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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156823/differential-activation-of-fyn-kinase-distinguishes-saturated-and-unsaturated-fats-in-mouse-macrophages
#1
Elena Tarabra, Ting-Wen An Lee, Victor A Zammit, Manu Vatish, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin, Claire C Bastie
Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency (fynKO) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156149/quantitative-evaluation-of-vertebral-microvascular-permeability-and-fat-fraction-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#2
Lei Hu, Yun Fei Zha, Li Wang, Liang Li, Dong Xing, Wei Gong, Jiao Wang, Yuan Lin, Fei Fei Zeng, Xue Song Lu
Purpose To determine longitudinal relationships between lumbar vertebral bone marrow permeability and marrow adipose tissue in a rabbit diabetes model by using quantitative dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and iterative decomposition of water and fat with the echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation quantitation (IDEAL IQ) sequence. Materials and Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to the diabetic (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. All rabbits underwent sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar region at fixed time points (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after alloxan injection)...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155746/saturated-fatty-acids-induce-ceramide-associated-macrophage-cell-death
#3
Yuwen Zhang, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Bing Li
Macrophages highly express epidermal fatty acid-binding protein and adipose fatty acid-binding protein. They actively uptake saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which might play a critical role in regulating their immune functions. Numerous studies have shown that various fatty acids, saturated or unsaturated, may possess different impacts on cell growth and function. However, the approaches used for fatty acid preparation vary, which may lead to non-physiological results. Serum albumin, a natural carrier for fatty acids in mammalian peripheral blood, is recommended for forming a conjugate complex with the sodium salt of fatty acids to study fatty acid function in mammalian cells, thus minimizing the toxicity of fatty acid soap...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141982/a-partial-loss-of-function-variant-in-akt2-is-associated-with-reduced-insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake-in-multiple-insulin-sensitive-tissues-a-genotype-based-callback-positron-emission-tomography-study
#4
Aino Latva-Rasku, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Alena Stančáková, Heikki A Koistinen, Johanna Kuusisto, Li Guan, Alisa K Manning, Heather Stringham, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Laura J Scott, Tomi Karjalainen, Lauri Nummenmaa, Michael Boehnke, Pirjo Nuutila, Markku Laakso
Rare fully penetrant mutations in AKT2 are an established cause of monogenic disorders of glucose metabolism. Recently, a novel partial loss-of-function AKT2 coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) was identified that is nearly specific to Finns (frequency 1.1%), with the low-frequency allele associated with an increase in fasting plasma insulin level and risk of type 2 diabetes. The effects of p.Pro50Thr on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the whole body and in different tissues have not previously been investigated...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139088/contrasting-views-on-the-role-of-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-in-tumour-growth-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-design
#5
Ahmed Kolade Oloyo, Melvin Anyasi Ambele, Michael Sean Pepper
The effect of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) on tumour growth remains controversial. Experimental evidence supports both an inhibitory and a stimulatory effect. We have assessed factors responsible for the contrasting effects of MSCs on tumour growth by doing a meta-analysis of existing literature between 2000 and May 2017. We assessed 183 original research articles comprising 338 experiments. We considered (a) in vivo and in vitro experiments, (b) whether in vivo studies were syngeneic or xenogeneic, and (c) if animals were immune competent or deficient...
November 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134302/nuclear-organization-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-into-adipocytes
#6
Joanna Stachecka, Agnieszka Walczak, Beata Kociucka, Błażej Ruszczycki, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Izabela Szczerbal
Differentiation of progenitor cells into adipocytes is accompanied by remarkable changes in cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression profile. Mature adipocytes are filled with a large lipid droplet and the nucleus tends to move to the cell periphery. It was hypothesized that the differentiation process is also associated with changes of nuclear organization. The aim of this study was to determine the number and distribution of selected components of nuclear architecture during porcine in vitro adipogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131080/complete-static-repopulation-of-decellularized-porcine-tissues-for-heart-valve-engineering-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Annelies Roosens, Mahtab Asadian, Nathalie De Geyter, Pamela Somers, Ria Cornelissen
To date, a completely in vitro repopulated tissue-engineered heart valve has not been developed. This study focused on sequentially seeding 2 cell populations onto porcine decellularized heart valve leaflets (HVL) and pericardia (PER) to obtain fully repopulated tissues. For repopulation of the interstitium, porcine valvular interstitial cells (VIC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) were used. In parallel, the culture medium was supplemented with ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA) and its effect on recolonization was investigated...
