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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141191/microbial-lipids-and-added-value-metabolites-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-pork-lard
#1
Marlene Lopes, Andreia S Gomes, Carla M Silva, Isabel Belo
Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable microbial platform to convert low-value hydrophobic substrates into microbial oils and other important metabolites. In this work, this yeast species was used to simultaneously synthetize ex novo lipids and produce citric acid and lipase from animal fat (pork lard) adding higher value to the low-cost fatty substrate. The effect of pH, lard concentration, arabic gum concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR) on lipids accumulation on Y. lipolytica batch cultures was assessed by an experimental design based on Taguchi method...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140275/old-fashioned-vs-ultra-processed-based-current-diets-possible-implication-in-the-increased-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-childhood
#2
REVIEW
Sandra V Aguayo-Patrón, Ana M Calderón de la Barca
Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a "leaky gut"...
November 15, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134675/analytical-approach-dissipation-pattern-and-risk-assessment-of-pesticide-residue-in-green-leafy-vegetables-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Waziha Farha, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Ji Hoon Jeong, Ho-Chul Shin, Jing Wang, Sung Shik Shin, Jae-Han Shim
The category of "leafy vegetables" comprises a wide range of plants, including cabbage, lettuce, leeks, spinach, Swiss chard, and kale, and it forms a significant component of the human diet. Typically, leafy vegetables are low in calories and fat, are great sources of vitamins, protein, dietary fibre, minerals (including iron, calcium, and nitrates), and are rich in phytochemicals. To counter the impact of pests on vegetables, a broad variety of pesticides is used. Because of their large surface areas, leafy vegetables are expected to have high residual pesticide levels...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132739/validity-and-reliability-of-the-english-version-of-the-sick-control-one-stone-fat-food-scoff-in-malaysia
#4
Wan Mohd Zohdi Wan Wahida, Pauline Siew Mei Lai, Haireen Abdul Hadi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several questionnaires to screen for eating disorders have been validated in Malaysia. However, these tools are lengthy, and require specialist interpretation. The sick, control, one stone, fat, food (SCOFF) is easy to administer by non-specialists, but has not been validated in Malaysia. Therefore, the aim of our study was to validate the SCOFF on a non-clinical sample of tertiary students to determine if it could identify individuals with an eating disorder. METHODS: We recruited second year tertiary students from five faculties in a university in Malaysia, from June-November 2014, who could understand English...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131494/antimicrobial-emulsifier-glycerol-monolaurate-induces-metabolic-syndrome-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-low-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130068/diet-and-physical-activity-behaviors-in-primary-care-patients-with-recent-intentional-weight-loss
#6
Bethany Barone Gibbs, Dana Tudorascu, Cindy L Bryce, Diane Comer, Gary S Fischer, Rachel Hess, Kimberly A Huber, Kathleen M McTigue, Laurey R Simkin-Silverman, Molly B Conroy
Purpose: Lifestyle habits of primary care patients with recent, intentional weight loss are unclear and need to be better understood to aid in translational health promotion efforts. We aimed to characterize diet and exercise habits in primary care patients with recent, intentional weight loss, comparing those with greater (≥10%) vs. lesser (5 to <10%) weight loss. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized trial comparing weight loss maintenance interventions...
2017: Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129231/the-association-between-the-index-of-nutritional-quality-inq-and-breast-cancer-and-the-evaluation-of-nutrient-intake-of-breast-cancer-patients-a-case-control-study
#7
Farhad Vahid, Mahshid Hatami, Mahya Sadeghi, Fatemeh Ameri, Zeinab Faghfoori, Sayed Hossein Davoodi
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer (BrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females and second cancer after lung cancer in many societies. In Iran, the risk for BrCa is 1 in 35 and each year, 8000 new patients have been diagnosed with BrCa. Studies have shown that dietary components are implicated in the etiology of BrCa. The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) is a method of quantitative and qualitative analysis of single foods, meals, and diets. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of INQs in predicting BrCa risk...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126447/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-different-parts-and-formulations-of-bitter-gourd-momordica-charantia
#8
Mahwish, Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Mahr Un Nisa, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Umair Arshad
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are responsible for large number of deaths throughout the globe. Bitter gourd has the potential to become a component of the diet or a dietary supplement for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients owing to the presence of insulin like molecules. Recent investigations have suggested that bitter gourd extracts may ameliorate high fat diet induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in animal models. Moreover, its supplements in food result in lowering weight gain and visceral fat mass...
