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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238857/asiaticoside-attenuation-of-rotenone-induced-oxidative-burden-in-a-rat-model-of-hemiparkinsonism-by-maintaining-the-phosphoinositide-mediated-synaptic-integrity
#1
Margabandhu Gopi, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Indian medicinal herb Centella asiatica is known to exert a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and pathological changes in animal models. However, its potential neuroprotection in rotenone-induced hemiparkinsonism which implicates phospholipid-mediated neurotransmission remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of AS in rat model of ROT-infused hemiparkinsonism with respect to phosphoinositides-assisted cytodynamics and synaptic function...
February 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230102/identification-of-a-new-virulent-clade-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o26-h11-h-sequence-type-29
#2
Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Tomomi Kuwahara, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Saori Yoneda, Atsushi Iguchi, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunao Iyoda
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP-/espP+/etpD-...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224710/extended-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin-inhibits-neurite-outgrowth-in-model-neuronal-cells
#3
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) belongs to a group of structurally related analogues produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. The toxins act by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels stopping the inflow of sodium ions and the generation of action potentials. Exposure from marine sources occurs as a result of consuming shellfish which have concentrated the toxins, and freshwater exposure can occur from drinking water although there have been no acute poisonings from the latter source to date...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221921/national-survey-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotypes-o26-o45-o103-o111-o121-o145-and-o157-in-australian-beef-cattle-feces
#4
Glen E Mellor, Narelle Fegan, Lesley L Duffy, Kate E McMILLAN, David Jordan, Robert S Barlow
Escherichia coli O157 and six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, colloquially referred to as the "big 6") have been classified as adulterants of raw nonintact beef products in the United States. While beef cattle are a known reservoir for the prototype STEC serotype, E. coli O157, less is known about the dissemination of non-O157 STEC serotypes in Australian cattle. In the present study, 1,500 fecal samples were collected at slaughter from adult (n =628) and young (n =286) beef cattle, adult (n =128) and young (n =143) dairy cattle, and veal calves (n = 315) across 31 Australian export-registered processing establishments...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221838/use-of-the-escherichia-coli-identification-microarray-for-characterizing-the-health-risks-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-foods
#5
David W Lacher, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Isha Patel, Christopher A Elkins, Peter C H Feng
More than 470 serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been identified, but not all cause severe illness in humans. Most STEC that cause severe diseases can adhere to epithelial cells, produce specific stx subtypes, and belong to certain serotypes; therefore, these traits appear to be critical STEC risk factors. However, testing for these traits is labor intensive, and serotyping is inadequate because of extensive variations among E. coli O and H antigen types. In the present study, the E...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209476/the-role-of-a-psp-producing-alexandrium-bloom-in-an-unprecedented-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin-mortality-event-in-flanders-bay-new-york-usa
#6
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Robert J Ossiboff, Craig A Burnell, Carlton D Rauschenberg, Kevin Hynes, Russell L Burke, Elizabeth M Bunting, Kim Durham, Christopher J Gobler
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are a threatened or endangered species in much of their range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Over an approximately three-week period from late April to mid-May 2015, hundreds of adult diamondback terrapins were found dead on the shores of Flanders Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Concurrent with the mortality event, elevated densities of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense (>10(4) cells L(-1)) and high levels of PST in bivalves (maximal levels = 540 μg STX eq...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207302/characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-in-slaughtered-reindeer-from-northern-finland
#7
Claudio Zweifel, Lisa Fierz, Nicole Cernela, Sauli Laaksonen, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Roger Stephan
Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H(-) isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliCH7) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H(-) isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178427/pathogenesis-of-colitis-in-germ-free-mice-infected-with-ehec-o157-h7
#8
K A Eaton, C Fontaine, D I Friedman, N Conti, C J Alteri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161846/genotypic-analysis-of-virulence-genes-and-antimicrobial-profile-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-lambs-in-iran
#9
Reza Ghanbarpour, Nasrin Askari, Masoud Ghorbanpour, Yahya Tahamtan, Khoobyar Mashayekhi, Narjes Afsharipour, Nasim Darijani
The aim of the present study was to determine the analysis of virulence genes and antimicrobial profile of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased lambs. Two hundred ninety E. coli isolates were recovered from 300 rectal swabs of diarrheic lambs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. The pathotype determination was done according to the presence of genes including f5, f41, LTI, STI, bfp, ipaH, stx 1 , stx 2 , eae, ehlyA, cnf 1 , cnf 2 , cdIII, cdIV, and f17 by PCR method. Sixty-six isolates (23...
