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Xudong Miao, Yongping Wu, Huimin Tao, Disheng Yang, Lu Huang
BACKGROUND: Transfer of a flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon can not only reconstruct the Achilles tendon but also provide ischemic tendinous tissues with a rich blood supply to enhance wound healing. This retrospective study aims to investigate clinical outcomes in patients who underwent repair of Kuwada grade IV chronic Achilles tendon rupture with long hallucis longus tendons harvested using a minimally invasive technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 35 patients who were treated for Kuwada grade IV Achilles tendon injuries from July 2006 to June 2011 were included in this retrospective study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Numerous recent developments in the biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of formate and H2 metabolism and of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Hyd) cofactor biosynthetic machinery are highlighted. Formate export and import by the aquaporin-like pentameric formate channel FocA is governed by interaction with pyruvate formate-lyase, the enzyme that generates formate. Formate is disproportionated by the reversible formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which has been isolated, allowing biochemical dissection of evolutionary parallels with complex I of the respiratory chain...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Peter Kraiczy
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jessica Lee, Chad Williams, Charles Lowrey, Greg Gould, Ronald Markert, Richard Laughlin
: Introduction Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to the calcaneus is commonly used in the surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study assesses the integrity of FHL tendon biotenodesis screw fixation with respect to 2 variables: incorporation of a terminal whipstitch and tunnel depth. Materials and methods A total of 60 fresh-frozen cadaver FHL tendons and 28 calcanei were harvested for analysis in 4 sets of fixation constructs; 14 whipstitched tendons were compared against their nonwhipstitched paired tendon via pull-out strength load testing, and 16 tendon pairs were randomized for fixation in either a full-depth tunnel (bicortical) or a 25-mm partial tunnel (unicortical)...
September 7, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Erin FitzGerald Alaia, Zehava Sadka Rosenberg, Jenny T Bencardino, Gina A Ciavarra, Ignacio Rossi, Catherine N Petchprapa
OBJECTIVE: To assess, utilizing MRI, tarsal tunnel disease in patients with talocalcaneal coalitions. To the best of our knowledge, this has only anecdotally been described before. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven ankle MRIs with talocalcaneal coalition were retrospectively reviewed for disease of tendons and nerves of the tarsal tunnel. Interobserver variability in diagnosing tendon disease was performed in 30 of the 67 cases. Tarsal tunnel nerves were also evaluated in a control group of 20 consecutive ankle MRIs...
November 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Robin C Willenbring, Fang Jin, David J Hinton, Mike Hansen, Doo-Sup Choi, Kevin D Pavelko, Aaron J Johnson
BACKGROUND: CD8 T cell-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is dependent on the effector molecule perforin. Human perforin has extensive single nucleotide variants (SNVs), the significance of which is not fully understood. These SNVs can result in reduced, but not ablated, perforin activity or expression. However, complete loss of perforin expression or activity results in the lethal disease familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL 2). In this study, we address the hypothesis that a single perforin allele can alter the severity of BBB disruption in vivo using a well-established model of CNS vascular permeability in C57Bl/6 mice...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jessica H Heyer, Donald J Rose
BACKGROUND: An os trigonum is a potential source of posterior ankle pain in dancers, often associated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) pathology. Options for operative excision include open excision, subtalar arthroscopy, and posterior endoscopy. The purpose of this paper was to present a series of dancers who underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum via an open posteromedial approach. METHODS: This study is a retrospective case series of 40 ankles in 38 dancers who underwent os trigonum excision via an open posteromedial approach with FHL tenolysis between 2000 and 2013...
August 22, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
T H Lui, L K Chan
BACKGROUND: The list of indications of posterior ankle endoscopy is expanding and includes various soft tissue and bony pathologies of the posterior ankle. Some of the indications, e.g. release of frozen ankle, debridement of posteromedial soft tissue impingement of the ankle and debridement or fixation of the posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus, require approach to the posterior ankle medial to the flexor hallucis longus tendon. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of injury to the posterior tibial neurovascular bundle during posterior ankle endoscopy...
September 2016: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Snehal Shabrish, Maya Gupta, Manisha Madkaikar
Natural killer (NK) cells play important role in innate immunity against tumors and viral infections. Studies show that lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1, CD107a) is a marker for degranulation of NK and cytotoxic T cells and its expression is a sensitive marker for the cytotoxic activity determination. The conventional methods of determination of CD107a on NK cells involve use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or pure NK cells and K562 cells as stimulants. Thus, it requires large volume of blood sample which is usually difficult to obtain in pediatric patients and patients with cytopenia and also requires specialized laboratory for maintaining cell line...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Liisa Nissinen, Mehdi Farshchian, Pilvi Riihilä, Veli-Matti Kähäri
Epidermal keratinocyte-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Solar UV radiation is an important risk factor for cSCC and leads to genetic and epigenetic changes both in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal cells. Tumor cells in cutaneous cSCCs typically harbor several driver gene mutations, but epidermal keratinocytes in sun-exposed normal skin also contain mutations in these same genes. Therefore, alterations in the microenvironment of premalignant lesions are evidently required for their progression to invasive and metastatic cSCC...
