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cancellous bone

Emanuel Rivera-Rosado, David Beaton-Comulada, Eric Hernandez-Ortiz, Pablo V Marrero-Ortiz
Fibrous dysplasia is a benign developmental disorder of bone in which fibrous connective tissue containing abnormal bone with irregular trabeculae replaces normal cancellous bone. It may affect 1 (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic). Polyostotic disease is the less common of the 2, occurring in only 20 to 25% of fibrous dysplasia patients and tending to affect those who are younger than 10 years of age; patients having this form tend to experience bone enlargement beyond normal skeletal maturation, which can cause pain, progressive damage, and increased risk of pathological fracture...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Sheng Zhou, Guanghu Wang, Liang Qiao, Qiting Ge, Dongyang Chen, Zhihong Xu, Dongquan Shi, Jin Dai, Jinzhong Qin, Huajian Teng, Qing Jiang
The ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model has been widely accepted to be suitable for the study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, whether C57BL/6J mice, a commonly used genetic background mouse strain, is an appropriate model for postmenopausal osteoporosis remains controversial. The present study investigated the effect of the OVX model on alterations in bone density and microarchitecture in C57BL/6J female mice of different ages. C57BL/6J mice were divided into 8-, 12- and 16-week-old groups (OVX8 , OVX12 and OVX16 ) from the beginning of OVX...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
J Cai, W Li, T Sun, X Li, E Luo, D Jing
The effects of exogenous pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on T1DM-associated osteopathy were investigated in alloxan-treated rabbits. We found that PEMF improved bone architecture, mechanical properties, and porous titanium (pTi) osseointegration by promoting bone anabolism through a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism, and revealed the clinical potential of PEMF stimulation for the treatment of T1DM-associated bone complications. INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with deteriorated bone architecture and impaired osseous healing potential; nonetheless, effective methods for resisting T1DM-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and promoting bone defect/fracture healing are still lacking...
March 9, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Sourav Mandal, Susanne Meininger, Uwe Gbureck, Bikramjit Basu
One of the important aspects in 3D powder printing (3DPP) is the selection of binder for a specific material composition to produce scaffolds with desired microstructure and physico-chemical properties. To this end, a new powder-binder combination, namely tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and phytic acid (IP6) was investigated at ambient temperature, for low load bearing application. A minimal deviation (<200 µm, w.r.t. computer aided design) was observed in the final sample through optimization of 3DPP process, along with minimum strut and macro-pore size of 200 and 750 µm, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
S E Turecamo, T A Walji, T J Broekelmann, J W Williams, S Ivanov, N K Wee, J D Procknow, M R McManus, G J Randolph, E L Scheller, R P Mecham, C S Craft
Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP1) is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with fibrillin and is involved in regulating the bioavailability of signaling molecules such as TGFβ. Mice with germline MAGP1 deficiency (Mfap2-/- ) develop increased adiposity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, bone marrow adipose tissue expansion, reduced cancellous bone mass, cortical bone thinning and bone fragility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the Mfap2-/- bone phenotypes were due to loss of MAGP1 locally or secondary to a change in whole body physiology (metabolic dysfunction)...
March 5, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Gang Xu
Activation of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor‑1α (HIF-1α) is considered critical for the stimulation of osteogenic markers including runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin, which are closely associated with forkhead boxclass O1 (Foxo1) levels in osteoblasts. The present study explored the associations between HIF‑1α and Foxo1 in the regulation of cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis of osteoblasts. Osteoblasts obtained from children's iliac cancellous bone were used in the present study, which were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining for the osteoblast marker osteocalcin...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Waseem G Shadid, Andrew Willis
This paper presents a novel method to segment bone fragments imaged using 3D Computed Tomography (CT). Existing image segmentation solutions often lack accuracy when segmenting internal trabecular and cancellous bone tissues from adjacent soft tissues having similar appearance and often merge regions associated with distinct fragments. These issues create problems in downstream visualization and pre-operative planning applications and impede the development of advanced image-based analysis methods such as virtual fracture reconstruction...
