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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528404/a-direct-comparison-of-the-effects-of-the-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-tenofovir-and-the-combination-lopinavir-ritonavir-on-bone-metabolism-in-a-rat-model
#1
M M Conradie, M van de Vyver, E Andrag, M Conradie, W F Ferris
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may induce metabolic complications in HIV patients on long-term therapy that can affect bone health. In this study, the effects of the ARVs Stavudine (d4T), Tenofovir (TDF) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on bone metabolism and lipodystrophy were directly compared in rats to negate the consequences of HIV-associated confounding factors. Healthy 12-14-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were divided into four treatment groups and received an oral animal equivalent dose of either Stavudine (6...
May 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526089/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-liposuction-and-resected-fat-are-feasible-sources-for-regenerative-medicine
#2
Sandra Schneider, Marina Unger, Martijn van Griensven, Elizabeth R Balmayor
BACKGROUND: The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in research and in regenerative medicine has progressed. Bone marrow as a source has drawbacks because of subsequent morbidities. An easily accessible and valuable source is adipose tissue. This type of tissue contains a high number of MSCs, and obtaining higher quantities of tissue is more feasible. Fat tissue can be harvested using different methods such as liposuction and resection. First, a detailed isolation protocol with complete characterization is described...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520584/eating-disorders-and-bone-metabolism-in-women
#3
Lauren Robinson, Nadia Micali, Madhusmita Misra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating Disorders are psychiatric disorders associated with a high risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Low BMD is a consequence of undernutrition, changes in body composition, and hormonal alterations. This review summarizes recent findings regarding novel strategies for assessing bone outcomes in patients with eating disorders, factors contributing to altered bone metabolism, and possible therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging research in this field suggests that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa results in lower BMD compared to controls...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514897/biomaterials-and-bioactive-agents-in-spinal-fusion
#4
Rui M Duarte, Pedro Varanda, Rui L Reis, Ana Rita C Duarte, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Management of degenerative spine pathologies frequently leads to the need for spinal fusion, where bone growth is induced towards stabilization of the interventioned spine. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold standard inducer, while new bone graft substitutes attempt to achieve effective de novo bone formation and solid fusion. Limited fusion outcomes have driven motivation for more sophisticated and multidisciplinary solutions, involving new biomaterials and/or biologics, through innovative delivery platforms...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499241/pathophysiology-mechanisms-and-applications-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Pravin Shende, Muna Subedi
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a serious devastating condition associated to the high chances of morbidity and mortality. It involves a primary and a secondary injury, former cause damages to both lower and upper motor neurones and disrupts sensory, motor and autonomic functions while the latter involves various stages of molecular plus cellular incidents which elaborate the original injury. In the treatment of SCI, stem cells possess a good therapeutic potential. Bone marrow, adipose tissue, placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord are the good sources for mesenchymal stem cells...
May 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498891/adipose-tissue-depots-and-inflammation-effects-on-plasticity-and-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function
#6
Lina Badimon, Judit Cubedo
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown and "brite") and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc), AT composition, structure and functionality is highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485099/ectopic-bone-formation-by-aggregated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-a-comparative-study
#7
Eelco M Fennema, Laurent A H Tchang, Huipin Yuan, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Ivan Martin, Arnaud Scherberich, Jan de Boer
Tissue engineered constructs (TECs) based on spheroids of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) combined with calcium phosphate (CaP) micro-particles and enveloped in a platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) hydrogel showed that aggregation of MSCs improves their ectopic bone formation potential. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) have been recognized as interesting MSC source for bone tissue engineering but their ectopic bone formation is limited. We investigated whether aggregation of ASCs could similarly improve ectopic bone formation by ASCs and SVF cells...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483487/mechanical-stress-affects-methylation-pattern-of-gnas-isoforms-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-hat-mscs
#8
Angeliki-Maria Vlaikou, Dimitrios Kouroupis, Argyro Sgourou, Georgios S Markopoulos, Eleni Bagli, Maria Markou, Zoe Papadopoulou, Theodore Fotsis, Georgios Nakos, Maria-Eleni E Lekka, Maria Syrrou
Mechanical stress exerts a substantial role on skeletal-cell renewal systems, whereas accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms induce changes and differential gene expression. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, our study suggests that the influence of the long term mechanical stimulation elicits epigenetic modifications controlling osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue multipotential stromal cells (hAT-MSCs) and contributes to an accelerating in vitro osteogenesis...
