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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#1
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498429/sbi0206965-a-novel-inhibitor-of-ulk1-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-growth-by-modulating-both-autophagy-and-apoptosis-pathways
#2
Fang Tang, Pengchao Hu, Zetian Yang, Chao Xue, Jun Gong, Shaoxing Sun, Liu Shi, Shimin Zhang, Zhenzhen Li, Chunxu Yang, Junhong Zhang, Conghua Xie
Lung cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases. Autophagy has recently sparked great interest, and it is thought to participate in a variety of diseases, including lung cancer. Uncoordinated (Unc) 51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1), a serine/threonine kinase, plays a central role in the autophagy pathway. However, the role of Ulk1 in NSCLC remains unclear. We report that NSCLC cell lines exhibited high expression of Ulk1 and that Ulk1 was negatively correlated with prognosis in lung cancer patients...
May 10, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487481/functional-genomics-in-brugia-malayi-reveal-diverse-muscle-nachrs-and-differences-between-cholinergic-anthelmintics
#3
Saurabh Verma, Sudhanva Srinivas Kashyap, Alan Patrick Robertson, Richard John Martin
Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell PCR, whole muscle cell patch clamp, motility phenotyping (Worminator), and dsRNA for RNAi for functional genomic studies that have revealed, in vivo, four different muscle nAChRs (M-, L-, P-, and N-)...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484969/autophagy-activation-alleviates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-neurotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Abhishek Kumar Singh, Akalabya Bissoyi, Mahendra Pratap Kashyap, Pradeep Kumar Patra, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process that ensures continuous removal of damaged cell organelles and long-lived protein aggregates to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although autophagy has been implicated in amyloid-β (Aβ) production and deposition, its role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease remains elusive. Thus, the present study was undertaken to assess the cytoprotective and neuroprotective potential of autophagy on Aβ-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
May 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477408/autoinhibition-of-munc18-1-modulates-synaptobrevin-binding-and-helps-to-enable-munc13-dependent-regulation-of-membrane-fusion
#5
Ewa Sitarska, Junjie Xu, Seungmee Park, Xiaoxia Liu, Bradley Quade, Karolina Stepien, Kyoko Sugita, Chad A Brautigam, Shuzo Sugita, Josep Rizo
Munc18-1 orchestrates SNARE complex assembly together with Munc13-1 to mediate neurotransmitter release. Munc18-1 binds to synaptobrevin, but the relevance of this interaction and its relation to Munc13 function are unclear. NMR experiments now show that Munc18-1 binds specifically and non-specifically to synaptobrevin. Specific binding is inhibited by a L348R mutation in Munc18-1 and enhanced by a D326K mutation designed to disrupt the 'furled conformation' of a Munc18-1 loop. Correspondingly, the activity of Munc18-1 in reconstitution assays that require Munc18-1 and Munc13-1 for membrane fusion is stimulated by the D326K mutation and inhibited by the L348R mutation...
May 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475593/association-between-social-support-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-chinese-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-a-multiple-mediation-model
#6
Chunli Liu, Yi Zhang, Hong Jiang, Hui Wu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms can develop after person experiences one or more traumatic events. Little research, however, has been done on PTSD symptoms of patients with ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in patients with ovarian cancer in China; the effects of demographic and clinical variables on PTSD symptoms; multiple mediation roles in the association between social support and PTSD symptoms in patients with ovarian cancer in China. We collected demographic and clinical information of patients with ovarian cancer in the first and second hospitals of China Medical University between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468816/novel-mutations-in-synaptic-transmission-genes-suppress-neuronal-hyperexcitation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Katherine A McCulloch, Yingchuan B Qi, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Yishi Jin, Salvatore J Cherra
Acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (AChR) regulate neural circuit activity in multiple contexts. In humans, mutations in ionotropic acetylcholine receptor (iAChR) genes can cause neurological disorders, including myasthenia gravis and epilepsy. In C. elegans, iAChRs play multiple roles in the locomotor circuit. The cholinergic motor neurons express an ACR-2-containing pentameric acetylcholine receptor (ACR-2R) comprised of ACR-2, ACR-3, ACR-12, UNC-38, and UNC-63 subunits. A gain-of-function mutation in the non-alpha subunit gene acr-2 (acr-2(gf)) causes defective locomotion as well as spontaneous convulsions...