November 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125718/effects-of-high-and-low-fat-meals-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-ozanimod-a-novel-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulator
#9
Jonathan Q Tran, Jeffrey P Hartung, Cindy-Ann Tompkins, Paul A Frohna
Ozanimod (RPC1063) is an oral selective modulator of the sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 and 5 receptors under development for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. The effects of high-fat and low-fat meals on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single oral dose of ozanimod were evaluated in 24 healthy volunteers in a randomized, open-label crossover trial. Each subject received a 1-mg dose of ozanimod hydrochloride under 3 meal conditions (fasted, high-fat, and low-fat), each separated by 7 days...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125558/the-impact-of-a-multi-level-multi-component-childhood-obesity-prevention-intervention-on-healthy-food-availability-sales-and-purchasing-in-a-low-income-urban-area
#10
Joel Gittelsohn, Angela C Trude, Lisa Poirier, Alexandra Ross, Cara Ruggiero, Teresa Schwendler, Elizabeth Anderson Steeves
The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler (n = 3), corner store (n = 50), carryout (n = 30), recreation center (n = 28), household (n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript)...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120303/lunch-is-ready%C3%A2-but-not-healthy-an-analysis-of-lunches-served-in-childcare-centres-in-two-canadian-provinces
#11
Stephanie Ward, Mathieu Bélanger, Denise Donovan, Hassan Vatanparast, Rachel Engler-Stringer, Anne Leis, Natalie Carrier
OBJECTIVES: Childcare centres (CCs) typically offer one meal and snacks daily. This study compared what is served in CCs with what the nutritional recommendations are; described and compared the nutritional composition of lunches served in CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan; and examined differences between French and English, and urban and rural centres. METHODS: The study involved 61 randomly selected CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, Canada. Lunch content was measured on two consecutive days by weighing each food item served to children and by visually documenting the food items using digital photography...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117620/the-effects-of-a-modified-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-on-metabolic-syndrome-parameters-in-male-rats
#12
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Farihah Hj Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A previous study has established that high-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HCHF) can induce MetS in rats. In this study, we modified components of the diet so that it resembled the diet of Southeast Asians. This study aimed to determine the effects of this modified HCHF diet on metabolic parameters in rats. Male Wistar rats (n=14) were randomised into two groups. The normal group was given standard rat chow...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112780/associations-of-lifestyle-factors-with-serum-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-concentration-in-prepubertal-children
#13
Aino Mäntyselkä, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Juuso Väistö, Raimo Voutilainen, Ken Ong, Soren Brage, Timo A Lakka, Virpi Lindi
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the relationships of dietary factors, physical activity, and sedentary behavior to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations among prepubertal children. Therefore, we studied the associations of these lifestyle factors with serum DHEAS and IGF-1 in children. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional analysis of a population sample of 431 prepubertal children aged 6-9 years. MEASUREMENTS: Assessment of dietary factors by food records and physical activity and sedentary behavior by a combined heart rate and movement monitor and a questionnaire...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110749/salivary-leptin-and-tas1r2-tas1r3-polymorphisms-are-related-to-sweet-taste-sensitivity-and-carbohydrate-intake-from-a-buffet-meal-in-healthy-young-adults
#14
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109962/micronutrient-intake-in-a-cohort-of-italian-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-adherence-to-dietary-recommendations
#15
Marisa Giorgini, Marilena Vitale, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Ornella Ciano, Angela Giacco, Anna Rivieccio, Ilaria Calabrese, Gabriele Riccardi, Angela A Rivellese, Giovanni Annuzzi
Micronutrients are of fundamental importance in maintaining health status. However, data on their dietary intake are few particularly in persons with diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) attending a tertiary-level diabetes center in Southern Italy the intake of micronutrients (both vitamins and minerals) and the adherence to recommendations. Seven-day food records of 60 T1DM patients were analyzed. Micronutrient intake was evaluated based on the Italian food composition tables and expressed as amount per 1000 kcal of energy intake to adjust for possible underreporting...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108723/cardiovascular-respiratory-and-related-disorders-key-messages-from-disease-control-priorities-3rd-edition
#16
REVIEW
Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Shuchi Anand, David Watkins, Thomas Gaziano, Yangfeng Wu, Jean Claude Mbanya, Rachel Nugent
Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related disorders (CVRDs) are the leading causes of adult death worldwide, and substantial inequalities in care of patients with CVRDs exist between countries of high income and countries of low and middle income. Based on current trends, the UN Sustainable Development Goal to reduce premature mortality due to CVRDs by a third by 2030 will be challenging for many countries of low and middle income. We did systematic literature reviews of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to identify priority interventions...
November 3, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107872/inflammation-and-gut-brain-axis-link-obesity-to-cognitive-dysfunction-plausible-pharmacological-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, María J Ramírez, J Alfredo Martínez
Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107598/bone-metabolism-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-hypothalamic-amenorrhea
#18
Sharon H Chou, Christos Mantzoros
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance...
October 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107474/breakfast-quality-varies-by-location-among-low-income-ethnically-diverse-children-in-public-urban-schools
#19
Heather M Polonsky, Adam Davey, Katherine W Bauer, Gary D Foster, Sandy Sherman, Michelle L Abel, Lauren C Dale, Jennifer O Fisher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate breakfast location and children's food choices. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 1,371 fourth- through sixth-grade students in 2013. Foods and beverages in 17 categories characterized breakfast choices: (1) ≥ 1 fruits or vegetables, (2) ≥ 1 foods high in saturated fats and added sugars (SFAS), and (3) meeting School Breakfast Program (SBP) requirements. RESULTS: Among breakfast eaters (n = 1,133; 82...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105845/milk-and-other-dairy-foods-in-relation-to-prostate-cancer-recurrence-data-from-the-cancer-of-the-prostate-strategic-urologic-research-endeavor-capsure%C3%A2
#20
David Tat, Stacey A Kenfield, Janet E Cowan, Jeanette M Broering, Peter R Carroll, Erin L Van Blarigan, June M Chan
BACKGROUND: High-fat dairy, particularly whole milk, in healthy men may increase risk of aggressive prostate cancer. However, data are limited regarding dairy after prostate cancer diagnosis. METHOD: We conducted a prospective study among 1334 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor. Men answered a food frequency questionnaire in 2004-2005 (median 2 years after diagnosis) and were followed until 2016 for recurrence, defined as: prostate cancer death, bone metastases, biochemical recurrence, or secondary treatment...
November 6, 2017: Prostate
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