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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#1
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632551/comparative-study-of-c-arms-for-intraoperative-3-dimensional-imaging-and-navigation-in-minimally-invasive-spine-surgery-part-i-applicability-and-image-quality
#2
Jan-Helge Klingler, Ronen Sircar, Christian Scheiwe, Evangelos Kogias, Florian Volz, Marie T Krüger, Ulrich Hubbe
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study compares 2 different 3-dimensional (3D) C-arm devices for intraoperative imaging and navigation with regard to clinical applicability and image quality. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive spine surgery requires intraoperative imaging techniques to adequately visualize the unexposed spine. For this purpose, mobile 3D C-arms became available along with the evolution of intraoperative navigation techniques...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631813/high-fat-diet-attenuates-hyperglycemia-body-composition-changes-and-bone-loss-in-male-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetic-mice
#3
Adriana Lelis Carvalho, Victoria E DeMambro, Anyonya R Guntur, Phuong Le, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Katherine J Motyl
There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin deficient mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630862/influence-of-deformation-and-stress-between-bone-and-implant-from-various-bite-forces-by-numerical-simulation-analysis
#4
Hsin-Chung Cheng, Boe-Yu Peng, May-Show Chen, Chiung-Fang Huang, Yi Lin, Yung-Kang Shen
Endosseous oral implant is applied for orthodontic anchorage in subjects with multiple tooth agenesis. Its effectiveness under orthodontic loading has been demonstrated clinically and experimentally. This study investigates the deformation and stress on the bone and implant for different bite forces by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) methods. A numerical simulation of deformation and stress distributions around implants was used to estimate the survival life for implants. The model was applied to determine the pattern and distribution of deformations and stresses within the endosseous implant and on supporting tissues when the endosseous implant is used for orthodontic anchorage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630762/articular-impaction-injuries-in-the-lower-limb
#5
Ippokratis Pountos, Peter V Giannoudis
The effective management of articular impacted fractures requires the successful elevation of the osteochondral fragment to eliminate joint incongruency and the stable fixation of the fragments providing structural support to the articular surface.The anatomical restoration of the joint can be performed either with elevation through a cortical window, through balloon-guided osteoplasty or direct visualisation of the articular surface.Structural support of the void created in the subchondral area can be achieved through the use of bone graft materials (autologous tricortical bone), or synthetic bone graft substitutes...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629064/advanced-bredigite-containing-magnesium-matrix-composites-for-biodegradable-bone-implant-applications
#6
Sina Naddaf Dezfuli, Zhiguang Huan, Arjan Mol, Sander Leeflang, Jiang Chang, Jie Zhou
The present research was aimed at developing magnesium-matrix composites that could allow effective control over their physiochemical and mechanical responses when in contact with physiological solutions. A biodegradable, bioactive ceramic - bredigite was chosen as the reinforcing phase in the composites, based on the hypothesis that the silicon- and magnesium-containing ceramic could protect magnesium from fast corrosion and at the same time stimulate cell proliferation. Methods to prepare composites with integrated microstructures - a prerequisite to achieve controlled biodegradation were developed...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627474/sox9-positive-periosteal-cells-in-fracture-repair-of-the-adult-mammalian-long-bone
#7
Xinjun He, Sofia Bougioukli, Brandon Ortega, Eric Arevalo, Jay R Lieberman, Andrew P McMahon
INTRODUCTION: The phases of fracture healing have been well characterized. However, the exact source and genetic profile of the skeletal progenitors that participate in bone repair is somewhat unclear. Sox9 expression in skeletal elements precedes bone and cartilage formation and a Sox9(+) cell type is retained in the adult periosteum. We hypothesized that Sox9(+) periosteal cells are multipotent skeletal progenitors normally participating in fracture repair. METHODS: To test this hypothesis we used tamoxifen (TM)-mediated lineage tracing of Sox9(+) cells in Sox9CreErt2:Td-Tomato mice...
June 13, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624935/eldecalcitol-an-active-vitamin-d3-derivative-prevents-trabecular-bone-loss-and-bone-fragility-in-type-i-diabetic-model-rats
#8
Satoshi Takeda, Mitsuru Saito, Sadaoki Sakai, Kenji Yogo, Keishi Marumo, Koichi Endo
Diabetes mellitus is known to adversely affect the bones and be associated with increased fracture risk. We examined whether eldecalcitol (ELD), an active vitamin D3 derivative, could inhibit the diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. ELD (10, 20, or 40 ng/kg), alfacalcidol (ALF; 25, 50, or 100 ng/kg), or vehicle was administered 5 times per week for 12 weeks from 1 week after diabetes induction. Normal control rats received the vehicle. Bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical strength of the lumbar spine and femur were measured, and bone histomorphometry was performed...