September 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Prabhas Prasun Giri, Nirmoy Biswas, Swati Chakravarty
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are basically a heterogenous group of clinical syndromes, characterised by activation and non-malignant proliferation of benign histiocytes i.e. lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to a cytokine storm that accounts for the fever, organomegaly and multi-organ dysfunction. Two types of HLH are described, either due to known genetic defect (familial HLH/FHL) or due to some acquired cause either infection or rheumatological diseases. Here we present a case of a 3 months old baby, admitted with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenia and ultimately was diagnosed to be a case of Familial HLH type 3 due to defect in UNC13D gene as a result of compound heterozygous for two nonsense mutation resulting in the Munc13-4 protein defect...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Sukho Lee, Kijeong Kim, Nathalie J Lambrecht, Junyoung Hong, Yi-Hung Liao, Aram Yoon, Jeffrey R Bernard
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects and potential synergy of resistance training (RT), Huang Qi (HQ) herbal supplementation, and electroacupuncture (EA) on skeletal muscle mass, contractile properties, and components of the insulin signalling pathway in healthy Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=8 each): control (CON), RT only, RT with EA (RT-EA), RT with HQ (RT-HQ), and RT combined with both EA and HQ (RT-EA-HQ)...
July 5, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
G Engels, H Stinus, D Hochlenert, A Klein
OBJECTIVE: Elimination of plantarization of the tip of the toe and torsion of digit 1 (D1) or D5 using percutaneous tenotomy of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) - or the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) muscle. INDICATIONS: Flexible, in some cases also fixated hyperflexion misalignment and torsion misalignment of the distal phalanx of the toe with plantarization of physiologically non-loaded bearing parts of the toes in patients with diabetic foot syndrome (neuropathy)...
October 2016: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Michael J Beltran, Phillip M Mitchell, Cory A Collinge
BACKGROUND: Screws placed from posterior to anterior have been shown to be biomechanically and anatomically superior in the fixation of talar neck and neck-body fractures, yet most surgeons continue to place screws from an anterior start point. The safety and efficacy of percutaneously applied posterior screws has not been clinically defined, and functional outcomes after their use is lacking. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective review of 24 consecutive talar neck fractures treated by a single surgeon that utilized posterior-to-anterior screw fixation...
October 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Tun Hing Lui
Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer is indicated for reconstruction of the Achilles tendon with a gap larger than 5 cm. The tendon can be harvested at zone 2 or zone 3 by minimally invasive techniques with the advantage of minimal soft-tissue dissection. The tendon can be harvested under the sustentaculum tali by zone 2 FHL tendoscopy. It is adequate for FHL transfer to the posterior calcaneal tubercle. If a double-thickness reconstruction of a huge gap of the Achilles tendon is indicated, the tendon can be harvested at the level of the hallux by means of a tendon stripper...
December 2015: Arthroscopy Techniques
Hiroki Funasaki, Hiroteru Hayashi, Kanako Sakamoto, Rei Tsuruga, Keishi Marumo
Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used...
December 2015: Arthroscopy Techniques
Manisha Madkaikar, Maya Gupta, Ashish Dixit, Veerendra Patil
Neurological manifestations in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) are common, seen in up to 73% of patients in their course of disease. However, in majority of the cases central nervous system manifestations are associated with other clinical and laboratory parameters of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We report here a case with FHL2 in whom hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was a presenting manifestation which responded to specific therapy, however, there was isolated central nervous system relapse while patient was in remission and off therapy...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
M Molanouri Shamsi, M Mahdavi, L S Quinn, R Gharakhanlou, A Isanegad
Impairment of adipose tissue and skeletal muscles accrued following type 1 diabetes is associated with protein misfolding and loss of adipose mass and skeletal muscle atrophy. Resistance training can maintain muscle mass by changing both inflammatory cytokines and stress factors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 5-week ladder climbing resistance training program on the expression of Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and fast-twitch flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
September 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Eiichi Ishii
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by persistent fever, splenomegaly with cytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Increased levels of various cytokines and soluble interleukin-2 receptor are biological markers of HLH. HLH can be classified into two major forms: primary and secondary. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), a type of primary HLH, is an autosomal recessive disorder that typically occurs in infancy and can be classified into five different subtypes (FHL types 1-5)...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Siham Ait Oussous, Saïd Boujraf, Imane Kamaoui
The goal is assessing the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) method efficiency in characterizing focal hepatic lesions (FHLs). About 28-FHL patients were studied in Radiology and Clinical Imaging Department of our University Hospital using 1.5 Tesla MRI system between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients underwent hepatic MRI consisting of dynamic T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The dMRI was performed with b-values of 200 s/mm(2) and 600 s/mm(2). About 42 lesions measuring more than 1 cm were studied including the variation of the signal according to the b-value and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
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