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Taulant Muka, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Joshua R Lewis, Richar L Prince, Nicole S Erler, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. METHODS: The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891)...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Eduardo Huber, Diego Lucas Francio, Vanessa Biasi, Natália Mezzomo, Sandra Regina Salvador Ferreira
ABSTRACT: Vegetable fibers have been used lately as ingredients in popular meat products in order to increase its nutritional value. The objective of this study was the physical-chemical characterization of six vegetable fibers in order to apply them in chicken burger formulations as animal fat substitutes. The studied fibers showed moisture content below 14 %, low content of fat, protein and ash, and high levels of carbohydrates. The oat, wheat and bamboo fibers showed the highest content of total dietary fiber...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Marlene D Kristensen, Nathalie T Bendsen, Sheena M Christensen, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Teresa M Reyes
Nutritional conditions in early life can have a lasting impact on health and disease risk, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the healthy individual, physiological and behavioral responses to stress are coordinated in such a way as to mobilize resources necessary to respond to the stressor and to terminate the stress response at the appropriate time. Induction of proinflammatory gene expression within the brain is one such example that is initiated in response to both physiological and psychological stressors, and is the focus of the current study...
October 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Rakesh Malhotra, Kerri L Cavanaugh, William J Blot, T Alp Ikizler, Loren Lipworth, Edmond K Kabagambe
BACKGROUND: Whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in populations with a high burden of risk factors for kidney disease is unknown. We sought to determine whether PUFA intake is associated with ESRD. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of ESRD within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective cohort of low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Through 2012, 1,074 incident ESRD cases were identified by linkage with the United States Renal Data System and matched to 3,230 controls by age, sex and race...
October 18, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Duk Hee Lee
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors like glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. The most important risk factor for MetS is abdominal obesity. Also, insulin resistance is considered as an underlying pathophysiology of MetS. Under the current paradigm, excess calorie intake and physical inactivity are major contributors to obesity and insulin resistance.Meanwhile, many environmental chemicals have recently received attention as a significant contributor to obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
A D Vaudo, D Stabler, H M Patch, J F Tooker, C M Grozinger, G A Wright
Bee population declines are linked to reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees may be adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and B...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Regina Irwin, Sandi Raehtz, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Increasing evidence indicates a strong link between intestinal health and bone health. For example, inflammatory bowel disease can cause systemic inflammation, weight loss and extra-intestinal manifestations such as decreased bone growth and density.  However, the effects of moderate intestinal inflammation without weight loss on bone health have never been directly examined; yet this condition is relevant not only to IBD but to conditions of increased intestinal permeability and inflammation as seen with ingestion of high fat diets, intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic syndrome and food allergies...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Tracy L Schumacher, Tracy L Burrows, Megan E Rollo, Neil J Spratt, Robin Callister, Clare E Collins
Dietary modifications can improve serum lipids and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, attendance at multiple dietary consultations can be a barrier to achieving behaviour change. This study investigated the effectiveness of a brief dietetic intervention on CVD risk factors in hyperlipidaemic adults. Adults with total cholesterol ≥ 5.0 mmol/L or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥ 4.0 mmol/L and not currently taking lipid-lowering medication were eligible for a minimum 6-week dietary intervention...
October 11, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Sara Armorini, James E Yeatts, Keena A E Mullen, Sharon E Mason, Elmira Mehmeti, Kevin L Anderson, Steve P Washburn, Ronald E Baynes
Thymol and carvacrol may be present in several phytoceutical products but there are no well-defined methods to measure these compounds in meat and milk from treated animals. U.S. regulatory authorities deem their presence as an adulteration of food. A rapid and sensitive HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method was developed for the detection of thymol and carvacrol in bovine milk, plasma, liver, kidney, and fat. Inter- and intraday precision values were all less than 15.7 and 20.2% for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The accuracy was in ranges of 69...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anwesha Sarkar, Aiqian Ye, Harjinder Singh
This review discusses recent understanding of the oral destabilization of food emulsions from a colloidal perspective. The review deals mainly with the microstructural changes in emulsions and emulsion gels during oral processing at a colloidal length scale, with the key emphasis being on the role of electrostatic interactions, enzymatic modifications and surface-induced phenomena. Knowledge of these complex interactions between the emulsion droplets and the oral components, such as salivary proteins, enzymes and oral shear, might be the key to understanding the oral behaviour and sensory perception of food emulsions...
