remodelled by the coordinated action of the bone multicellular units (BMUs). Due to the dynamics of both remodelling and mineralization, each sample of bone is composed of structural units (osteons in cortical and packets in cancellous bone) created at different times, therefore presenting different levels of mineral content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302454/craniofacial-fibrous-dysplasia-a-10-case-series
#7
A Couturier, O Aumaître, L Gilain, B Jean, T Mom, M André
OBJECTIVES: Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare sporadic benign congenital condition in which normal cancellous bone is replaced by fibro-osseous tissue with immature osteogenesis. Sarcomatous transformation is exceptional. Lesions may involve one bone (monostotic) or several (polyostotic). Fibrous dysplasia may be associated with café-au-lait skin macules and endocrinopathy in McCune-Albright syndrome, or with myxoma in Mazabraud's syndrome. METHODS: We report ten cases of patients followed up for craniofacial fibrous dysplasia in our center between 2010 and 2015...
March 14, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298833/minimally-invasive-maxillary-sinus-elevation-using-balloon-system-a-case-series
#8
Radha Bharathi Dhandapani, Shivakumar Baskaran, Kurumathur Vasudevan Arun, Thirunelveli Saravanan Subbu Kumar
The posterior maxillary segment frequently exhibits insufficient bone mass to support dental implants. Sinus floor augmentation enables implant placement in the posterior maxilla. This case series included ten sites, in which sinus floor elevation was done using sinus lift balloon system followed by augmentation utilizing irradiated cancellous bone allograft. Postoperative radiographic assessment of vertical bone gain was done at 3 and 6 months follow-up period. The mean initial and final bone height were 6...
July 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296944/multiple-osteochondromas-of-the-antlers-and-cranium-in-a-free-ranging-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus
#9
Uwe Kierdorf, Karl V Miller, Stefan Flohr, Santiago Gomez, Horst Kierdorf
This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus) from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296552/enhanced-socs3-in-osteoarthiritis-may-limit-both-proliferation-and-inflammation
#10
T Gui, B S He, Q Gan, C Yang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by localized inflammatory and secondary proliferative changes. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is elevated during OA development. We investigated the effects of this protein on human chondrocyte survival in OA and the inflammatory response together with the mechanisms of these effects. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down the expression of SOCS3 in interleukin(IL)-1β-induced primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292525/intraoperative-cell-isolation-for-a-cytological-assessment-of-bone-resection-margins-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
M Nieberler, P Häußler, M R Kesting, A Kolk, H Stimmer, K Nentwig, G Weirich, K-D Wolff
The intraoperative cytological assessment of bony resection margins (ICAB) is a feasible diagnostic approach to support frozen section for assessment of invasion of margins of soft and hard tissue. However, complex resection margins could challenge both diagnostic approaches. Our objective here was to identify the limitations of intraoperative diagnostic methods for assessing margins. We present an advanced cytological approach to assess complex margins that may solve the problem. Data from 119 patients in whom frozen section was supported by ICAB, were reviewed and the reasons for false results analysed...
March 11, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289889/finger-reconstruction-using-induced-membrane-technique-and-ulnar-pedicled-forearm-flap-a-case-report
#12
Olivier Herisson, Alain-Charles Masquelet, Levon Doursounian, Alain Sautet, Adeline Cambon-Binder
INTRODUCTION: Injuries referred to as "rollover hands" are associated with multiple and complex lesions of the dorsal aspect of the hand. We present a case of a multitissular reconstruction following a severe injury of the dorsum of the fingers in a 45-year-old woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone loss reconstruction was performed in two stages using the Masquelet induced membrane technique. In the first stage, a cement spacer was inserted into the phalanx bone defects...
March 13, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287044/no-effect-of-teriparatide-on-migration-in-total-knee-replacement
#13
Håkan Ledin, Lars Good, Torsten Johansson, Per Aspenberg
Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a main cause of late revision in total knee replacement (TKR). Teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH), stimulates osteoblasts and has been suggested to improve cancellous bone healing in humans. This might also be relevant for prosthesis fixation. We used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to investigate whether teriparatide influences prosthesis fixation. Early migration as measured by RSA can predict future loosening. Patients and methods - In a randomized controlled trial with blind evaluation, 50 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were allocated to a teriparatide treatment group (Forsteo, 20 μg daily for 2 months postoperatively) or to an untreated control group...
March 13, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285545/to-reduce-the-maximum-stress-and-the-stress-shielding-effect-around-a-dental-implant-bone-interface-using-radial-functionally-graded-biomaterials
#14
H Asgharzadeh Shirazi, M R Ayatollahi, A Asnafi
In a dental implant system, the value of stress and its distribution plays a pivotal role on the strength, durability and life of the implant-bone system. A typical implant consists of a Titanium core and a thin layer of biocompatible material such as the hydroxyapatite. This coating has a wide range of clinical applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Low bonding strength and sudden variation of mechanical properties between the coating and the metallic layers are the main disadvantages of such common implants...
