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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915135/primary-stability-and-viscoelastic-displacement-of-mini-implant-system-under-loading
#1
Jim Lee, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Joseph Pittman, Toru Deguchi, William M Johnston, Henry W Fields, Do-Gyoon Kim
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to examine the effects of mini-implant diameters on 1) primary stability before bone properties are changed by active peri-implant bone remodeling and 2) the time-dependent displacement of mini-implant systems in bone under a functional radial loading and their associations with bone mineral density. METHODS: Twenty one, 8mm length mini-implants (7 each for 1.4mm, 1.6mm, and 2mm diameters) were placed in mandibular sections of human cadavers (4 males and 3 females, average 69...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915097/effects-of-chronic-lead-exposure-on-bone-mineral-properties-in-femurs-of-growing-rats
#2
Pedro Álvarez-Lloret, Ching Ming Lee, María Inés Conti, Antonela Romina Terrizzi, Santiago González-López, María Pilar Martínez
Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914383/the-development-of-a-whole-head-human-finite-element-model-for-simulation-of-the-transmission-of-bone-conducted-sound
#3
You Chang, Namkeun Kim, Stefan Stenfelt
A whole head finite element model for simulation of bone conducted (BC) sound transmission was developed. The geometry and structures were identified from cryosectional images of a female human head and eight different components were included in the model: cerebrospinal fluid, brain, three layers of bone, soft tissue, eye, and cartilage. The skull bone was modeled as a sandwich structure with an inner and outer layer of cortical bone and soft spongy bone (diploë) in between. The behavior of the finite element model was validated against experimental data of mechanical point impedance, vibration of the cochlear promontories, and transcranial BC sound transmission...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914382/multichannel-processing-for-dispersion-curves-extraction-of-ultrasonic-axial-transmission-signals-comparisons-and-case-studies
#4
Kailiang Xu, Dean Ta, Didier Cassereau, Bo Hu, Weiqi Wang, Pascal Laugier, Jean-Gabriel Minonzio
Some pioneering studies have shown the clinical feasibility of long bones evaluation using ultrasonic guided waves. Such a strategy is typically designed to determine the dispersion information of the guided modes to infer the elastic and structural characteristics of cortical bone. However, there are still some challenges to extract multimode dispersion curves due to many practical limitations, e.g., high spectral density of modes, limited spectral resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, two representative signal processing methods have been proposed to improve the dispersion curves extraction...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913176/rotary-ultrasonic-bone-drilling-improved-pullout-strength-and-reduced-damage
#5
Vishal Gupta, Pulak M Pandey, Vadim V Silberschmidt
Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool...
November 29, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911148/effects-of-chronic-estrogen-administration-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-on-fat-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Z Zhang, J Liu, A G Veldhuis-Vlug, Y Su, E Foppen, B C J van der Eerden, M Koedam, N Bravenboer, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, E Fliers, P H Bisschop
Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909788/dedifferentiated-liposarcoma-of-the-lower-extremity-with-low-grade-dedifferentiation-and-low-grade-osteosarcomatous-component
#7
Anna K Zajicek, Julia A Bridge, Joshua W Akers, Sean V McGarry, Craig W Walker
Dedifferentiated liposarcoma can arise de novo or as a complication of a preexisting well-differentiated liposarcoma. We describe the radiologic and pathologic features of a long-standing liposarcoma with multiple recurrences in a 59-year-old male. Imaging demonstrated a heterogeneous fat-containing mass in the anterior thigh. The adjacent proximal femur showed irregular cortical new bone, eventually followed by intramedullary osteoblastic involvement and pathologic fracture. Histologic assessment at resection revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma with low-grade osteosarcomatous component...
December 1, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909681/double-bundle-all-inside-posterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-technique-using-2%C3%A2-separate-autologous-grafts
#8
Roy A G Hoogeslag, Bart W Oudelaar, Rianne Huis In't Veld, Reinoud W Brouwer
In a double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, several surgical techniques are available. Compared with other techniques, the advantages of the all-inside technique and cortical suspension devices with variable loop length are that shorter grafts can be used, tendons can be quadrupled, and a double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can be performed with autologous grafts. Furthermore, the all-inside technique provides independent outside-in socket reaming and is soft tissue, cortex, and bone sparing because no full diameter tunnels but sockets are created with a small diameter guide pin, which can transform into a retrograde drill...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908965/inf-%C3%AE-encoding-plasmid-administration-triggers-bone-loss-and-disrupts-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#9
Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmâo Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchigiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lavava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti
IFN-γ is a pleotropic cytokine produced in the bone microenvironment. Although IFN-γ is known to play a critical role on bone remodeling, its function is not fully elucidated. Consistently, outcomes on the effects of IFN-γ recombinant protein on bone loss are contradictory among reports. In our work we explored, for the first time, the role of IFN-γ encoding plasmid (pIFN-γ) in a mouse model of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy and in the sham-operated counterpart to estimate its effects in skeletal homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908574/reconstruction-of-a-post-traumatic-maxillary-ridge-using-a-radial-forearm-free-flap-and-immediate-tissue-engineering-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-and-cortical-cancellous-bone-case-report
#10
James C Melville, Ramzey Tursun, J Marshall Green, Robert E Marx
The purpose of this article is to describe reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar ridge by use of a microvascular free flap combined with an immediate tissue-engineered bone graft. This novel surgical technique involved the use of a radial forearm free flap and immediate allogeneic avascular bone graft augmented with bone morphogenetic protein and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. A poly-d,l-lactic acid mesh was used a containment unit for the bone graft. The patient was successfully treated with a viable radial forearm free flap for soft tissue and regeneration of bone with adequate height and width, which allowed the placement of 3 dental implants with excellent arch coordination...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908411/boron-supplementation-improves-bone-health-of-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#11
