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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922801/effect-of-severe-weather-events-on-the-shedding-of-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-slaughter-cattle-and-phenotype-of-serogroup-o157-isolates
#1
Kim Stanford, Tim Reuter, Susan J Bach, Linda Chui, Angela Ma, Cheyenne C Conrad, Renata Tostes, Tim A McAllister
High-event periods (HEPs) occur sporadically when beef carcasses and meat have episodes of acute contamination with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, severe weather events were investigated as catalysts for HEPs based on PCR and isolate prevalence of seven E. coli serogroups in slaughter cattle feces. Winter ambient temperatures with daily means 10.5oC warmer or 12.3°C colder than seasonal norms (-10.4°C) most altered STEC shedding. Fecal samples yielded increased proportions (P < 0...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920571/recurrent-seasonal-outbreak-of-an-emerging-serotype-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-o55-h7-stx2a-in-the-south-west-of-england-july-2014-to-september-2015
#2
Noëleen McFarland, Nick Bundle, Claire Jenkins, Gauri Godbole, Amy Mikhail, Tim Dallman, Catherine O'Connor, Noel McCarthy, Emer O'Connell, Juli Treacy, Girija Dabke, James Mapstone, Yvette Landy, Janet Moore, Rachel Partridge, Frieda Jorgensen, Caroline Willis, Piers Mook, Chas Rawlings, Richard Acornley, Charlotte Featherstone, Sharleen Gayle, Joanne Edge, Eleanor McNamara, Jeremy Hawker, Sooria Balasegaram
The first documented British outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 began in the county of Dorset, England, in July 2014. Since then, there have been a total of 31 cases of which 13 presented with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The outbreak strain had Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype 2a associated with an elevated risk of HUS. This strain had not previously been isolated from humans or animals in England. The only epidemiological link was living in or having close links to two areas in Dorset...
September 7, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919687/presence-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-the-central-region-of-argentina
#3
Fernando A Bessone, Gabriela Bessone, Sebastián Marini, María B Conde, Fabrisio E Alustiza, Gustavo Zielinski
BACKGROUND: The main pathogen of neonatal and post weaning diarrhea and edema disease (ED) is Escherichia coli and pathotypes involved are enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and shiga toxigenic (ETEC, EPEC, and STEC, respectively). Those diseases cause economic loss in pig production. AIM: The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of strains expressing virulence markers genes and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli from clinical cases of post weaning diarrhea and ED in farms in the central area of Argentina...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915414/evaluation-of-surgical-decision-making-and-resulting-outcome-in-patients-with-highly-eloquent-glioblastoma-results-of-a-multicenter-assessment
#4
Jan Coburger, Mirjam Renovanz, Oliver Ganslandt, Florian Ringel, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Javier Segovia von Riehm
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of glioblastoma(GB) patients amenable only for a subtotal resection(STR) is controversial. Since outcome of patients is affected by surgical management, our aim was to assess surgical decision making and resulting outcome in patients with highly eloquent GBs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed GB patients with intended sub-total resection (STR) or stereotactic biopsy (STX) of 3 neurooncological centers operated between 2008 and 2013...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904239/stereotactic-catheter-ventriculocisternostomy-for-clearance-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-matched-cohort-study
#5
Roland Roelz, Volker A Coenen, Christian Scheiwe, Wolf-Dirk Niesen, Karl Egger, Istvan Csok, Rainer Kraeutle, Ramazan Jabbarli, Horst Urbach, Peter C Reinacher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a novel intervention-stereotactic catheter ventriculocisternostomy (STX-VCS) and fibrinolytic/spasmolytic lavage therapy-for DCI prevention. Outcomes of 20 consecutive patients are compared with 60 matched controls. METHODS: On the basis of individual treatment decisions, STX-VCS was performed in 20 high-risk aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients admitted to our department between September 2015 and October 2016...
September 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893912/the-gene-tia-harboured-by-the-se-pai-is-involved-in-the-ability-of-lee-negative-stec-strains-to-invade-monolayers-of-epithelial-cells
#6
Roslen Bondì, Paola Chiani, Valeria Michelacci, Fabio Minelli, Alfredo Caprioli, Stefano Morabito
LEE-negative Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) are human pathogens that lack the LEE locus, a pathogenicity island (PAI) involved in the intimate adhesion of LEE-positive strains to the host gut epithelium. The mechanism used by LEE-negative STEC to colonize the host intestinal mucosa is still not clear. The cell invasion determinant tia, previously described in ETEC strains, has been identified in LEE-negative STEC that possess the Subtilase-encoding pathogenicity island (SE-PAI). We evaluated the role of the gene tia present in these LEE-negative STEC in the invasion of monolayers of cultured cells...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890957/clustering-of-p-k-trisaccharides-on-amphiphilic-cyclodextrin-reveals-unprecedented-affinity-for-the-shiga-like-toxin-stx2
#7
Ping Zhang, Eugenia Paszkiewicz, Qifang Wang, Joanna M Sadowska, Pavel I Kitov, David R Bundle, Chang-Chun Ling
Using amphiphilic cyclodextrin as a scaffold, the first class of P(K)-glycoconjugates capable of high avidity binding to both Stx1 and Stx2 toxins in solid-phase assay formats is reported. The generated glycomicroarray effectively mimics the plasma membrane surface while discriminating binding of the two Stx toxins, with unprecedented affinity to Stx2.
