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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#1
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806986/antihyperlipidaemic-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-acidic-and-enzymatic-hydrolysis-exopolysaccharides-from-pleurotus-eryngii-si-04
#2
Chen Zhang, Juan Li, Jing Wang, Xingling Song, Jianjun Zhang, Shang Wu, Chunlong Hu, Zhiyuan Gong, Le Jia
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidaemia is the major risk factor contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, fatty liver and cerebrovascular disease. Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is rich in biologically active components, especially polysaccharides that exhibit various biological activities, including reducing blood lipids. In the present study, three novel polysaccharide types, including exopolysaccharides (EPS), enzymatic EPS (EEPS) and acidic EPS (AEPS) were isolated, and the hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective effects were investigated to better understand possible hypolipidaemic mechanisms and their hepatoprotective effects...
August 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803880/vitamin-d-and-symptoms-of-depression-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-and-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Maximilian P J de Courten, Barbora de Courten
Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803596/associations-of-baltic-sea-and-mediterranean-dietary-patterns-with-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-women
#4
Arja T Erkkilä, Homa Sadeghi, Masoud Isanejad, Jaakko Mursu, Marjo Tuppurainen, Heikki Kröger
OBJECTIVE: Dietary quality in relation to bone health has been analysed in relatively few studies. The current study aimed to assess the association of the Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and the Mediterranean diet (MD) with bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women. DESIGN: Lumbar, femoral and total body BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and year 3. Dietary intake was measured by 3 d food record at baseline. BSD and MD scores were calculated from food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802282/evolution-of-mediterranean-diets-and-cuisine-concepts-and-definitions
#5
Sue Radd-Vagenas, Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Maria Fiatarone Singh, Victoria M Flood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to provide a range of health benefits in observational and clinical trials and adopted by various dietary guidelines. However, a broad range of definitions exist impeding synthesis across trials. This review aims to provide a historical description of Mediterranean diets, from the ancient to the modern, to inform future educational and diet index tool development representing the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nine databases were searched from inception to July 2015 to identify papers defining the Mediterranean diet...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800115/intake-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-the-belgian-population-adequacy-and-contribution-of-foods-fortified-foods-and-supplements
#6
Isabelle Moyersoen, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Arnold Dekkers, Karin de Ridder, Jean Tafforeau, John van Camp, Herman van Oyen, Carl Lachat
A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799896/neurosecretory-protein-gl-stimulates-food-intake-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-onset-of-obesity
#7
Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Kenshiro Shikano, Kunihiro Kondo, Shusuke Taniuchi, Megumi Furumitsu, Yuta Ochi, Tsutomu Sasaki, Shiki Okamoto, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Yasuhiko Minokoshi, Kazuyoshi Ukena
Mechanisms underlying the central regulation of food intake and fat accumulation are not fully understood. We found that neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), a newly-identified neuropeptide, increased food intake and white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats. NPGL-precursor gene overexpression in the hypothalamus caused increases in food intake, WAT, body mass, and circulating insulin when fed a high calorie diet. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPGL induced de novo lipogenesis in WAT, increased insulin, and it selectively induced carbohydrate intake...
August 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799645/influence-of-a-three-stage-hybrid-ultrasound-osmotic-frying-process-on-production-of-low-fat-fried-potato-strips
#8
Jalal Dehghannya, Lida Abedpour
BACKGROUND: Fried potato is one of the most consumed products in the world. Due to consumers' growing tendency to use healthy and low-fat foods, reducing oil content in fried foods has become a necessity. Several studies have shown that higher initial water content results in increased oil uptake during frying. Therefore, pretreatments that reduce water content of the product could lower oil uptake in the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a three stage hybrid ultrasound-osmotic-frying process on production of low-fat fried potato strips...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795866/dioxins-and-pcbs-in-ostrich-meat-and-eggs-levels-and-implications
#9
Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Paweł Struciński, Szczepan Mikołajczyk, Marek Pajurek, Sebastian Maszewski, Wojciech Jerzy Pietron
Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL- and NDL-PCBs in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared to the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably...