May 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456310/deltamethrin-affects-the-expression-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-%C3%AE-1-subunits-and-the-locomotion-egg-laying-foraging-behavior-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Rune Zeng, Xing Yu, Xing Tan, Shan Ye, Zhong Ding
Deltamethrin belongs to the class of synthetic pyrethroids, which are being widely used as insecticides in agricultural practices. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the primary targets of these chemicals for toxicity to insects. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) does not have VGSCs but is susceptible to deltamethrin. Recent findings have suggested that pyrethroids can affect voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). However, it remains elusive whether deltamethrin induces toxicity to C. elegans via modulating the activity of VGCCs...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454439/oct4-induces-emt-through-lef1-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Lu Sun, Tianhua Liu, Shu Zhang, Kun Guo, Yinkun Liu
Octamer 4 (Oct4), a member of the Pit-Oct-Unc transcription factor family required to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, has been previously identified to be associated with tumorigenesis and malignant transformation of numerous types of cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present data shows that Oct4 enhances cancer stem cell properties and increases invasion ability in the Huh7 cell line. To increase understanding of the role of Oct4 in HCC, the present study used a functional genomics approach and analyzed the resulting transcriptional profiles to identify Oct4-dependent genes in Huh7...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447269/estimating-hiv-medication-adherence-and-persistence-two-instruments-for-clinical-and-research-use
#10
David A Wohl, A T Panter, Christine Kirby, Brooke E Magnus, Michael G Hudgens, Andrew G Allmon, Katie R Mollan
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires lifelong daily oral therapy. While patient characteristics associated with suboptimal ART adherence and persistence have been described in cohorts of HIV-infected persons, these factors are poor predictors of individual medication taking behaviors. We aimed to create and test instruments for the estimation of future ART adherence and persistence for clinical and research applications. Following formative work, a battery of 148 items broadly related to HIV infection and treatment was developed and administered to 181 HIV-infected patients...
April 26, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446865/enhanced-expression-of-markers-for-astrocytes-in-the-brain-of-a-line-of-gfap-tk-transgenic-mice
#11
Xiaoqin Zhang, Dongpi Wang, Hongyu Pan, Binggui Sun
GFAP-TK mice are widely used in studies on neurogenesis and reactive astrocytes. Previous studies reported that GCV treatment in GFAP-TK mice resulted in reduced neurogenesis and deletion of proliferating GFAP-expressing astrocytes without affecting mature GFAP-expressing astrocytes. In the present study, we found that GFAP- and vimentin-expressing astrocytes were dramatically increased in the cortex and hippocampus with or without GCV treatment in a line of GFAP-TK mice (Jackson Laboratory, Stock No. 005698), while the neurons and microglia were not affected...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445939/epigenetic-therapy-with-inhibitors-of-histone-methylation-suppresses-dna-damage-signaling-and-increases-glioma-cell-radiosensitivity
#12
Ozge Gursoy-Yuzugullu, Chelsea Carman, Rodolfo Bortolozo Serafim, Marios Myronakis, Valeria Valente, Brendan D Price
Radiation therapy is widely used to treat human malignancies, but many tumor types, including gliomas, exhibit significant radioresistance. Radiation therapy creates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and DSB repair is linked to rapid changes in epigenetic modifications, including increased histone methylation. This increased histone methylation recruits DNA repair proteins which can then alter the local chromatin structure and promote repair. Consequently, combining inhibitors of specific histone methyltransferases with radiation therapy may increase tumor radiosensitivity, particularly in tumors with significant therapeutic resistance...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445873/pregnancy-outcomes-in-patients-with-glomerular-disease-attending-a-single-academic-center-in-north-carolina
#13
Michelle M O'Shaughnessy, Meghan A Jobson, Katy Sims, Abigail L Liberty, Patrick H Nachman, William F Pendergraft
BACKGROUND: Contemporary data regarding pregnancy outcomes in US patients with primary glomerular diseases are lacking. We aimed to report fetal and maternal outcomes among women with biopsy-proven primary glomerular disease who received obstetric care at a single large academic US center. METHODS: All women with a biopsy-confirmed primary glomerular disease diagnosis and without end-stage kidney disease who received obstetric care at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospitals (1996-2015) were identified using the Glomerular Disease Collaborative Network registry and the UNC Hospitals Perinatal Database...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434635/readmissions-unplanned-emergency-room-visits-and-surgical-retreatment-rates-after-anti-reflux-procedures
#14
Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, Rohit Tejwani, Steven Wolf, John S Wiener, Jonathan C Routh
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: The choice between endoscopic injection (EI) and ureteroneocystotomy (UNC) for surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative outcomes of EI vs UNC. STUDY DESIGN: This study reviewed linked inpatient (SID), ambulatory surgery (SASD), and emergency department (SEDD) data from five states in the United States (2007-10) to identify pediatric patients with primary VUR undergoing EI or UNC as an initial surgical intervention...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432915/proton-induced-production-and-radiochemical-isolation-of-44-ti-from-scandium-metal-targets-for-44-ti-44-sc-generator-development
#15
Valery Radchenko, Jonathan W Engle, Dmitri G Medvedev, Joel M Maassen, Cleo M Naranjo, George A Unc, Catherine A L Meyer, Tara Mastren, Mark Brugh, Leonard Mausner, Cathy S Cutler, Eva R Birnbaum, Kevin D John, F Meiring Nortier, Michael E Fassbender
Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h) shows promise for application in positron emission tomography (PET), due to favorable decay parameters. One of the sources of (44g)Sc is the (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator, which can conveniently provide this radioisotope on a daily basis at a diagnostic facility. Titanium-44 (half-life 60.0 a), in turn, can be obtained via proton irradiation of scandium metal targets. A substantial (44)Ti product batch, however, requires high beam currents, long irradiation times and an elaborate chemical procedure for (44)Ti isolation and purification...