September 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890713/bad-phages-in-good-bacteria-role-of-the-mysterious-orf63-of-%C3%AE-and-shiga-toxin-converting-%C3%AE-24b-bacteriophages
#8
Aleksandra Dydecka, Sylwia Bloch, Ali Rizvi, Shaili Perez, Bozena Nejman-Falenczyk, Gracja Topka, Tomasz Gasior, Agnieszka Necel, Grzegorz Wegrzyn, Logan W Donaldson, Alicja Wegrzyn
Lambdoid bacteriophages form a group of viruses that shares a common schema of genome organization and lifecycle. Some of them can play crucial roles in creating the pathogenic profiles of Escherichia coli strains. For example, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) acquired stx genes, encoding Shiga toxins, via lambdoid prophages (Stx phages). The results obtained so far present the evidence for the relation between the exo-xis region of the phage genome and lambdoid phage development, however molecular mechanisms of activities of the exo-xis genes' products are still unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867678/effects-of-zinc-supplementation-on-shiga-toxin-2e-producing-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#9
Ryoko Uemura, Tomoko Katsuge, Yosuke Sasaki, Shinya Goto, Masuo Sueyoshi
Swine edema disease is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Addition of highly concentrated zinc formulations to feed has been used to treat and prevent the disease, but the mechanism of the beneficial effect is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly concentrated zinc formulations on bacterial growth, hemolysin production, and an Stx2e release by STEC in vitro. STEC strain MVH269 isolated from a piglet with edema disease was cultured with zinc oxide (ZnO) or with zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), each at up to 3,000 ppm...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851479/detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters-using-the-qualitative-neogen-lateral-flow-immunoassay-an-interlaboratory-study
#10
Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Jessica Y C Tan, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, Sarah C Ugalde, D Tim Harwood, Jill K Bartlett, Mònica Campàs, Steven Crooks, Arjen Gerssen, Keith Harrison, Anne-Catherine Huet, Timothy B Jordan, Martina Koeberl, Tim Monaghan, Sam Murray, Rama Nimmagadda, Corinne Ooms, Rae K Quinlan, Feng Shi, Andrew D Turner, Betsy Jean Yakes, Alison R Turnbull
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve molluscs represent a public health risk and are controlled via compliance with a regulatory limit of 0.8 mg saxitoxin (STX)⋅2HCl equivalents per kilogram of shellfish meat (eq/kg). Shellfish industries would benefit from the use of rapid immunological screening tests for PSTs to be used for regulation, but to date none have been fully validated. An interlaboratory study involving 16 laboratories was performed to determine the suitability of the Neogen test to detect PSTs in mussels and oysters...
August 30, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837843/positive-influence-of-partial-resection-on-overall-survival-of-patients-with-overlapping-glioblastomas
#11
Johanna Quick-Weller, Stephanie Tritt, Peter Baumgarten, Jürgen Konczalla, Sepide Kashefiolasl, Anika Noack, Julia Tichy, Volker Seifert, Gerhard Marquardt
OBJECTIVES: Patients with overlapping glioblastomas (former known as gliomatosis cerebri according to the 2007 WHO classification) have a poor prognosis. Most of the patients undergo biopsy to confirm histopathological diagnosis. Treatment comprises chemotherapy, radiation and combination of both. We determined whether resection of the contrast enhancing tumor parts leads to a prolonged survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis and included 31 patients with overlapping glioblastomas (OG) who showed WHO IV in the initial histopathological examination...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831220/serotyping-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-virulence-genes-screening-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-obtained-from-diarrheic-buffalo-calves-in-egyptian-farms
#12
Ashraf S Hakim, Shimaa T Omara, Sohier M Syame, Ehab A Fouad
AIM: In Egypt as in many other countries, river water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is considered an important source of high-quality milk and meat supply. The objective of this study was to investigate serotypes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance determinants profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from buffalo at some places in Egypt; noticibly, this issue was not discussed in the country yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A number of 58 rectal samples were collected from diarrheic buffalo calves in different regions in Egypt, and bacteriological investigated for E...
July 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820049/receptor-binding-assay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-comparison-to-the-mouse-bioassay-and-applicability-under-regulatory-use
#13
Shiyamalie R Ruberu, Gregg W Langlois, Melisa Masuda, Clive Kittredge, S Kusum Perera, Raphael M Kudela
The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentrations from 320 µg STX equiv...