March 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150898/biofilm-formation-invasiveness-and-colicinogeny-in-locus-of-enterocyte-and-effacement-negative-o113-h21-shigatoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#10
Luís Fernando Dos Santos, Franciele Tafarello Biscola, Evanilde Maria Gonçalves, Beatriz Ernestina Cabílio Guth
AIMS: Although Shiga toxins (Stx) are well established virulence traits of O113:H21 Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, a shortage in the knowledge of other virulence properties that may contribute to pathogenesis may exist in this serotype. This study investigated biofilm, invasiveness and colicinogeny capabilities in O113:H21 STEC isolated in Brazil, mostly from animal reservoirs. A search for genes which were reported to participate in the process of biofilm formation was also performed...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143511/a-novel-salmonella-strain-inactivated-by-a-regulated-autolysis-system-and-expressing-the-b-subunit-of-shiga-toxin-2e-efficiently-elicits-immune-responses-and-confers-protection-against-virulent-stx2e-producing-escherichia-coli
#11
Gayeon Won, Tae Hoon Kim, John Hwa Lee
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inactivated by a regulated autolysis system was genetically engineered to express the homo-pentameric B subunit of Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2eB) on its surface. To prepare a strain able to yield autolyzed Salmonella bearing Stx2eB, the plasmid pJHL184 harboring stx 2eB gene was transformed into the attenuated S. Typhimurium strain, JOL1454. Stx2eB subcloned into the antigen delivery cassette of the plasmid was expressed as fusion protein with the outer membrane protein RESULTS: The expression of Stx2eB fused to the signal peptide in JOL1454 was validated by immunoblot analysis...
February 1, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134751/efficacy-of-urtoxazumab-tma-15-humanized-monoclonal-antibody-specific-for-shiga-toxin-2-against-post-diarrheal-neurological-sequelae-caused-by-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection-in-the-neonatal-gnotobiotic-piglet-model
#12
Rodney A Moxley, David H Francis, Mizuho Tamura, David B Marx, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Mojun Zhao
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the most common cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human patients, with brain damage and dysfunction the main cause of acute death. We evaluated the efficacy of urtoxazumab (TMA-15, Teijin Pharma Limited), a humanized monoclonal antibody against Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 for the prevention of brain damage, dysfunction, and death in a piglet EHEC infection model. Forty-five neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated orally with 3 × 10⁸ colony-forming units of EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 (Stx1⁺, Stx2⁺) when 22-24 h old...
January 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106838/molecular-characterization-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-and-their-relations-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-bioaccumulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#13
Floriane Boullot, Justine Castrec, Adeline Bidault, Natanael Dantas, Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran, Zouher Amzil, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Soudant, Hélène Hégaret, Caroline Fabioux
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and block conduction of action potential in excitable cells. This study aimed to (i) characterize Nav sequences in Crassostrea gigas and (ii) investigate a putative relation between Nav and PST-bioaccumulation in oysters. The phylogenetic analysis highlighted two types of Nav in C. gigas: a Nav1 (CgNav1) and a Nav2 (CgNav2) with sequence properties of sodium-selective and sodium/calcium-selective channels, respectively. Three alternative splice transcripts of CgNav1 named A, B and C, were characterized...