June 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624835/cbct-location-of-the-fusion-between-the-buccal-and-lingual-cortical-in-the-mandibular-ramus-importance-to-sagittal-split-osteotomy
#9
L Scomparin, M-Q-S Soares, C-M-F Rubira, R-Y-F Yaedú, T-S-N Imada, B-S Centurion, E-S Tolentino, J-R-P Lauris, I-R-F Rubira-Bullen
BACKGROUND: Mandibular Sagittal Split Osteotomy (MSSO) is a popular technique in orthognathic surgery used both to advance and to retreat the mandible. However, MSSO may incur in important complications, such as bad splits and sensorineural injuries. Knowing the location of the fusion between the buccal and lingual cortical (FBLC) in the mandibular ramus and the bone thickness in the region where osteotomies will be performed is determinant in MSSO planning to avoid complications. The aim of this study was to document and evaluate possible differences between sexes regarding the location of the FBLC in relation to the superior cortical of mandibular foramen (MF) and bone thickness in the region of interest for MSSO in a Brazilian population...
June 18, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623826/mechanical-characterization-via-nanoindentation-of-the-woven-bone-developed-during-bone-transport
#10
J Mora-Macías, A Pajares, P Miranda, J Domínguez, E Reina-Romo
Nanoindentation has been used successfully in the determination of the mechanical properties of bone. Its application in fracture healing provides information on the evolution of material properties of the woven bone during regeneration process. However, this technique has not been applied in assessing the mechanical properties of woven bone during distraction osteogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during the bone transport process...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623685/two-stage-ridge-split-at-narrow-alveolar-mandibular-bone-ridges
#11
Ivo Agabiti, Daniele Botticelli
PURPOSE: When the bone ridge is corticalized, the displacement of the buccal plate may result in an unintentional malfracture. The aim of this study was to report the results of a 2-stage atrophic alveolar ridge expansion performed with a sonic-air surgical instrument. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the atrophic distal segments of the mandible were treated by a split-thickness flap approach and application of an alveolar ridge expansion performed in 2 surgical phases...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623425/effects-of-a-20-week-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-training-program-on-tibial-bone-structure-and-strength-in-middle-aged-and-older-male-sprint-athletes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
T H Suominen, M T Korhonen, M Alén, A Heinonen, A Mero, T Törmäkangas, H Suominen
This randomized, controlled, high-intensity strength and sprint training trial in middle-aged and older male sprint athletes showed significant improvements in mid-tibial structure and strength. The study reveals the adaptability of aging bone, suggesting that through a novel, intensive training stimulus it is possible to strengthen bones during aging. INTRODUCTION: High-load, high-speed and impact-type exercise may be an efficient way of improving bone strength even in old age. We evaluated the effects of combined strength and sprint training on indices of bone health in competitive masters athletes, who serve as a group of older people who are likely to be able to participate in vigorous exercise of this kind...
June 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621468/the-characteristics-of-regional-bone-quality-in-cervical-vertebrae-considering-bmd-determining-a-safe-trajectory-for-cervical-pedicle-screw-fixation
#13
Moon-Kyu Kim, Ho-Jung Cho, Dai-Soon Kwak, Seung-Hoon You
This study aimed to report the mechanical strength and characteristics of the lateral mass and pedicle considering BMD for the safe insertion of pedicle screws in the subaxial cervical level. We evaluated BMD and Hounsfield unit (HU) values of cortical bones at the lateral mass and pedicle of C3-7 from CT images in 99 patients. Patients were divided into three groups (Group A, T-score ≥-1; Group B, -2.5 < T-score < -1.0; Group C, T-score≤-2.5). The HU numbers of cortical bone in the vertebral canal (medial wall of the lateral mass; cHU), posterior wall of the transverse foramen (fHU), and medial wall, lateral wall, and trabecular area of the pedicle (mHU, lHU, and pHU, respectively) were measured on the CT images in the middle of the pedicle...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621323/a-robust-methodology-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-the-rat-jawbone-microstructure
#14
Marissa Chatterjee, Fernanda Faot, Cassia Correa, Joke Duyck, Ignace Naert, Katleen Vandamme
Micro-computed tomography can be applied for the assessment of the micro-architectural characteristics of the cortical and trabecular bones in either physiological or disease conditions. However, reports often lack a detailed description of the methodological steps used to analyse these images, such as the volumes of interest, the algorithms used for image filtration, the approach used for image segmentation, and the bone parameters quantified, thereby making it difficult to compare or reproduce the studies...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621284/comparison-of-platform-switched-and-sloping-shoulder-implants-on-stress-reduction-in-various-bone-densities-finite-element-analysis
