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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765909/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-in-j%C3%A3-nk%C3%A3-ping-county-sweden-occurrence-and-molecular-characteristics-in-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-stx-shedding
#1
Xiangning Bai, Sara Mernelius, Cecilia Jernberg, Ing-Marie Einemo, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Sture Löfgren, Andreas Matussek
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause bloody diarrhea (BD), hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and even hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). In Nordic countries, STEC are widely spread and usually associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and HUS. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of STEC in Swedish patients over 10 years of age from 2003 through 2015, and to analyze the correlation of critical STEC virulence factors with clinical symptoms and duration of stx shedding. Diarrheal stool samples were screened for presence of stx by real-time PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746832/bacteriophage-transcription-factor-cro-regulates-virulence-gene-expression-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#2
Juan D Hernandez-Doria, Vanessa Sperandio
Bacteriophage-encoded genetic elements control bacterial biological functions. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains harbor lambda-phages encoding the Shiga-toxin (Stx), which is expressed during the phage lytic cycle and associated with exacerbated disease. Phages also reside dormant within bacterial chromosomes through their lysogenic cycle, but how this impacts EHEC virulence remains unknown. We find that during lysogeny the phage transcription factor Cro activates the EHEC type III secretion system (T3SS)...
May 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735058/exposure-assessment-to-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-through-the-shellfish-consumption-in-korea
#3
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724271/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-pcr-for-detection-of-the-top-seven-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serogroups-in-ready-to-eat-meats-fruits-and-vegetables
#4
Anli Gao, Jennifer Fishcher-Jenssen, Colin Cooper, Honghong Li, Jiping Li, Shu Chen, Perry Martos
Background : Ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, fruits, and vegetables contaminated by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) raise serious concerns because they are often consumed directly without further processing. Objective: To evaluate a multiplex PCR for the detection of STEC across food categories. Methods: Samples (25 g) from seven RTE meat and nine fruit and vegetable matrices were inoculated with each of seven STEC (O157:H7, O26, O121, O145, O45, O103, O111) strains targeting 10 CFU/25 g, enriched in 225 mL of modified tryptone soya broth (mTSB), and tested by a multiplex real-time PCR for stx and eae genes, following U...
May 3, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712985/identification-and-pathogenomic-analysis-of-an-escherichia-coli-strain-producing-a-novel-shiga-toxin-2-subtype
#5
Xiangning Bai, Shanshan Fu, Ji Zhang, Ruyue Fan, Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Xiaohua He, Jianguo Xu, Yanwen Xiong
Shiga toxin (Stx) is the key virulent factor in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To date, three Stx1 subtypes and seven Stx2 subtypes have been described in E. coli, which differed in receptor preference and toxin potency. Here, we identified a novel Stx2 subtype designated Stx2h in E. coli strains isolated from wild marmots in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Stx2h shares 91.9% nucleic acid sequence identity and 92.9% amino acid identity to the nearest Stx2 subtype. The expression of Stx2h in type strain STEC299 was inducible by mitomycin C, and culture supernatant from STEC299 was cytotoxic to Vero cells...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710828/molecular-mechanisms-governing-hair-trigger-induction-of-shiga-toxin-encoding-prophages
#6
Dolonchapa Chakraborty, Eric Clark, Steven A Mauro, Gerald B Koudelka
Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding E. coli (STEC) strains are responsible for sporadic outbreaks of food poisoning dating to 1982, when the first STEC strain, E. coli O157:H7, was isolated. Regardless of STEC serotype, the primary symptoms of STEC infections are caused by Stx that is synthesized from genes resident on lambdoid prophage present in STEC. Despite similar etiology, the severity of STEC-mediated disease varies by outbreak. However, it is unclear what modulates the severity of STEC-mediated disease. Stx production and release is controlled by lytic growth of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage, which in turn, is controlled by the phage repressor...
