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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332195/histomorphometry-and-cortical-robusticity-of-the-adult-human-femur
#1
Justyna Jolanta Miszkiewicz, Patrick Mahoney
Recent quantitative analyses of human bone microanatomy, as well as theoretical models that propose bone microstructure and gross anatomical associations, have started to reveal insights into biological links that may facilitate remodeling processes. However, relationships between bone size and the underlying cortical bone histology remain largely unexplored. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which static indicators of bone remodeling and vascularity, measured using histomorphometric techniques, relate to femoral midshaft cortical width and robusticity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331300/cigarette-smoking-and-hip-volumetric-bone-mineral-density-and-cortical-volume-loss-in-older-adults-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#2
Elisa A Marques, Martine Elbejjani, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Lang, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Lenore Launer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Tamara B Harris
This study aimed to explore the relationships of several indicators of cigarette smoking habits (smoking status, pack-years, age at smoking initiation and smoking cessation) with quantitative computed tomographic (QCT)-derived proximal femur bone measures (trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol)) and with subsequent change in these measures over the next five years. A total of 2673 older adults (55.9% women), aged 66-92 years at baseline from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, who had two QCT scans of the hip were studied...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331298/spatiotemporal-characterization-of-microdamage-accumulation-in-rat-ulnae-in-response-to-uniaxial-compressive-fatigue-loading
#3
Xuhui Zhang, Xiyu Liu, Zedong Yan, Jing Cai, Fei Kang, Shuai Shan, Pan Wang, Mingming Zhai, X Edward Guo, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Repetitive fatigue loading can induce microdamage accumulation in bone matrix, which results in impaired mechanical properties and increased fracture susceptibility. However, the spatial distribution and time-variant process of microdamage accumulation in fatigue-loaded skeleton, especially for linear microcracks which are known to initiate bone remodeling, remain not fully understood. In this study, the time-varying process of the morphology and distribution of microcracks in rat ulnae subjected to uniaxial compressive fatigue loading was investigated...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329430/increases-in-igf-1-after-anti-tnf-%C3%AE-therapy-are-associated-with-bone-and-muscle-accrual-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#4
Mark D DeBoer, Arthur M Lee, Kirabo Herbert, Jin Long, Meena Thayu, Lindsay M Griffin, Robert N Baldassano, Lee A Denson, Babette S Zemel, Michelle R Denburg, Rita Herskovitz, Mary B Leonard
Context: Low levels of IGF-1 in pediatric and adolescent Crohn's Disease (CD) likely contribute to bone and muscle deficits. Objective: Assess changes in IGF-1 levels and associations with bone and muscle accrual following initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy in pediatric and adolescent CD. Design and Participants: Participants (n=75, age 5-21 years) with CD were enrolled in a prospective cohort study; 63 completed the 12-month visit. Main Outcome Measures: IGF-1 levels at baseline and 10 weeks, and DXA and tibia peripheral quantitative-CT (pQCT) measures of bone and muscle at baseline and 12 months after initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327689/global-spectral-graph-wavelet-signature-for-surface-analysis-of-carpal-bones
#5
Majid Masoumi, Mahsa Rezaei, A Ben Hamza
Quantitative shape comparison is a fundamental problem in computer vision, geometry processing and medical imaging. In this paper, we present a spectral graph wavelet approach for shape analysis of carpal bones of the human wrist. We employ spectral graph wavelets to represent the cortical surface of a carpal bone via the spectral geometric analysis of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the discrete domain. We propose global spectral graph wavelet (GSGW) descriptor that is isometric invariant, efficient to compute, and combines the advantages of both low-pass and band-pass filters...
January 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325759/snps-in-the-vicinity-of-p2x7r-rank-rankl-opg-and-wnt-signalling-pathways-and-their-association-with-bone-phenotypes-in-academy-footballers
#6
Ian Varley, David C Hughes, Julie P Greeves, William D Fraser, Craig Sale
CONTEXT: Genotype plays an important role in influencing bone phenotypes, such as bone mineral density, but the role of genotype in determining responses of bone to exercise has yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 10 SNPs associated with genes in the vicinity of P2X7R, RANK/RANKL/OPG and Wnt Signalling Pathways are associated with bone phenotypes in elite academy footballers (Soccer players) and to determine whether these genotypes are associated with training induced changes in bone...
January 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322073/high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-results-in-higher-bone-mass-in-aged-rats
#7
Akira Minematsu, Yasue Nishii, Susumu Sakata
Intake of high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) diet or high fat diet influences bone metabolism in young rodents, but its effects on bone properties of aged rodents still remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of HFS diet intake on trabecular bone architecture (TBA) and cortical bone geometry (CBG) in aged rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats over 1 year were randomly divided into two groups. One group was fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) and the other group was fed a HFS diet for six months. The femur/tibia, obtained from both groups at the end of experimental period, were scanned by micro-computed tomography for TBA/CBG analyses...