January 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#14
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073499/physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-to-inorganic-nutrition-in-a-tropical-pacific-strain-of-alexandrium-minutum-implications-for-the-saxitoxin-genes-and-toxin-production
#15
Kieng Soon Hii, Po Teen Lim, Nyuk Fong Kon, Yoshinobu Takata, Gires Usup, Chui Pin Leaw
Saxitoxins (STXs) constitute a family of potent sodium channel blocking toxins, causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), and are produced by several species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Two STX-core genes, sxtA and sxtG, have been well elucidated in Alexandrium but the expression of these genes under various nutritional modes in tropical species remains unclear. This study investigates the physiological responses of a tropical Pacific strain of Alexandrium minutum growing with nitrate or ammonium, and with various nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) supply ratios...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073493/abiotic-variables-affect-stx-concentration-in-a-meso-oligotrophic-subtropical-coastal-lake-dominated-by-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-cyanophyceae
#16
Débora Monteiro Brentano, Eduardo L Hettwer Giehl, Maurício Mello Petrucio
The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is capable of producing toxins including saxitoxin (STX). Few studies have verified the influence of environmental variables on the production of STX and most have only been studied in the laboratory. The goal of this work was to identify the abiotic variables related to STX concentration in situ. The relationship among STX concentration and the physical variables, nutrients and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration was examined in a meso-oligotrophic subtropical coastal lake dominated by C...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073466/quantity-of-the-dinoflagellate-sxta4-gene-and-cell-density-correlates-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-production-in-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-blooms
#17
Henna Savela, Kirsi Harju, Lisa Spoof, Elin Lindehoff, Jussi Meriluoto, Markus Vehniäinen, Anke Kremp
Many marine dinoflagellates, including several species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense are known for their capability to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which can cause severe, most often food-related poisoning. The recent discovery of the first PST biosynthesis genes has laid the foundation for the development of molecular detection methods for monitoring and study of PST-producing dinoflagellates. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the sxtA4 gene present in Alexandrium spp...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073439/the-competitive-dynamics-of-toxic-alexandrium-fundyense-and-non-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-the-role-of-temperature
#18
Lisa K Eckford-Soper, Eileen Bresnan, Jean-Pierre Lacaze, David H Green, Keith Davidson
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. The genus is globally distributed, with Scottish waters being of particular interest due to the co-occurrence of different species and strains. In Scottish waters, Alexandrium was historically thought to be dominated by the highly toxic (Group I) Alexandrium fundyense. However, the morphologically indistinguishable (Group III) Alexandrium tamarense has recently also been found to co-occur, raising important questions in relation to Alexandrium biogeography...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062285/a-review-on-strategies-for-decreasing-e-%C3%A2-coli-o157-h7-risk-in-animals
#19
REVIEW
Pardis Saeedi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Elham Behzadi, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Seyed Latif Mousavi, Shahram Nazarian, Jafar Amani
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that younger children are most prone to this microorganism. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) caused by EHEC, leads to the destruction of red blood cells and kidney failure. The virulence of E.coli O157:H7 is attributed to fimbriae, that facilitate colonization of bacteria within the colon and verotoxins (VT) or Shiga toxins (Stx) that are released into the blood. Although, in most cases, the infection is self-limitedin young children and aged population, it may cause HUS...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048852/su-f-t-645-to-test-spatial-anddosimetric-accuracy-of-small-cranial-target-irradiation-based-on-1-5-t-mriscans-using-static-arcs-with-mlcdefined-fields
#20
I Brezovich, X Wu, R Popple, S Shen, R Cardan, M Bolding, J Fiveash, J Kraus, S Spencer
PURPOSE: To test spatial and dosimetric accuracy of small cranial target irradiation based on 1.5 T MRI scans using static arcs with MLC-defined fields METHODS: A plastic (PMMA) phantom simulating a small brain lesion was mounted on a GammaKnife headframe equipped with MRI localizer. The lesion was a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm diameter cylindrical cavity filled with MRI contrast. Radiochromic film passing through the cavity was marked with pin pricks at the cavity center. The cavity was contoured on an MRI image and fused with CT to simulate treatment of a lesion not visible on CT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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