February 12, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Wen-Kai Wu, Zheng Jian Yan, Teng-Fei Zhang, Cong-Gang Liao, Kai-Lu Liang, Liang Chen, Zhong-Liang Deng
BACKGROUND: Anterior percutaneous endoscopic transcorporeal cervical discectomy (APETCD) is an alternative operation for cervical disc herniation. However, few reports have evaluated the biomechanical influence of tunnels on vertebrae. We compared biomechanical distinctions between intact and tunneled models to analyze the safety of APETCD based on a C2-T1 finite element(FE) model. METHODS: Two groups of C2-T1 FE models were simulated with C4 tunneled by two methods (A: with partial superior endplate excision, B: without partial superior endplate excision) and various tunnel diameters (6mm, 8mm, 10mm)...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Fen Xie, Bin Zhou, Jian Wang, Tang Liu, Xiyu Wu, Rui Fang, Yijun Kang, Ruchun Dai
The microstructure of autologous bone grafts from men over 50 years old and postmenopausal women undergoing spinal fusion were evaluated using micro-CT. We demonstrated postmenopausal women, especially those with osteoporosis (OP) presented more serious microarchitectural deterioration of bone grafts. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine microstructural properties of cancellous bone used as autologous bone grafts from osteoporosis patients undergoing lumbar fusion by comparing microstructural indices to controls...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Gorkem Kiyak, Tevfik Balikci, Ahmed Majid Heydar, Murat Bezer
Study Design: Mechanical study. Purpose: To compare the pullout strength of different screw designs and augmentation techniques in an osteoporotic bone model. Overview of Literature: Adequate bone screw pullout strength is a common problem among osteoporotic patients. Various screw designs and augmentation techniques have been developed to improve the biomechanical characteristics of the bone-screw interface. Methods: Polyurethane blocks were used to mimic human osteoporotic cancellous bone, and six different screw designs were tested...
February 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Volkan Gurkan, Ozgur Erdogan
Foot and ankle osteoid osteomas (OOs) are often cancellous or subperiosteal and rarely present with a periosteal reaction. Additionally, the large number of disorders included in the differential diagnosis and the nonspecific findings on radiographs complicate the diagnosis. We performed a manual search of the senior surgeon's hospitals' operating room records for the terms "benign bone tumor," "foot," "ankle," and "osteoid osteoma" from January 2003 until December 2014...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Andreas Lodberg, Marco Eijken, Bram C J van der Eerden, Mette Wendelboe Okkels, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Annemarie Brüel
Disuse causes a rapid and substantial bone loss distinct in its pathophysiology from the bone loss associated with cancers, age, and menopause. While inhibitors of the activin-receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have been shown to prevent ovariectomy- and cancer-induced bone loss, their application in a model of disuse osteopenia remains to be tested. Here, we show that a soluble activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA-mFc) increases diaphyseal bone strength and cancellous bone mass, and mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength in the Botulinum Toxin A (BTX)-model of disuse osteopenia in female C57BL/6J mice...
February 27, 2018: Bone
Ze-Jian Li, Chun-Ting Lu, Ren-Fa Lai
To explore the ectopic osteogenesis effect of sequential sustained release application of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Antigen-extracted xenogeneic cancellous bone coupled with growth factor-loaded chitosan nanocapsules were implanted in rats in intramuscular site in accordance with the following experimental pattern: group A: simultaneous burst release of rhBMP-2 and bFGF; group B: simultaneous sustained release of rhBMP-2 and bFGF; group C: preferential burst release of rhBMP-2, then sustained release of bFGF; group D: preferential burst release of bFGF, then sustained release of rhBMP-2; group E: sustained release of rhBMP-2 alone; group F: sustained release of bFGF alone, blank control group G: antigen-extracted xenogeneic cancellous bone graft only; negative control group H: not filled with anything...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
W R Walsh, M Pelletier, C Christou, J He, F Vizesi, S D Boden
BACKGROUND: Context: Increasing bone ongrowth and ingrowth of PEEK interbody fusion devices has the potential to improve clinical outcomes. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the in vivo response of promoting new bone growth and bone apposition with NM compared to PEEK alone in a cancellous implantation site with an empty aperture. STUDY DESIGN: This is a randomized control animal study METHODS: Implants and funding for this study were provided by SeaSpine (60,000 USD)...