November 8, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131029/rapid-induction-of-osteogenic-markers-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells
#8
Jung-Won Choi, Sunhye Shin, Chang Youn Lee, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Il-Kwon Kim, Hoon-Bum Lee, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells are a mixed cell population, and their regenerative capacity has been validated in various therapeutic models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative mechanisms utilized by implanted SVF cells. Using an in vitro co-culture system, we sought to determine whether SVF implantation into impaired tissue affects endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation; MSCs can differentiate into a variety of cell types, and they have a strong regenerative capacity despite their low numbers in impaired tissue...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129540/inhibitory-role-of-oxytocin-on-tnf%C3%AE-expression-assessed-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
S Garrido-Urbani, N Deblon, A L Poher, A Caillon, P Ropraz, F Rohner-Jeanrenaud, J Altirriba
AIM: Oxytocin administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, monkeys and humans decreases body weight and fat mass with concomitant improvements in glucose metabolism. Moreover, several studies show an immunomodulatory role of oxytocin in a number of settings (such as atherosclerosis, injury, sepsis). This study aims to shed some light on the effects of oxytocin on macrophage polarization and cytokine production, as well as its possible impact on these parameters in adipose tissue in DIO mice with impaired glucose metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128580/reduction-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-c%C3%AE-promotes-in-vivo-bone-formation-and-adipocyte-differentiation
#10
Kaya Yoshida, Jumpei Teramachi, Kenta Uchibe, Mika Ikegame, Lihong Qiu, Di Yang, Hirohiko Okamura
Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates diverse physiological processes such as cell cycle, growth, apoptosis, and signal transduction. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing of the α-isoform of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A Cα) in osteoblasts accelerated osteoblast differentiation, whereas its overexpression suppressed differentiation. In this study, we examined the role of PP2A Cα in in vivo bone formation by generating transgenic mice (PP2A-Tg), in which the dominant negative form of PP2A Cα was specifically expressed in osteoblasts...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125884/comparative-characterization-of-cd271-and-cd271-subpopulations-of-cd34-human-adipose-derived-stromal-cells
#11
Liziane Raquel Beckenkamp, Lucas Eduardo Botelho Souza, Fernanda Ursoli Ferreira Melo, Carolina Hassibe Thomé, Daniele Aparecida Rosa Magalhães, Patrícia Viana Bonini Palma, Dimas Tadeu Covas
INTRODUCTION: Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapies. However, the lack of markers able to unequivocally identify these cells, the differential expression of cell surface molecules among stromal progenitors from different tissues and cellular alterations caused by culture are phenomena that need to be comprehensively addressed in order to improve ASC purification and consequently refine our knowledge about their function and therapeutic efficiency...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125142/bone-ppar%C3%AE-controls-marrow-adiposity
#12
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124436/postnatal-deletion-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-osterix-expressing-cells-is-necessary-for-bone-growth-and-intermittent-pth-induced-bone-gain
#13
Caixia Yu, Miao Xuan, Mingzhu Zhang, Qianqian Yao, Keqin Zhang, Xiuzhen Zhang, Jun Guo, Lige Song
wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to influence bone homeostasis and is important for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced bone gain. To further understand the role of β-catenin in the early stages of osteoblastic lineage cells for postnatal bone homeostasis and the anabolic actions of PTH on bone, we examined mice with postnatal disruption of β-catenin in osterix-expressing cells (β-catenin KO mice) by mating floxed β-catenin mice with transgenic mice expressing cre under the control of the osterix promoter suppressible by doxycycline...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120093/imbalanced-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-mice-deficient-of-the-chemokine-cxcl12-sdf1-in-the-bone-mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells
#14
Yi-Shiuan Tzeng, Ni-Chun Chung, Yu-Ren Chen, Hsin-Yi Huang, Wen-Po Chunang, Dar-Ming Lai
Bone and bone marrow serve as an imperative ecosystem to various types of cells participating in critical body functions. The chemokine Cxcl12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (Sdf1), is one of the communication factors in the marrow microenvironment that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. However, the function of Cxcl12 in other bone marrow cells in vivo is yet to be discovered. Here we report a novel function of Cxcl12 in postnatal bone development and homeostasis. Targeted deletion of Cxcl12 in Prx1- or Osx-expressing mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs), but not in mature osteoblasts, resulted in marrow adiposity and reduced trabecular bone content...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118440/native-joint-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-repair-in-osteoarthritis