October 5, 2016: Food & Function
F Phillips, C H S Ruxton
This paper presents a report of a nutrition conference held at EXPO 2015 in Milan. Over the course of a day, seven speakers from four continents discussed the evidence and scientific processes that underpin the development of dietary guidelines, highlighting issues and challenges at each stage. These include the quality of studies associating disease outcomes with diet, specifically a reliance on observational studies, short duration of intervention trials, low statistical power and lack of follow-up. Concerns were raised over the oversimplification of dietary messages which promote carbohydrates in general without evidence of benefit, while restricting fats when meta-analyses suggests that different fatty acids have different effects on disease risk...
October 6, 2016: Public Health
Surya Ayalasomayajula, Thomas H Langenickel, Priya Chandra, Edward D Wolfson, Diego Albrecht, Wei Zhou, Parasar Pal, Iris Rajman, Gangadhar Sunkara
OBJECTIVE: Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) provides a novel therapeutic approach of neurohormonal modulation in heart failure via simultaneous inhibition of neprilysin and blockade of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of food on the oral bioavailability of LCZ696 analytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover study in healthy subjects. Eligible subjects (N = 36) were randomized to 6 treatment sequences, each comprising 3 treatment periods during which subjects received a single oral dose of 400 mg LCZ696 under fasting condition and following a low- and high-fat meal...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tzahit Simon-Tuval, Amir Shmueli, Ilana Harman-Boehm
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the degree of risk aversion is associated with adherence to disease self-management among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 408) aged 21 to 70 years who presented for routine visits in the diabetes clinic at a university medical center in Beer-Sheva, Israel. The authors used validated questionnaires to estimate adherence, risk preferences, motivation, self-efficacy, impulsivity, perceptions about the disease and the interpersonal process of care, and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, in addition to retrieving data from computerized patient medical records of clinical indicators of disease severity...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Deborah S do Amaral, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Bárbara M S do Nascimento, Marta S Madruga, Maria Manuela E Pintado
Goat meat is extensively known for its interesting nutritional value and for being an important source of protein with high quality. Its food derivatives are, therefore, a good alternative to develop new products addressed to health conscious consumers. In this work, a healthier goat product, namely, a low fat fresh sausage, was produced with the objective of evaluating the effect of inclusion of chitosan on quality, stability and shelf life. Sausages containing 2% chitosan were formulated with different fat levels (5%, 12...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
S Bover-Cid, N Belletti, T Aymerich, M Garriga
This work aimed to quantify the impact of aw and fat content of dry-cured ham on the Log reduction of Salmonella enterica by high pressure (HP). Dry-cured ham with adjusted aw (0.86-0.96) and fat content (10-50%) was inoculated with S. enterica and pressurised (347-852MPa, 5min/15°C), following a Central Composite Design. Polynomial regression indicated a significant impact of pressure and aw on S. enterica HP-lethality. By lowering aw a clear piezoprotection was observed. At low aw (0.88) the S. enterica reduction was little affected by increasing pressure (e...
September 29, 2016: Meat Science
Aino-Maija Eloranta, Taisa Venäläinen, Sonja Soininen, Henna Jalkanen, Sanna Kiiskinen, Ursula Schwab, Timo A Lakka, Virpi Lindi
BACKGROUND: Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. OBJECTIVE: To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. DESIGN: We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6-8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Vincent T Martin, Brinder Vij
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive diets do not require the exclusion of a specific provocative food or ingredient, but regulate the quantities of core components of foods such as vitamins, ions, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting the use of comprehensive diets in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders and to discuss the mechanisms through which food, and ingredients within foods and beverages might trigger attacks of headache METHODS: This represents Part 2 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders...
October 2016: Headache
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