February 26, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Chiara Rossetti, Lidia Pasquinelli, Andrea Verzeletti, Giuseppe Armocida, Marta Licata, Ezio Fulcheri
An excavation conducted in 2002 by the Lombardy Archaeological Heritage in the St. Giulio Church (Cassano Magnago-Northern Italy) revealed an adult skeleton with an important alteration of the left femur. The femur, longer than the contralateral, exhibited an expansion of the full diaphysis; the surface was coarsened and porous. In cross section, it appeared that almost all the cortical bone had been converted into cancellous bone. Macroscopic and radiological alterations are suggestive of the monostotic form of Paget's disease, a chronic disorder, characterized by focal areas of excessive osteoclastic bone resorption followed by a secondary increase in osteoblastic bone formation...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Brent K Hoffmeister, Matthew T Huber, Ann M Viano, Jinsong Huang
Materials that simulate the ultrasonic properties of tissues are used widely for clinical and research purposes. However, relatively few materials are known to simulate the ultrasonic properties of cancellous bone. The goal of the present study was to investigate the suitability of using a polymer, open-cell rigid foam (OCRF) produced by Sawbones® . Measurements were performed on OCRF specimens with four different densities. Ultrasonic speed of sound and normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation were measured with a 0...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Justyna Kucińska-Lipka
Novel, slowly-degradable and hydrophilic materials with proper mechanical properties and surface characteristics are in great demand within the biomedical field. In this paper, the design, synthesis, and characterization of polyurethanes (PUR) crosslinked with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a new proposition for regenerative medicine is described. PVA-crosslinked PURs were synthesized by a two-step polymerization performed in a solvent (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO). The raw materials used for the synthesis of PVA-crosslinked PURs were poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and PVA as a crosslinking agent...
February 27, 2018: Materials
Amir Reza Rokn, Akram Labibzadeh, Amir Alireza Rasouli Ghohroudi, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Somaye Solhjoo
Introduction: A correct diagnosis and optimal treatment planning is essential for success in implant dentistry. Proper diagnosis of bone quality is an important part of the diagnostic procedure. Objective: The purpose of this study was to correlate the tactile sense of the surgeon in the assessment of bone density to the histomorphometric analysis of bone quality. Methods: In this study, 56 bone samples from 33 patients were harvested from implant sites with trephine drills...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Y Du, W Zhou, Y Pan, Y Tang, L Wan, H Jiang
BACKGROUND: Older alveolar cleft patients (>12 years old) often have wide bone defect as well as teeth loss, resulting in poor osseous healing with conventional alveolar bone grafting (ABG). In this study, we investigated a surgical technique of block iliac bone grafting for the alveolar cleft reconstruction and evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of these cleft patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients were included in this study. All cases received preoperative cone bean computed tomography (CBCT) scans for the alveolar cleft evaluation...
February 24, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Yunwei Cui, Pan Hu, Ning Wei, Xiaodong Cheng, Wenli Chang, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND Clinical studies indicate that in total ankle arthroplasty, postoperative implant subsidence and medial tilt become two significant concerns of the ankle replacement system, and which are associated with the contact between the bones and the talar component. Up to now, little attention has focused on the contact between the bones and the talar component. MATERIAL AND METHODS In order to address implant subsidence and medial tilt, one three-dimensional finite element model of contact between the bone and the talar components was built with the material properties of the cancellous bone interpolated from the experimental data, which represents variation of material properties through the cancellous bones...
February 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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