May 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482121/cell-therapy-for-stress-urinary-incontinence-present-day-frontiers
#9
REVIEW
Andrey Vinarov, Anthony Atala, James Yoo, Roman Slusarenco, Marat Zhumataev, Alexey Zhito, Denis Butnaru
CONTEXT: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) significantly diminishes the quality of patients' lives. Currently available surgical and nonsurgical therapies remain far from ideal. At present advancements in cellular technologies have stirred growing interest in the use of autologous cell treatments aimed to regain urinary control. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature and analyze preclinical and clinical studies dedicated to various cell therapies for SUI, assessing their effectiveness, safety, and future prospects...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480607/adiponectin-enhances-quiescence-exit-of-murine-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-hematopoietic-recovery-through-mtorc1-potentiation
#10
Yosuke Masamoto, Shunya Arai, Tomohiko Sato, Naoto Kubota, Iseki Takamoto, Takashi Kadowaki, Mineo Kurokawa
Myelotoxic injury, such as chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation, unlocks the vigorous power of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to replenish the hematopoietic system, making quiescent HSCs enter the cell cycle. Considering that both HSC-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms enforce quiescence of HSCs, the drastic change in bone marrow (BM) environment after injury, represented by massive expansion of BM adipocytes, might trigger HSC activation. BM adipocytes, the major cellular component in the ablated marrow, however, reportedly suppress proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which may indicate the BM adipocytogenesis is an irrational response of injured organism...
May 8, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466824/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-animal-models
#11
REVIEW
A Gugliandolo, P Bramanti, E Mazzon
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and as a consequence, by decreased dopamine levels in the striatum. Currently available therapies are not able to stop or reverse the progression of the disease. A novel therapeutic approach is based on cell therapy with stem cells, in order to replace degenerated neurons. Among stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells seemed the most promising thanks to their capacities to differentiate toward dopaminergic neurons and to release neurotrophic factors...
December 2, 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460416/the-skeletal-cell-derived-molecule-sclerostin-drives-bone-marrow-adipogenesis
#12
Heather Fairfield, Carolyne Falank, Elizabeth Harris, Victoria Demambro, Michelle McDonald, Jessica A Pettit, Sindhu T Mohanty, Peter Croucher, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Clifford J Rosen, Michaela R Reagan
The bone marrow niche is a dynamic and complex microenvironment that can both regulate, and be regulated by the bone matrix. Within the bone marrow (BM), mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) precursors reside in a multi-potent state and retain the capacity to differentiate down osteoblastic, adipogenic, or chondrogenic lineages in response to numerous biochemical cues. These signals can be altered in various pathological states including, but not limited to, osteoporotic-induced fracture, systemic adiposity, and the presence of bone-homing cancers...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456779/effect-of-long-term-culture-on-the-biological-and-morphological-characteristics-of-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#13
L Danisovic, L Oravcova, L Krajciova, Z Varchulova Novakova, M Bohac, I Varga, J Vojtassak
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be obtained from different tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical blood, Wharton's jelly, and dental pulp. Due to their differentiation potential, regenerative and immunosuppressive properties, as well as ability to expand under in vitro conditions, these cells represent a promising therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine. However, the basic prerequisite for the therapeutic utilization of MSCs is obtaining a sufficient amount...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455432/skeletal-energy-homeostasis-a-paradigm-of-endocrine-discovery
#14
Karla Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nicholas M Morton, Vicky E MacRae, Will Cawthorn
Throughout the last decade, significant developments in cellular, molecular, and mouse models have revealed major endocrine functions of the skeleton. More recent studies have evolved the interplay between bone-specific hormones, the skeleton, marrow adipose tissue, muscle and the brain. This review focuses on literature from the last decade, addressing endocrine regulation of global energy metabolism via the skeleton. In addition, we will highlight several recent studies that further our knowledge of new endocrine functions of some organs; explore remaining unanswered questions; and, finally, we will discuss future directions for this more complex era of bone biology research...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454294/mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-promotes-mda-mb-231-cell-migration-and-inhibits-a549-cell-migration-by-regulating-insulin-receptor-and-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-3-phosphorylation