August 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794212/addition-of-rye-bran-and-pea-fiber-to-pork-meatballs-enhances-subjective-satiety-in-healthy-men-but-does-not-change-glycemic-or-hormonal-responses-a-randomized-crossover-meal-test-study
#10
Ursula Kehlet, Josephine Kofod, Jens J Holst, Christian Ritz, Margit D Aaslyng, Anne Raben
Background: The development of high-protein, fiber-rich foods targeting appetite control could be an efficient tool in obesity prevention.Objectives: We investigated whether ad libitum energy intake (EI), appetite, and metabolic markers in a meal context were affected by 1) fiber addition (rye bran and pea fiber) to pork meatballs, 2) the food matrix of the fiber (fiber meatballs compared with fiber bread), or 3) the protein source (animal compared with vegetable protein patties).Methods: In a crossover design, 40 healthy men [mean ± SD: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), 22...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793996/ultra-processed-foods-in-human-health-a-critical-appraisal
#11
Michael J Gibney, Ciarán G Forde, Deirdre Mullally, Eileen R Gibney
The NOVA classification of foods proposes 4 categories: unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFDs). It is argued that the latter relies heavily on modifications to foods, resulting in enhanced amounts of salt, added sugar, and fat as well as the use of additives in an attempt to make this food category highly palatable. It further argues that controlling food processing, rather than examining nutrients, should be foremost in shaping nutrition policy...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789975/peripheral-neuropeptide-y-differentially-influences-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-chicks-from-lines-selected-for-low-or-high-body-weight
#12
Lingbin Liu, Guoqing Wang, Yang Xiao, Steven L Shipp, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates appetite and promotes lipid deposition. We demonstrated a differential sensitivity in the food intake response to central NPY in chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight, but have not reported whether such differences exist in the periphery. At 5days, LWS and HWS chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 60, or 120μg/kg BW NPY and subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h (n=12). NPY injection increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity at 1 and 3h and reduced plasma NEFAs at 1 and 12h...
August 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780559/doctor-referral-of-overweight-people-to-a-low-energy-treatment-droplet-in-primary-care-using-total-diet-replacement-products-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Susan A Jebb, Nerys M Astbury, Sarah Tearne, Alecia Nickless, Paul Aveyard
INTRODUCTION: The global prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in recent decades. There is a pressing need to identify effective interventions to treat established obesity that can be delivered at scale. The aim of the Doctor Referral of Overweight People to a Low-Energy Treatment (DROPLET) study is to determine the clinical effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of referral to a low-energy total diet replacement programme compared with usual weight management interventions in primary care...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777296/serum-iron-ferritin-ratio-predicts-healthy-body-composition-and-reduced-risk-of-severe-fatty-liver-in-young-adult-women
#14
Nindy Sabrina, Chyi-Huey Bai, Chun-Chao Chang, Yi-Wen Chien, Jiun-Rong Chen, Jung-Su Chang
Dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with altered body composition and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, mechanisms underlying this association remain undefined. We investigated this association in 117 women. Middle-aged women (≥45 years old (y)) were heavier and had lower serum iron, higher serum hepcidin, ferritin, and severe NAFLD incidence than young adult women (<45 y). Age-adjusted linear regression analysis revealed that young adult women with the highest serum iron:ferritin ratio (Tertile 3) had a 5...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771561/fitness-and-food-environments-around-junior-high-schools-in-taiwan-and-their-association-with-body-composition-gender-differences-for-recreational-reading-food-and-beverage-exposures
#15
Po-Huang Chiang, Lin-Yuan Huang, Meei-Shyuan Lee, Hui-Chen Tsou, Mark L Wahlqvist
School environments may contribute to adolescent behavior, reproductive physiology and body composition (BC). The Nutritional and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010) for 1458 junior high school students was geo-mapped for 30 school environs. Facilities for physical activity (fitness centers, gymnasia and sports stadiums, activity centers and parks), sedentary activities (reading material rental shops (RMRS), internet cafes) and food and beverage outlets (FBOs) were calculated as weighted numbers within 1000m of schools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771242/pancreatic-and-intestinal-function-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-for-obesity
#16
Stephen J D O'Keefe, Tina Rakitt, Junhai Ou, Ihab I El Hajj, Elizabeth Blaney, Kishore Vipperla, Jens-Jules Holst, Jens Rehlfeld
OBJECTIVES: Despite the fact that the most effective treatment for morbid obesity today is gastric bypass surgery, some patients develop life-threatening nutritional complications associated with their weight loss. METHODS: Here we examine the influence of the altered anatomy and digestive physiology on pancreatic secretion and fat absorption. Thirteen post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients who had lost >100 lbs in the first year following surgery and who gave variable histories of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, were selected for study...