April 29, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705145/paralytic-shellfish-toxin-producing-aphanizomenon-gracile-strains-isolated-from-lake-iznik-turkey
#7
Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J Foss, Andrew I Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy
Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) in Europe, North America and Asia. Three cyanobacteria strains were isolated in Lake Iznik in northwestern Turkey. Morphological characterization of these strains suggested all three strains conformed to classical taxonomic identification of A...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702577/genotypic-features-of-clinical-and-bovine-escherichia-coli-o157-strains-isolated-in-countries-with-different-associated-disease-incidences
#8
REVIEW
Luis Pianciola, Marta Rivas
There is great geographical variation in the frequency of Escherichia coli O157 infections that correlates with important differences in the bovine reservoir of each country. Our group carried out a broad molecular characterization of human and bovine E. coli O157 strains circulating in Argentina using different methodologies. Our data allows us to conclude that in Argentina, a high homogeneity is observed in both cattle and human strains, with almost exclusive circulation of strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 described by Manning...
April 27, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698757/overview-of-the-role-of-shiga-toxins-in-porcine-edema-disease-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Natalia A Casanova, Leandro M Redondo, Gabriela C Dailoff, David Arenas, Mariano E Fernández Miyakawa
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been implicated as the cause of enterotoxemias, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and edema disease (ED) of pigs. Stx1 and Stx2 are the most common types found in association with illness, but only Stx2e is associated with disease in the animal host. Porcine edema disease is a serious affection which can lead to dead causing great losses of weaned piglets. Stx2e is the most frequent Stx variant found in porcine feces and is considered the key virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of porcine edema disease...
April 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675935/cheating-facilitation-and-cooperation-regulate-the-effectiveness-of-phage-encoded-exotoxins-as-antipredator-molecules
#10
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
Temperate phage encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) kills the bacterivorous predator, Tetrahymena thermophila, providing Stx+ Escherichia coli with a survival advantage over Stx- cells. Although bacterial death accompanies Stx release, since bacteria grow clonally the fitness benefits of predator killing accrue to the kin of the sacrificed organism, meaning Stx-mediated protist killing is a form of self-destructive cooperation. We show here that the fitness benefits of Stx production are not restricted to the kin of the phage-encoding bacteria...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674560/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-natural-escherichia-coli-o145-h11-isolate-that-belongs-to-phylogroup-a
#11
Michelle Qiu Carter, Antares Pham
Escherichia coli O145:H11 strain RM14721 was originally isolated from wildlife feces near a leafy greens-growing region in Yuma, AZ. This strain was initially positive for stx 1 ; however, in subsequent cultures, stx 1 was not detected by PCR. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of RM14721.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666612/genetic-and-virulent-difference-between-pigmented-and-non-pigmented-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Jing Zhang, Yujuan Suo, Daofeng Zhang, Fangning Jin, Hang Zhao, Chunlei Shi
Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659360/-development-of-a-product-anti-shiga-toxin-for-prevention-of-the-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#13
Yanina Hiriart, Romina Pardo, Lucas Bukata, Constanza Lauché, Luciana Muñoz, Mariana Colonna, Fernando Goldbaum, Santiago Sanguineti, Vanesa Zylberman
The typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an orphan disease caused by Shiga toxin(Stx) producing Escherichia coli strains and characterized by acute kidney damage, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and low platelet count. It is endemic in Argentina, the country with the highest incidence of HUS in the world. Stx is essential for its development and therefore, HUS is considered a toxemic non-bacteremic disorder, which could be treated with antibodies. Herein we describe the development of a new treatment capable of neutralizing the toxic effect of Stx and its variants...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657388/occurrence-and-quantification-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-from-food-matrices
#14
C Sethulekshmi, C Latha, C J Anu
Aim: The objective of the study was to detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to quantify the bacterial DNA present in different food matrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 758 samples were collected during a period from January 2015 to December 2016 from Kozhikode, Thrissur, and Alappuzha districts of Kerala. The samples consisted of raw milk (135), pasteurized milk (100), beef (132), buffalo meat (130), chevon (104), beef kheema (115), and beef sausage (42)...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656275/evaluation-of-decontamination-efficacy-of-commonly-used-antimicrobial-interventions-for-beef-carcasses-against-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#15
Marcelo Signorini, Magdalena Costa, David Teitelbaum, Viviana Restovich, Hebe Brasesco, Diego García, Valeria Superno, Sandra Petroli, Mariana Bruzzone, Victor Arduini, Mónica Vanzini, Adriana Sucari, Germán Suberbie, Turina Maricel, Ricardo Rodríguez, Gerardo A Leotta
In Argentina, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O157, O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 are adulterant in ground beef. In other countries, the zero-tolerance approach to all STEC is implemented for chilled beef. Argentinean abattoirs are interested in implementing effective interventions against STEC on carcasses. Pre-rigor beef carcasses were used to determine whether nine antimicrobial strategies effectively reduced aerobic plate, coliform and E. coli counts and stx and eae gene prevalence...