#15
Pengfei Li, Hongwei Zhou, Guohu Di, Jin Liu, Yang Liu, Zhihong Wang, Yinxuan Sun, Haifeng Duan, Junzhong Sun
Various in vitro and in vivo studies have linked mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer, but little is known about the effect of MSCs on tumor progression. The present study aimed to analyze the role of the MSCs from different tissues, consisting of human bone marrow, adipose and the umbilical cord tissues, and the heterogeneity of tumors in tumor progression. By collecting the culture supernatants of MSCs as MSC-conditioned media (CMs), the present study found that MSC-CM produces no significant effect on the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and A549 tumor cells...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452881/differential-inflammatory-networks-distinguish-responses-to-bone-marrow-derived-vs-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapies-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#16
Ruben Zamora, Sudheer K Ravuri, Jan A Plock, Yoram Vodovotz, Vijay S Gorantla
BACKGROUND: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is aimed at enabling injured individuals to return to their previous lifestyles. Unfortunately, VCA induces an immune/inflammatory response, which mandates lifelong, systemic immunosuppression, with attendant detrimental effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) - both adipose-derived (AD-MSC) and bone marrow-derived (BM-MSC) - can reprogram inflammation and have been suggested as an alternative to immunosuppression, but their mechanism of action is as yet not fully elucidated...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451713/potential-of-osteoblastic-cells-derived-from-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-associated-with-a-polymer-ceramic-composite-to-repair-bone-tissue
#17
Gileade P Freitas, Helena B Lopes, Adriana L G Almeida, Rodrigo P F Abuna, Rossano Gimenes, Lucas E B Souza, Dimas T Covas, Marcio M Beloti, Adalberto L Rosa
One of the tissue engineering strategies to promote bone regeneration is the association of cells and biomaterials. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate if cell source, either from bone marrow or adipose tissue, affects bone repair induced by osteoblastic cells associated with a membrane of poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (PVDF-TrFE/BT). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were isolated from rat bone marrow and adipose tissue and characterized by detection of several surface markers...
April 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449711/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-maintain-their-phenotype-multipotentiality-and-genetic-stability-when-cultured-using-a-defined-xeno-free-human-plasma-fraction
#18
Arantxa Blázquez-Prunera, José María Díez, Rodrigo Gajardo, Salvador Grancha
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show promising characteristics for their use in advanced therapy medicinal products. However, there are some unresolved concerns, such as the use of animal components for their expansion. In this study we assessed the suitability of a xeno-free supplement for cell culture (SCC) derived from human plasma, to culture and expand human MSCs (hMSCs) from different origins. Characteristics of viable cultured hMSCs such as genetic stability, phenotype and multipotentiality were qualitatively evaluated...
April 27, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448764/mechanistic-insights-into-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-lipodystrophy-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Lanhui Huang, Hong Shi, Xinli Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the underlying pathogenesis of osteoporosis occurring in patients with lipodystrophy. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched using the following key terms: lipodystrophy, osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density. Additional studies were obtained from the bibliographies of reports and reviews above by manual search. RESULTS: Lipodystrophy is a very rare disease characterized by pathologic alterations in the distribution of adipose tissues in association with a diverse range of metabolic derangements such as hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, diabetes and abnormal bone formation...
April 27, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446012/differentiation-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-related-to-their-intrinsic-mechanical-properties
#20
Ihn Han, Byung-Su Kwon, Hun-Kuk Park, Kyung Sook Kim
PURPOSE: The differentiation properties of stem cells are not yet fully understood due to their close association with multiple environmental and extrinsic factors. This study investigates the differentiation properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and correlates them with their intrinsic mechanical properties. METHODS: A total of 3 different types of MSCs, namely bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs), umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCSCs), and adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) were evaluated...
April 2017: International Neurourology Journal
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