August 3, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770180/the-association-between-food-group-consumption-patterns-and-early-metabolic-syndrome-risk-in-non-diabetic-healthy-people
#17
Rimkyo Yeo, So Ra Yoon, Oh Yoen Kim
We investigated the association between dietary habits/food group consumption patterns and early risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a main cause for metabolic disease. Study participants were recruited from the health promotion center in Dong-A University Hospital and public advertisement. Study subjects (n = 243, 21-80 years) were categorized into three groups: Super-healthy (MetS risk factor [MetS RF] = 0, n = 111), MetS-risk carriers (MetS RF = 1-2, n = 96), and MetS (MetS RF ≥ 3, n = 27). Higher regularity in dietary habits (breakfast-everyday, regular eating time, non-frequent overeating, and non-frequent eating-out) was observed in the Super-healthy group than in the MetS-risk carriers, and particularly in the MetS subjects...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768835/associations-of-dairy-intake-with-incident-prediabetes-or-diabetes-in-middle-aged-adults-vary-by-both-dairy-type-and-glycemic-status
#18
Adela Hruby, Jiantao Ma, Gail Rogers, James B Meigs, Paul F Jacques
Background: Inconsistent evidence describes the association between dietary intake of dairy and milk-based products and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.Objective: Our objective was to assess associations between consumption of milk-based products, incident prediabetes, and progression to T2D in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.Methods: Total dairy and milk-based product consumption was assessed by ≤4 food-frequency questionnaires across a mean of 12 y of follow-up in 2809 participants [mean ± SD age: 54...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768657/energy-homeostasis-in-apolipoprotein-aiv-and-cholecystokinin-deficient-mice
#19
Jonathan Weng, Danwen Lou, Stephen C Benoit, Natalie Coschigano, Stephen C Woods, Patrick Tso, Chunmin C Lo
Apolipoprotein AIV (ApoAIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are well-known satiating signals that are stimulated by fat consumption. Peripheral ApoAIV and CCK interact to prolong satiating signals. In the present study, we hypothesized that ApoAIV and CCK control energy homeostasis in response to high-fat diet feeding. To test this hypothesis, energy homeostasis in ApoAIV and CCK double knockout (ApoAIV/CCK-KO), ApoAIV knockout (ApoAIV-KO), and CCK knockout (CCK-KO) mice were monitored. When animals were maintained on a low-fat diet, ApoAIV/CCK-KO, ApoAIV-KO, and CCK-KO mice had comparable energy intake and expenditure, body weight, fat mass, fat absorption, and plasma parameters relative to the controls...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764058/effect-of-polishing-on-glycemic-index-and-antioxidant-properties-of-red-and-white-basmati-rice
#20
G M Somaratne, B D R Prasantha, G R Dunuwila, A Chandrasekara, D G N G Wijesinghe, D C S Gunasekara
Four different pigmented dark-red (red) and non-pigmented white basmati rice varieties were tested for their nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) at 10% and 100% polished levels. The red basmati had higher content of ash, protein, fat, TPC, TAC and AOA than white basmati. Red and white basmati varieties can be classified as low GI and medium GI rice, respectively. The degree of polishing had no effect on the GI...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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