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Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
Punam Dalai, Hannes Lukas Pleyer, Henry Strasdeit, Stefan Fox
On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior...
October 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Wei-Wei Shi, Yun-Sang Tang, See-Yuen Sze, Zhen-Ning Zhu, Kam-Bo Wong, Pang-Chui Shaw
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
Sara Barbiero, Alexandra Rink, Fabrizio Matteucci, David Fedele, Fabiola Paiar, Francesco Pasqualetti, Michele Avanzo
PURPOSE: To report on single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (RT) (SBRT) with flattening filter (FF)-free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lung cancer and to compare dosimetric results with VMAT with FF. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Overall, 25 patients were treated with 6-MV FFF VMAT (Varian TrueBeam STx LINAC) to a prescribed dose of 24Gy in a single fraction. Treatment plans were recreated using FF VMAT. Dose-volume indices, monitor units (MU), and treatment times were compared between FFF and FF VMAT techniques...
October 14, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Miguel A Gonzalez-Lozano, Patricia Klemmer, Titia Gebuis, Chopie Hassan, Pim van Nierop, Ronald E van Kesteren, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Development of the brain involves the formation and maturation of numerous synapses. This process requires prominent changes of the synaptic proteome and potentially involves thousands of different proteins at every synapse. To date the proteome analysis of synapse development has been studied sparsely. Here, we analyzed the cortical synaptic membrane proteome of juvenile postnatal days 9 (P9), P15, P21, P27, adolescent (P35) and different adult ages P70, P140 and P280 of C57Bl6/J mice. Using a quantitative proteomics workflow we quantified 1560 proteins of which 696 showed statistically significant differences over time...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ingrid Palma-Martínez, Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Manuel J Ruiz-Ruiz, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, José Molina-López, Virgilio Bocanegra-García, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are a group of potent neurotoxins well known for their role in acute paralytic poisoning by preventing the generation of action potentials in neuronal cells. They are found in both marine and freshwater environments globally and although acute exposure from the former has previously received more attention, low dose extended exposure from both sources is possible and to date has not been investigated. Given the known role of cellular electrical activity in neurodevelopment this pattern of exposure may be a significant public health concern...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Rowan R Thomas, Heather J L Brooks, Rory O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens causing diarrhoeal and extraintestinal disease. Due to lack of EPEC screening and use of Sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar in faecal screening, the true prevalence of EPEC and non-O157 STEC in New Zealand diarrhoeal cases is unknown. METHODS: Diarrhoeic stools sourced from Dunedin hospital were pre-enriched, DNA extracted with Chelex-100 resin and screened using a multiplex TaqMan quantitative PCR assay amplifying stx1, sxt2 and EPEC (eae) gene markers...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
James P R Connolly, Andrew J Roe
: We recently discovered that exposure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to D-serine resulted in accumulation of this unusual amino acid, induction of the SOS regulon and downregulation of type III secretion that is essential for efficient colonization of the host. Here, we have investigated the physiological relevance of this elevated SOS response, which is of particular interest given the presence of Stx-toxin carrying lysogenic prophages on the EHEC chromosome that are activated during the SOS response...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Cinzia Germinario, Alfredo Caprioli, Mario Giordano, Maria Chironna, Maria Serena Gallone, Silvio Tafuri, Fabio Minelli, Antonella Maugliani, Valeria Michelacci, Luisa Santangelo, Onofrio Mongelli, Cosimo Montagna, Gaia Scavia
In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Luis Amarillas, Cristóbal Chaidez, Arturo González-Robles, Yadira Lugo-Melchor, Josefina León-Félix
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne pathogens that has been frequently implicated in gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections. Moreover, high rates of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains have been reported worldwide. Due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, bacteriophages are considered an attractive alternative to biocontrol pathogenic bacteria. Characterization is a preliminary step towards designing a phage for biocontrol...
2016: PeerJ
Johanna Quick-Weller, Juergen Konczalla, Stephan Duetzmann, Claudia Franz-Jaeger, Ulrich Strouhal, Nina Brawanski, Matthias Setzer, Stephanie Lescher, Volker Seifert, Gerhard Marquardt, Lutz M Weise
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic biopsies (STX) of brain lesions with unknown entities, is a common neurosurgical procedure to obtain tumor tissue. Pathologist can then provide an exact diagnosis on which further therapy, such as resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be based on. It is widely known that these procedures can be performed under local or general anesthesia. In this prospective study we aim to show whether stress levels are higher for patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy under local or general anesthesia...