August 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798380/contribution-of-cropland-to-the-spread-of-shiga-toxin-phages-and-the-emergence-of-new-shiga-toxin-producing-strains
#14
Pablo Quirós, Maite Muniesa
A growing interest in healthy eating has lead to an increase in the consumption of vegetables, associated with a rising number of bacterial outbreaks related to fresh produce. This is the case of the outbreak in Germany, caused by a O104:H4 enteroaggregative E. coli strain lysogenic for a Stx phage. Temperate Stx phages released from their hosts occur as free particles in various environments. This study reports the occurrence of Stx phages in vegetables (lettuce, cucumber, and spinach) and cropland soil samples...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797318/single-laboratory-validation-of-the-neogen-qualitative-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters
#15
Alison R Turnbull, Jessica Y C Tan, Sarah C Ugalde, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, D Tim Harwood, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda
Detection of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve shellfish by analytical methods is complicated and costly, requiring specific expertise and equipment. Following extensive blooms of Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 in Tasmania, Australia, an investigation was made into commercially available screening test kits suitable for use with the toxin profiles found in affected bivalves. The qualitative Neogen rapid test kit, with a modified protocol to convert gonyautoxins GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 into neosaxitoxin and saxitoxin (STX), respectively, with higher cross-reactivities, was the best fit-for-purpose...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781945/profiling-of-virulence-associated-factors-in-shigella-species-isolated-from-acute-pediatric-diarrheal-samples-in-tehran-iran
#16
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVES: The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Shigella spp...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775298/sexual-and-vertical-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-anti-interferon-receptor-treated-rag1-deficient-mice
#17
Clayton W Winkler, Tyson A Woods, Rebecca Rosenke, Dana P Scott, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, human-to-human transmission has also been observed from males-to-females as well as mother-to-offspring. In the current study, we studied both sexual transmission (STx) and vertical transmission (VTx) of ZIKV using anti-IFNAR1-treatment of Rag1 (-/-) (AIR) mice. These mice have suppressed type I IFN responses and lack adaptive immune responses, leading to a prolonged infection prior to clinical disease. STx of ZIKV from infected AIR males to naive Ifnar1 (-/-) females was observed with greater than 50% incidence, with infection observed in the vaginal tract at early time points...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759321/first-report-on-a-randomized-investigation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-fecal-indicator-bacteria-from-livestock-poultry-and-humans-in-tanzania
#18
Abdul A S Katakweba, Amandus P Muhairwa, Athumani M Lupindu, Peter Damborg, Jesper T Rosenkrantz, Uswege M Minga, Madundo M A Mtambo, John E Olsen
This study provides an estimate of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal indicator bacteria from humans (n = 97) and food animals (n = 388) in Tanzania. More than 70% of all fecal samples contained tetracycline (TE), sulfamethoxazole (STX), and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant coliforms, while cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms were observed in 40% of all samples. The average Log10 colony forming units/g of CTX-resistant coliforms in samples from humans were 2.20. Of 390 Escherichia coli tested, 66.4% were resistant to TE, 54...
July 31, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757042/occurrence-and-characterization-of-stx-and-or-eae-positive-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-wildlife-including-a-typical-epec-strain-from-a-wild-boar
#19
Carla Andrea Alonso, Azucena Mora, Dafne Díaz, Miguel Blanco, David González-Barrio, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Carmen Simón, Jorge Blanco, Carmen Torres
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains are food-borne pathogens associated with acute diarrhea. Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is often a complication of STEC infection. In order to examine the occurrence, serotypes, virulence and antimicrobial-resistance profiles of STEC and EPEC in wildlife, 326 faecal E. coli strains from 304 clinically healthy animals were analyzed. For this approach stx1, stx2 and eae genes, as well as accessory virulence determinants (ehx, hlyA, saa, tia, bfp, subAB) were PCR-screened and sequenced...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738471/-association-between-phage-mediated-shiga-toxin-and-molecular-distribution-of-crispr-in-escherichia-coli-o26-%C3%A2-h11-or-nm
#20
J Z Long, Y K Xu, G C Duan, W J Liang, H Y Liu, S Y Chen, Y L Xi, P F Wang, Y F Wang
Objective: To investigate the association between phage-mediated shiga toxin and molecular distribution of CRISPR in Escherichia (E.) coli O26∶H11 or NM. Methods: A total of 135 E. coli O26 ∶ H11 or NM strains were collected from NCBI database. Software CRT and CRISPR Finder were used to extract CRISPR and Excel was used to assign the spacer of unique number and type CRISPR. And the relationship between CRISPR and stx phage was analyzed. Results: All the 135 E. coli O26 ∶ H11 or NM strains had the CRISPR...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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