April 7, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430962/ulk1-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity-through-autophagy-meditated-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#16
Minae An, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jang Won Park, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Aims: Autophagy is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Whereas many studies support the importance of autophagy in the mechanisms underlying obesity-related cardiac dysfunction, the role of autophagy in cardiac lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the heart, lipotoxicity is exacerbated by cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which mediates accumulation of fatty acids to the heart through intravascular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428253/twitchin-kinase-inhibits-muscle-activity
#17
Yohei Matsunaga, Hyundoo Hwang, Barbara Franke, Rhys Williams, McKenna Penley, Hiroshi Qadota, Hong Yi, Levi T Morran, Hang Lu, Olga Mayans, Guy M Benian
Muscle sarcomeres contain giant polypeptides composed of multiple immunoglobulin and fibronectin domains and one or two protein kinase domains. Although binding partners for a number of this family's kinase domains have been identified, the catalytic necessity of these kinase domains remains unknown. In addition, various members of this kinase family are suspected pseudokinases with no, or little, activity. Here, we address catalytic necessity for the first time using the prototypic invertebrate representative twitchin (UNC-22) from C...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426941/behavioral-deficits-and-neural-damage-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-induced-by-three-rare-earth-elements
#18
Tiantian Xu, Manke Zhang, Jiani Hu, Zihan Li, Taipu Wu, Jianing Bao, Siyu Wu, Lili Lei, Defu He
Rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in industry, agriculture, medicine and daily life in recent years. However, environmental and health risks of REEs are still poorly understood. In this study, neurotoxicity of trichloride neodymium, praseodymium and scandium were evaluated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. Median lethal concentrations (48 h) were 99.9, 157.2 and 106.4 mg/L for NdCl3, PrCl3 and ScCl3, respectively. Sublethal dose (10-30 mg/L) of these trichloride salts significantly inhibited body length of nematodes...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424218/gop-1-promotes-apoptotic-cell-degradation-by-activating-the-small-gtpase-rab2-in-c-elegans
#19
Jianhua Yin, Yaling Huang, Pengfei Guo, Siqi Hu, Sawako Yoshina, Nan Xuan, Qiwen Gan, Shohei Mitani, Chonglin Yang, Xiaochen Wang
Apoptotic cells generated by programmed cell death are engulfed by phagocytes and enclosed within plasma membrane-derived phagosomes. Maturation of phagosomes involves a series of membrane-remodeling events that are governed by the sequential actions of Rab GTPases and lead to formation of phagolysosomes, where cell corpses are degraded. Here we identified gop-1 as a novel regulator of apoptotic cell clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans Loss of gop-1 affects phagosome maturation through the RAB-5-positive stage, causing defects in phagosome acidification and phagolysosome formation, phenotypes identical to and unaffected by loss of unc-108, the C...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420820/high-insulin-impaired-ovarian-function-in-early-pregnant-mice-and-the-role-of-autophagy-in-this-process
#20
Yan Su, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Chen Zhang, Wenqi Chen, Yingxiong Wang, Rufei Gao
Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. In this study, we first explored whether high insulin levels directly affected ovarian functioning during embryo implantation...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
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