September 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Mónica Z Alonso, Alejandra Krüger, Marcelo E Sanz, Nora L Padola, Paula M A Lucchesi
Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the consumption of chicken products has been related to some HUS cases. We performed a non-selective isolation and characterization of STEC strains from retail chicken products. STEC isolates were characterized according to the presence of stx1, stx2, eae, saa and ehxA; stx subtypes and serotypes. Most of them carried stx2, showing subtypes associated with severe human disease. Although reported in other avian species, the stx2f subtype was not detected...
September 22, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Dong Guo, Jia Guo, Xiang Li, Feng Guan
Glycosylation of certain proteins at the mammalian cell surface is an essential event in carcinogenesis. Sialylation, one type of glycosylation, can act on multiple cell-behaviors, such as migration, growth, and malignant invasion. Two polysialyltransferases, ST8Sia II (STX) and ST8Sia IV (PST), are responsible for synthesis of polysialic acid on neural cell adhesion molecule. We showed previously that STX and PST are oppositely expressed in normal murine mammary gland cells undergoing transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
September 19, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Lorena Cristina Corrêa Fehlberg, Adriana Gianinni Nicoletti, Ana Carolina Ramos, Fernanda Rodrigues-Costa, Adriana Pereira de Matos, Raquel Girardello, Elizabeth Andrade Marques, Ana Cristina Gales
Broth microdilution, agar dilution, Etest® and disk diffusion techniques were compared to evaluate the susceptibility profile of 82 Bcc clinical isolates against six antimicrobials as recommended by CLSI. Broth microdilution was considered the "gold standard" method. The regression analysis was applied to determine the essential (EA) and categorical (CA) agreement rates. STX (MIC50, 1 mg/L) was the most potent antimicrobial tested against Bcc isolates. The worst in vitro activity was observed for chloramphenicol (MIC50, 16 mg/L) and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (MIC50, >256 mg/L)...
August 28, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Travis A Woods, Heather M Mendez, Sandy Ortega, Xiaorong Shi, David Marx, Jianfa Bai, Rodney A Moxley, T G Nagaraja, Steven W Graves, Alina Deshpande
Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a serious threat to the health, with approximately half of the STEC related food-borne illnesses attributable to contaminated beef. We developed an assay that was able to screen samples for several important STEC associated serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157) and three major virulence factors (eae, stx 1 , stx 2) in a rapid and multiplexed format using the Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR) assay chemistry. This assay detected unique STEC DNA signatures and is meant to be used on samples from various sources related to beef production, providing a multiplex and high-throughput complement to the multiplex PCR assays currently in use...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Daniel Tapia, Brittany N Ross, Anjana Kalita, Mridul Kalita, Christopher L Hatcher, Laura A Muruato, Alfredo G Torres
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide and is a common serotype linked to hemorrhagic colitis and an important cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of EHEC O157:H7 infections is complicated, as antibiotics can exacerbate Shiga toxin (Stx) production and lead to more severe symptoms including HUS. To date, no vaccines have been approved for human use, exposing a void in both treatment and prevention of EHEC O157:H7 infections. Previously, our lab has shown success in identifying novel vaccine candidates via bio- and immunoinformatics approaches, which are capable of reducing bacterial colonization in an in vivo model of intestinal colonization...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Gerardo A Leotta, Victoria Brusa, Lucía Galli, Cristian Adriani, Luciano Linares, Analía Etcheverría, Marcelo Sanz, Adriana Sucari, Pilar Peral García, Marcelo Signorini
Foodborne pathogens can cause acute and chronic diseases and produce a wide range of symptoms. Since the consumption of ground beef is a risk factor for infections with some bacterial pathogens, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of butcher shops, implemented improvement actions for both butcher shops and consumers, and verified the impact of those actions implemented. A comprehensive evaluation was made and risk was quantified on a 1-100 scale as high-risk (1-40), moderate-risk (41-70) or low-risk (71-100)...
2016: PloS One
N Heim, A Faron, J Fuchs, M Martini, R H Reich, K Löffler
BACKGROUND: Investigations have shown that the internet as a source of information in medical issues is increasing in importance. For most patients information delivered or supported by hospitals and universities is considered to be the most reliable, however, the comprehensibility of available information is often considered to be wanting. Comprehensibility scores are formulae allowing a quantitative value for the readability of a document to be calculated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess data by analyzing the comprehensibility of medical information published on the websites of departments for ophthalmology of German university hospitals...
September 9, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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