March 13, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269746/influences-of-osteoarthritis-and-osteoporosis-on-the-electrical-properties-of-human-bones-as-in-vivo-electrets-produced-due-to-wolff-s-law
#15
Kazuhiro Kohata, Soichiro Itoh, Naohiro Horiuchi, Taro Yoshioka, Kimihiro Yamashita
We characterized the electrical properties of living bone obtained from patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) or hemiarthroplasty by means of analysis of the electrically polarized and nonpolarized bone specimens, and we discussed the role of an organic and inorganic matrix of human bone in bone piezoelectricity.We used human femoral neck bone that was harvested during THA for advanced osteoarthritis of the hip joint (OA group) and hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF group). The specimens were scanned to evaluate the cancellous bone structures using micro-computed tomography, and we quantified the carbonic acid by attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra to estimate carbonate apatite...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269720/preliminary-study-on-the-automated-skull-fracture-detection-in-ct-images-using-black-hat-transform
#16
Ayumi Yamada, Atsushi Teramoto, Tomoko Otsuka, Kohei Kudo, Hirofumi Anno, Hiroshi Fujita
Linear skull fracture, following head trauma, may reach major blood vessels, such as the middle meningeal artery or sinus venosus, and may cause epidural hematoma. However, hematoma is likely to be missed in the initial interpretation because it spreads only gradually. In addition, the fracture lines that run along the scan slice plane are often missed during initial interpretation. In this study, we develop a novel method for automated detection of the linear skull fracture using head computed tomography (CT) images and conduct a basic evaluation using digital phantom and head phantom that enclose genuine human bones...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268244/calculation-of-cancellous-bone-elastic-properties-with-the-polarization-based-fft-iterative-scheme
#17
Lucas Colabella, Ariel Alejandro Ibarra Pino, Josefina Ballarre, Piotr Kowalczyk, Adrián Pablo Cisilino
The FFT based method, originally introduced by Moulinec and Suquet in 1994 has gained popularity for computing homogenized properties of composites. In this work, the method is used for the computational homogenization of the elastic properties of cancellous bone. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study where the FFT scheme is applied to bone mechanics. The performance of the method is analyzed for artificial and natural bone samples of two species: bovine femoral heads and implanted femurs of Hokkaido rats...
March 7, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259280/comparison-of-2-dimensional-and-3-dimensional-metacarpal-fracture-plating-constructs-under-cyclic-loading
#18
Eric P Tannenbaum, Geoffrey T Burns, Nikhil R Oak, Jeffrey N Lawton
PURPOSE: Metacarpal fractures are commonly treated by a variety of means including casting or open reduction internal fixation when unacceptable alignment is present following attempted closed reduction. Dorsal plating with either single-row 2-dimensional or double-row 3-dimensional plates has been proposed. This study's purpose was to determine if there are any differences in fixation construct stability under cyclic loading and subsequent load to failure between the lower profile 3-dimensional and the larger 2-dimensional plates in a metacarpal fracture gap sawbone model...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258969/association-between-regional-heterogeneity-in-the-mid-facial-bone-micro-architecture-and-increased-fragility-along-le-fort-lines
#19
Aleksa Janovic, Petar Milovanovic, Michael Hahn, Zoran Rakocevic, Michael Amling, Bjoern Busse, Milovan Dimitrijevic, Marija Djuric
BACKGROUND/AIM: Le Fort lines have traditionally been considered as zones of weakness in the mid-facial skeleton although the structural basis of increased bone fragility at these sites has not yet been investigated. Considering recent findings of occlusal loading-related regional heterogeneity in the mid-facial bone micro-architecture, the aim of this study was to explore whether such heterogeneity in cortical and cancellous bone micro-architecture may contribute to increased fragility at Le Fort fracture sites MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five cortical and thirteen cancellous bone specimens were harvested from a dry skull and analyzed by micro-CT...
March 4, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255336/bone-modeling-and-remodeling-potential-as-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#20
REVIEW
Bente Langdahl, Serge Ferrari, David W Dempster
The adult skeleton is renewed by remodeling throughout life. Bone remodeling is a process where osteoclasts and osteoblasts work sequentially in the same bone remodeling unit. After the attainment of peak bone mass, bone remodeling is balanced and bone mass is stable for one or two decades until age-related bone loss begins. Age-related bone loss is caused by increases in resorptive activity and reduced bone formation. The relative importance of cortical remodeling increases with age as cancellous bone is lost and remodeling activity in both compartments increases...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
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