Renata Dessordi, Adriano Levi Spirlandeli, Ariane Zamarioli, José Batista Volpon, Anderson Marliere Navarro
Diabetes Mellitus is a condition that predisposes a higher risk for the development of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of boron supplementation on bone microstructure and strength in control and non-obese diabetic mice for 30days. The animals were supplemented with 40μg/0,5ml of boron solution and controls received 0,5ml of distilled water daily. We evaluated the biochemical parameters: total calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and boron; bone analysis: bone computed microtomography, and biomechanical assay with a three point test on the femur...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908076/experimental-observation-of-piezoelectric-effect-in-cancellous-bone-generated-by-ultrasound-irradiation
#12
A Hosokawa
In this study, piezoelectric cells (PE-cells) of cancellous bone were experimentally produced to receive an ultrasound wave. In the PE-cell, a bovine cancellous bone specimen, in which the pore spaces were saturated with air, was electrically shielded to prevent electromagnetic noise. As a result, the piezoelectric signal generated in the cancellous bone specimen by irradiating an ultrasound burst wave at 1.0 MHz could be clearly observed in water. The experimental results showed that the ultrasound sensitivity per unit area of cancellous bone was estimated to be below 1/100 and 1/100 000 of cortical bone and poly(vinylidene fluoride), respectively...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908063/simulation-study-of-axial-ultrasonic-wave-propagation-in-heterogeneous-bovine-cortical-bone
#13
Toshiho Hata, Yoshiki Nagatani, Koki Takano, Mami Matsukawa
The effect of the heterogeneity of the long cortical bone is an important factor when applying the axial transmission technique. In this study, the axial longitudinal wave velocity distributions in specimens from the mid-shaft of a bovine femur were measured, in the MHz range. Bilinear interpolation and the piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial method were used to construct three-dimensional (3D) axial velocity models with a resolution of 40 μm. By assuming the uniaxial anisotropy of the bone and using the results of previous experimental studies [Yamato, Matsukawa, Yanagitani, Yamazaki, Mizukawa, and Nagano (2008b)...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906582/fiat-deletion-increases-bone-mass-but-does-not-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-complications
#14
Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Vionnie W C Yu, William Addison, Vice Mandic, Martin Pellicelli, Alice Arabian, René St-Arnaud
FIAT (Factor Inhibiting ATF4-mediated Transcription) interacts with ATF4 to repress its transcriptional activity. We performed a phenotypic analysis of Fiat-deficient male mice (Fiat(-/Y)) at 8 and 16 weeks of age. Fiat(-/Y) mice appeared normal at birth and weight gain was comparable between genotypes. μCT analysis of proximal femur demonstrated 46% and 13% age-dependent increases in trabecular bone volume and thickness, respectively, in Fiat(-/Y) mice. Cortical bone measurements at the femoral midshaft revealed a significant increase in cortical thickness in older Fiat(-/Y) mice...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904674/bmi1-plays-an-important-role-in-dentin-and-mandible-homeostasis-by-maintaining-redox-balance
#15
Ying Yin, Xian Xue, Qian Wang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To explore whether polycomb repressor Bmi1 plays an important role in dentin and mandible development homeostasis by maintaining redox balance, 3-week-old Bmi1 gene knockout (Bmi1(-/-)) mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 2 weeks in their drinking water and phenotypes of the tooth and mandibles were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1(-/-) mice and wild-type mice by radiograph, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Alterations of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell proliferation and cell cycle-related parameters were also examined in mandibles...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903522/dietary-patterns-explaining-differences-in-bone-mineral-density-and-hip-structure-in-the-elderly-the-rotterdam-study
#16
Ester Al de Jonge, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Brenda Ct Kieboom, Trudy Voortman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between dietary patterns, measures of hip bone geometry, and subsequent fracture risk are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dietary patterns that explain most variation in bone mineral density (BMD) and hip bone geometry are associated with fracture risk. DESIGN: We included 4028 subjects aged ≥55 y from the Rotterdam study. Intake of 28 food groups was assessed with the use of food-frequency questionnaires...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902895/pathogeny-of-fatigued-walking-condition-in-pekin-ducks
#17
M J Da Costa, E O Oviedo-Rondón, M Wineland, D Jeffrey
Fatigued walking condition (FWC) in ducks is an important welfare and processing issue during the loading/unloading to the processing plant that can be related to heart and bone development. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of incubation conditions on duck embryo bone and heart development and their subsequent effects on ducks showing FWC at market age. Four groups of 2500 Pekin duck eggs were subjected to combinations of two incubation temperature profiles (elevated [E] and normal [N]) and two eggshell conductance profiles (G) (reduced [GR] and normal [GN])...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#18
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902168/biomechanical-comparison-of-pullout-strengths-of-five-cortical-screw-types-an-innovative-measurement-method
#19
Ahmet Karakaşlı, Nihat Acar, Mehmet Hilal Özcanhan, Fatih Ertem
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess five different cortical screw types using artificial femurs, under equated testing conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the maximum force needed to cause deformation at screw-bone interface using fourth generation composite femurs by conducting separate pullout tests for each screw type. We normalized obtained results with traditional methods and cross-comparison. To conduct pullout tests dependent on screw dimensions, we eliminated the effect of bicortical bone thickness by equalizing the conditions of screw insertion...
December 2016: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901233/maxillary-dentoalveolar-assessment-following-retraction-of-maxillary-incisors-a-preliminary-study
#20
Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira, Lígia Vieira Claudino, Cláudia Trindade Mattos, Eduardo Franzotti Sant'Anna
Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2)...
September 2016: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
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