#15
Joji Markose, S Suresh, Shruthi Eshwar, K Rekha, Vipin Jain, Supriya Manvi
INTRODUCTION: Comparison of platform switched (PS), sloping shoulder, and regular implants on stress reduction in various bone densities with finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 three-dimensional finite element models were built to analyze the stress distribution model. Nobel Biocare 4.3 × 8 mm regular platform replace select implant with matching diameter easy abutment, Nobel Biocare 4.3 × 8 mm replace select implant PS with 3.5 mm diameter easy abutment, Bicon 4 × 8 mm implant with 4 mm diameter sloping shoulder abutments were created virtually in compact bone density using software...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621175/in-vivo-investigation-of-tissue-engineered-periosteum-for-the-repair-of-allogeneic-critical-size-bone-defects-in-rabbits
#16
Lin Zhao, Junli Zhao, Jiajia Yu, Rui Sun, Xiaofeng Zhang, Shuhua Hu
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue-engineered periosteum (TEP) in repairing allogenic bone defects in the long term. MATERIALS & METHODS: TEP was biofabricated with osteoinduced rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). A total of 24 critical sized defects were created bilaterally in radii of 12 New Zealand White rabbits. TEP/SIS was implanted into the defect site. Bone defect repair was evaluated with radiographic and histological examination at 4, 8 and 12 weeks...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614701/appendicular-and-whole-body-lean-mass-outcomes-are-associated-with-finite-element-analysis-derived-bone-strength-at-the-distal-radius-and-tibia-in-adults-aged-40years-and-older
#17
Jenna C Gibbs, Lora M Giangregorio, Andy K O Wong, Robert G Josse, Angela M Cheung
PURPOSE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), and whole body lean (LMI) and fat mass indices (FMI) associate with estimated bone strength outcomes at the distal radius and tibia in adults aged 40 years and older. METHODS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed to determine body composition, including whole body lean and fat mass, and appendicular lean mass. ALMI (appendicular lean mass/height(2)), LMI (lean tissue mass/height(2)) and FMI (fat mass/height(2)) were calculated...
June 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614210/congenital-syphilis-of-bone-a-potential-mimicker-of-childhood-histiocytoses
#18
Youran Zou, Matthew A Marcus, C Guy Castles, Scott E Kilpatrick
Involvement of the skeletal system by congenital syphilis is well documented in the literature, chiefly in the form of radiologic studies, including periostitis, osteitis, and osteochondritis. Because congenital syphilis is generally recognized clinically, tissue biopsy is virtually never performed. Therefore, the histopathologic findings are less well documented and mostly exist in the older literature. We report herein the clinicoradiologic and pathologic features of a 2-month-old infant who initially presented with absence of left arm movement...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610691/radiological-properties-of-3d-printed-materials-in-kilovoltage-and-megavoltage-photon-beams
#19
O L Dancewicz, S R Sylvander, T S Markwell, S B Crowe, J V Trapp
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the radiological properties of different 3D printing materials for a range of photon energies, including kV and MV CT imaging and MV radiotherapy beams. METHODS: The CT values of a number of materials were measured on an Aquilion One CT scanner at 80kVp, 120kVp and a Tomotherapy Hi Art MVCT imaging beam. Attenuation of the materials in a 6MV radiotherapy beam was investigated. RESULTS: Plastic filaments printed with various infill densities have CT values of -743±4, -580±1 and -113±3 in 120kVp CT images which approximate the CT values of low-density lung, high-density lung and soft tissue respectively...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608812/quantification-of-bone-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-its-regulation-by-adipocyte-lipoprotein-lipase
#20
Alexander Bartelt, Till Koehne, Klaus Tödter, Rudolph Reimer, Brigitte Müller, Friederike Behler-Janbeck, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja, Andreas Niemeier
Adipocytes are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Although the contributions of classical brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) to glucose and fatty acid metabolism are well characterized, the metabolic role of adipocytes in bone marrow remains largely unclear. Here, we quantify bone fatty acid metabolism and its contribution to systemic nutrient handling in mice. Whereas in parts of the skeleton the specific amount of nutrients taken-up from the circulation was lower than in other metabolically active tissues such as BAT or liver, the overall contribution of the skeleton as a whole organ was remarkable, placing it among the top organs involved in systemic glucose as well as fatty acid clearance...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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