June 2018: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319607/longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-in-a-mouse-model-of-metastatic-bone-cancer-reveals-distinct-functional-reorganizations-along-a-developing-chronic-pain-state
#8
David Buehlmann, Joanes Grandjeanc, Jael Xandryd, Markus Rudin
Functional neuroimaging has emerged as attractive option for characterizing pain states complementing behavioral readouts or clinical assessment. In particular resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) enables monitoring of functional adaptations across the brain, e.g. in response to chronic nociceptive input. We have used rs-fMRI in a mouse model of chronic pain from breast cancer derived tibial bone metastases to identify pain-induced alterations in functional connectivity (FC). Combined assessment of behavioral readouts allowed defining a trajectory as model function for extracting pain-specific FC changes from the fMRI data reflective of a chronic pain state...
January 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315595/mid-to-long-term-clinical-outcome-of-giant-cell-tumor-of-bone-treated-with-calcium-phosphate-cement-following-thorough-curettage-and-phenolization
#9
Akihiko Takeuchi, Prakrit Suwanpramote, Norio Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shirai, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Shinji Miwa, Takashi Higuchi, Kensaku Abe, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) are intermediate and locally aggressive bone tumor. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a bone void filler used in orthopaedic surgery. This study investigated the clinical outcome of GCTB treated with thorough curettage, phenolization, and CPC. METHODS: We investigated 26 patients with at least 36 months of follow-up. The mean age and follow-up were 37 years (range: 19-63) and 87 months (range: 38-169), respectively...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315066/-autotransplantation-of-a-maxillary-incisor-and-orthodontic-care-a-case-study
#10
Valentine Charpentier, Masrour Makaremi, François de Brondeau
INTRODUCTION: Severely impacted teeth with atypical root anatomy do not respond well to orthodontic traction after surgical exposure. Consequently, they are often removed, but replacing them with dental prostheses can prove difficult in patients who are still growing. Thus, autotransplantation seems to be the only way to preserve a natural tooth and the alveolar bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An upper central incisor impacted in the region of the nasal cavities with an open apex was diagnosed in an 8...
December 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314250/inhibition-of-camkk2-enhances-fracture-healing-by-stimulating-indian-hedgehog-signaling-and-accelerating-endochondral-ossification
#11
Justin N Williams, Anuradha Valiya Kambrath, Roshni B Patel, Kyung Shin Kang, Elsa Mével, Yong Li, Ying-Hua Cheng, Austin J Pucylowski, Mariah A Hassert, Michael J Voor, Melissa A Kacena, William R Thompson, Stuart J Warden, David B Burr, Matthew R Allen, Alexander G Robling, Uma Sankar
Approximately ten percent of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314235/accurate-t1-mapping-of-short-t2-tissues-using-a-three-dimensional-ultrashort-echo-time-cones-actual-flip-angle-imaging-variable-repetition-time-3d-ute-cones-afi-vtr-method
#12
Ya-Jun Ma, Xing Lu, Michael Carl, Yanchun Zhu, Nikolaus M Szeverenyi, Graeme M Bydder, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
PURPOSE: To develop an accurate T1 measurement method for short T2 tissues using a combination of a 3-dimensional ultrashort echo time cones actual flip angle imaging technique and a variable repetition time technique (3D UTE-Cones AFI-VTR) on a clinical 3T scanner. METHODS: First, the longitudinal magnetization mapping function of the excitation pulse was obtained with the 3D UTE-Cones AFI method, which provided information about excitation efficiency and B1 inhomogeneity...
January 3, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311021/squamous-odontogenic-tumor-and-squamous-odontogenic-tumor-like-proliferations-in-odontogenic-cysts-an-updated-analysis-of-170-cases-reported-in-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic, Ricardo Santiago Gomez
PURPOSE: To integrate the available data published on squamous odontogenic tumors (SOT) and squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferations in odontogenic cysts (SOT-LPOC) into a comprehensive analysis of their clinical/radiologic features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was undertaken in January 2017. Eligibility criteria included publications having enough clinical/radiological/histological information to confirm a definite diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 74 publications reporting 110 SOTs (102 central, 8 peripheral) and 60 SOT-LPOC were included...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310888/secondary-hyperparathyroidism-causing-increased-jaw-bone-density-and-mandibular-pain-a-case-report
#14
Thomas Aerden, Koenraad Grisar, Margaux Nys, Constantinus Politis
We present the case of a 32-year-old male patient complaining of recurrent mandibular pain for 3.5 years. Panoramic radiography indicated increased cortical density of the mandibular lower border. Scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography revealed metabolic hyperactivity in that region without pathologic lymph nodes. A bone biopsy specimen of the mandibular lower border did not have inflammation or cytologic atypia. Endocrinologic investigation confirmed secondary hyperparathyroidism as a result of hypovitaminosis D...