#15
REVIEW
Dennis McGonagle, Thomas G Baboolal, Elena Jones
The role of native (not culture-expanded) joint-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the repair of joint damage in osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood. MSCs differ from bone marrow-residing haematopoietic stem cells in that they are present in multiple niches in the joint, including subchondral bone, cartilage, synovial fluid, synovium and adipose tissue. Research in experimental models suggests that the migration of MSCs adjacent to the joint cavity is crucial for chonodrogenesis during embryogenesis, and also shows that synovium-derived MSCs might be the primary drivers of cartilage repair in adulthood...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116998/mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-and-lung-tissue-differentially-mitigate-lung-and-distal-organ-damage-in-experimental-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
Johnatas D Silva, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Ana H R Paz, Fernanda F Cruz, Elga B Melo, Milena V de Oliveira, Débora G Xisto, Vera L Capelozzi, Marcelo M Morales, Paolo Pelosi, Elizabeth Cirne-Lima, Patricia R M Rocco
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapies have shown promising effects in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. Different mesenchymal stem cells sources may result in diverse effects in respiratory diseases; however, there is no information regarding the best source of mesenchymal stem cells to treat pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and lung tissue would lead to different beneficial effects on lung and distal organ damage in experimental pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome...
November 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115374/metabolic-profiles-of-adipose-derived-and-bone-marrow-derived-stromal-cells-from-elderly-coronary-heart-disease-patients-by-capillary-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#17
Jian-Zhong Li, Hui Qu, Jian Wu, Fan Zhang, Zhi-Bo Jia, Jian-Yong Sun, Bo Lv, Yue Kang, Shu-Lin Jiang, Kai Kang
Adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy is a promising option for patients with atherosclerotic conditions, including coronary artery disease. However, the potential differences in the metabolic characteristics between bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and ADSCs have remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to compare the metabolic profiles of BMSCs and ADSCs via liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. BMSCs and ADSCs obtained from elderly coronary heart disease patients were cultured, and after three passages, supernatants of each cell type were collected and systematically analysed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113460/impact-of-age-on-human-adipose-stem-cells-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#18
Denis Dufrane
Bone nonunion is a pathological condition in which all bone healing processes have stopped, resulting in abnormal mobility between 2 bone segments. The incidence of bone-related injuries will increase in an aging population, leading to such injuries reaching epidemic proportions. Tissue engineering and cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have raised the possibility of implanting living tissue for bone reconstruction. Bone marrow was first proposed as the source of stem cells for bone regeneration...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110621/functional-germ-cells-from-non-testicular-adult-stem-cells-a-dream-or-reality
#19
Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Maryam Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei
BACKGROUND: Some research studies provided evidence for the differentiation capacity of adult stem cells (ASCs) into germ cells (GCs). Since the generation of GCs from stem cells (SCs) has been proposed as a potential way for treatment of infertility, many research groups, have begun their creative studies on generation of new GCs both in vitro and in vivo, and utilized different ASC types such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), skin stem cells, pancreatic stem cells, and adipose tissue MSCs...
November 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107124/genetic-inhibition-of-ppar%C3%AE-s112-phosphorylation-reduces-bone-formation-and-stimulates-marrow-adipogenesis
#20
Chunxi Ge, Guisheng Zhao, BinBin Li, Yan Li, William P Cawthorn, Ormond A MacDougald, Renny T Franceschi
A common feature of many skeletal diseases is the accumulation of marrow fat. A reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow that is mediated by the relative activity of PPARγ and RUNX2 transcription factors. The ERK/MAPK pathway is an important inducer of MSC differentiation to osteoblasts and an inhibitor of adipogenesis that functions by phosphorylating RUNX2 and PPARγ. To begin to assess the importance of this regulation in vivo, we examined the consequences of blocking one arm of this pathway, PPARγ S112 phosphorylation, by evaluating the bone phenotype of PPARγ S112A mutant mice...
October 26, 2017: Bone
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