August 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620505/influence-of-rnase-e-deficiency-on-the-production-of-stx2-bearing-phages-and-shiga-toxin-in-an-rnase-e-inducible-strain-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-ehec-o157-h7
#16
Thujitha Thuraisamy, Patricia B Lodato
PURPOSE: In enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), stx1 or stx2 genes encode Shiga toxin (Stx1 or Stx2, respectively) and are carried by prophages. The production and release of both stx phages and toxin occur upon initiation of the phage lytic cycle. Phages can further disseminate stx genes by infecting naïve bacteria in the intestine. Here, the effect of RNase E deficiency on these two virulence traits was investigated. METHODOLOGY: Cultures of the EHEC strains TEA028-rne containing low versus normal RNase E levels or the parental strain (TEA028) were treated with mitomycin C (MMC) to induce the phage lytic cycle...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608995/coat-protein-complex-i-facilitates-dengue-virus-production
#17
Nopprarat Tongmuang, Umpa Yasamut, Pucharee Songprakhon, Thanyaporn Dechtawewat, Shilu Malakar, Sansanee Noisakran, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus, Thawornchai Limjindaporn
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a life-threatening disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV). After DENV enters into host cells, it replicates to generate viral particles to infect other cells. DENV exploits components of the cellular trafficking pathway to achieve effective virion production. Understanding of the proteins required for this trafficking process is essential for revealing the pathogenesis of DENV infection. Coat protein complex and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), two host protein families in the cellular trafficking pathway, were investigated to elucidate their respective roles during DENV infection...
March 30, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597338/dose-response-modelling-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-psp-in-humans
#18
Nathalie Arnich, Anne Thébault
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted to identify reported cases of human poisoning associated with the ingestion of shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Raw data were collected from 143 exposed individuals (113 with symptoms, 30 without symptoms) from 13 studies...
March 28, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594230/local-control-and-overall-survival-after-frameless-radiosurgery-a-single-center-experience
#19
Angelika Bilger, Florian Frenzel, Oliver Oehlke, Rolf Wiehle, Dusan Milanovic, Vesna Prokic, Carsten Nieder, Anca-Ligia Grosu
Introduction: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been increasingly advocated for 1-3 small brain metastases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical results in patients with brain metastases treated with LINAC-based SRS using a thermoplastic mask (non-invasive fixation system) and Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT). Material and Methods: In this single-institution study 48 patients with 77 brain metastases were treated between February 2012 and January 2014...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593692/optimized-co-extraction-and-quantification-of-dna-from-enteric-pathogens-in-surface-water-samples-near-produce-fields-in-california
#20
Michael B Cooley, Diana Carychao, Lisa Gorski
Pathogen contamination of surface water is a health hazard in agricultural environments primarily due to the potential for contamination of crops. Furthermore, pathogen levels in surface water are often unreported or under reported due to difficulty with culture of the bacteria. The pathogens are often present, but require resuscitation, making quantification difficult. Frequently, this leads to the use of quantitative PCR targeted to genes unique to the pathogens. However, multiple pathogen types are commonly in the same water sample, both gram + and gram -, leading to problems with DNA extraction...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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