December 7, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306080/hybrid-micro-nanostructural-surface-offering-improved-stress-distribution-and-enhanced-osseointegration-properties-of-the-biomedical-titanium-implant
#15
Ping-Jen Hou, Keng-Liang Ou, Chin-Chieh Wang, Chiung-Fang Huang, Muhammad Ruslin, Erwan Sugiatno, Tzu-Sen Yang, Hsin-Hua Chou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the surface characteristic, biomechanical behavior, hemocompatibility, bone tissue response and osseointegration of the optimal micro-arc oxidation surface-treated titanium (MST-Ti) dental implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surface characteristic, biomechanical behavior and hemocompatibility of the MST-Ti dental implant were performed using scanning electron microscope, finite element method, blood dripping and immersion tests...
November 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305998/effects-of-mechanical-loading-on-cortical-defect-repair-using-a-novel-mechanobiological-model-of-bone-healing
#16
Chao Liu, Robert Carrera, Vittoria Flamini, Lena Kenny, Pamela Cabahug-Zuckerman, Benson M George, Daniel Hunter, Bo Liu, Gurpreet Singh, Philipp Leucht, Kenneth A Mann, Jill A Helms, Alesha B Castillo
Mechanical loading is an important aspect of post-surgical fracture care. The timing of load application relative to the injury event may differentially regulate repair depending on the stage of healing. Here, we used a novel mechanobiological model of cortical defect repair that offers several advantages including its technical simplicity and spatially confined repair program, making effects of both physical and biological interventions more easily assessed. Using this model, we showed that daily loading (5N peak load, 2Hz, 60 cycles, 4 consecutive days) during hematoma consolidation and inflammation disrupted the injury site and activated cartilage formation on the periosteal surface adjacent to the defect...
January 4, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301852/potein-kinase-g-activation-reverses-oxidative-stress-and-restores-osteoblast-function-and-bone-formation-in-male-mice-with-type-1-diabetes
#17
Hema Kalyanaraman, Gerburg Schwaerzer, Ghania Ramdani, Francine Castillo, Brian T Scott, Wolfgang Dillmann, Robert L Sah, Darren E Casteel, Renate B Pilz
Bone loss and fractures are under-recognized complications of type 1 diabetes, and are primarily due to impaired bone formation by osteoblasts. The mechanisms leading to osteoblast dysfunction in diabetes are incompletely understood, but insulin deficiency, poor glycemic control, and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress likely contribute. Here we show that insulin promotes osteoblast proliferation and survival via the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signal transduction pathway, and that PKG stimulation of Akt provides a positive feedback loop...
January 4, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298566/osteochondral-interface-stiffening-in-mandibular-condylar-osteoarthritis
#18
J Zhang, L Liao, J Zhu, X Wan, M Xie, H Zhang, M Zhang, L Lu, H Yang, D Jing, X Liu, S Yu, X L Lu, C Chen, Z Shan, M Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is associated with dental biomechanics. A major change during OA progression is the ossification of the osteochondral interface. This study investigated the formation, radiological detectability, and mechanical property of the osteochondral interface at an early stage, the pathogenesis significance of which in OA progression is of clinical interest and remains elusive for the TMJ. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was performed on 6-wk-old rats as we previously reported...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291465/deformation-regimes-of-collagen-fibrils-in-cortical-bone-revealed-by-in-situ-morphology-and-elastic-modulus-observations-under-mechanical-loading
#19
Peng-Fei Yang, Xiao-Tong Nie, Dong-Dong Zhao, Zhe Wang, Li Ren, Hui-Yun Xu, Joern Rittweger, Peng Shang
The mechanical properties of the bone play a decisive role in the resistance of the bone to fracture. Clinically, the quantity of the bone in the mineral phase has been considered as the gold-standard indicator for the risk of bone fracture. However, the bone is a complex tissue with a hierarchical-structure consisting of organic matrix, mineral hydroxyapatite, and water. Collagen comprises up to 90% of the organic matrix in the bone, and is vital for its mechanical behavior. To date, the morphological and mechanical responses of collagen fibrils in the bone matrix have been largely overlooked...
December 16, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291052/secondary-osteons-scale-allometrically-in-mammalian-humerus-and-femur
#20
A A Felder, C Phillips, H Cornish, M Cooke, J R Hutchinson, M Doube
Intra-cortical bone remodelling is a cell-driven process that replaces existing bone tissue with new bone tissue in the bone cortex, leaving behind histological features called secondary osteons. While the scaling of bone dimensions on a macroscopic scale is well known, less is known about how the spatial dimensions of secondary osteons vary in relation to the adult body size of the species. We measured the cross-sectional area of individual intact secondary osteons and their central Haversian canals in transverse sections from 40 stylopodal bones of 39 mammalian species (body mass 0...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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