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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330283/multiplex-pcr-for-simultaneous-identification-of-e-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-spp-and-l-monocytogenes-in-food
#1
Thuy Trang Nguyen, Vo Van Giau, Tuong Kha Vo
The rapid detection of pathogens in food is becoming increasingly critical for ensuring the safety of consumers, since the majority of food-borne illnesses and deaths are caused by pathogenic bacteria. Hence, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and convenient approaches to detect food-borne pathogenic bacteria is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was established...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320988/characterization-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-from-feces-of-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-in-japan-using-pcr-binary-typing-analysis-to-evaluate-their-potential-human-pathogenicity
#2
Hidenori Kabeya, Shingo Sato, Shinya Oda, Megumi Kawamura, Mariko Nagasaka, Masanari Kuranaga, Eiji Yokoyama, Shinichiro Hirai, Atsushi Iguchi, Tomoe Ishihara, Toshiro Kuroki, Tomoko Morita-Ishihara, Sunao Iyoda, Jun Terajima, Makoto Ohnishi, Soichi Maruyama
This study examined the potential pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in feces of sika deer by PCR binary typing (P-BIT), using 24 selected STEC genes. A total of 31 STEC strains derived from sika deer in 6 prefectures of Japan were O-serotyped and found to be O93 (n=12), O146 (n=5), O176 (n=3), O130 (n=3), O5 (n=2), O7 (n=1), O96 (n=1), O116 (n=1), O141 (n=1), O157 (n=1) and O-untypable (n=1). Of the 31 STEC strains, 13 carried both stx1 and stx2, 5 carried only stx1, and 13 carried one or two variants of stx2...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316592/influence-of-stress-factors-related-to-cheese-making-process-and-to-stec-detection-procedure-on-the-induction-of-stx-phages-from-stec-o26-h11
#3
Ludivine Bonanno, Benjamin Delubac, Valérie Michel, Frédéric Auvray
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303131/multiplexed-single-intact-cell-droplet-digital-pcr-music-ddpcr-method-for-specific-detection-of-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-ehec-in-food-enrichment-cultures
#4
Tanis C McMahon, Burton W Blais, Alex Wong, Catherine D Carrillo
Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297290/gafchromic-ebt-xd-film-dosimetry-characterization-in-high-dose-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy
#5
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Fumika Hosono, Naoki Sumida, Toshiya Okazue, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
Radiochromic films are important tools for assessing complex dose distributions. Gafchromic EBT-XD films have been designed for optimal performance in the 40-4,000 cGy dose range. We investigated the dosimetric characteristics of these films, including their dose-response, postexposure density growth, and dependence on scanner orientation, beam energy, and dose rate with applications to high-dose volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification. A 10 MV beam from a TrueBeam STx linear accelerator was used to irradiate the films with doses in the 0-4,000 cGy range...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291939/pixel-response-based-epid-dosimetry-for-patient-specific-qa
#6
Bin Han, Aiping Ding, Minghui Lu, Lei Xing
Increasing use of high dose rate, flattening filter free (FFF), and/or small-sized field beams presents a significant challenge to the medical physics community. In this work, we develop a strategy of using a high spatial resolution and high frame rate amorphous silicon flat panel electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for dosimetric measurements of these challenging cases, as well as for conventional external beam therapy. To convert a series of raw EPID-measured radiation field images into water-based dose distribution, a pixel-to-pixel dose-response function of the EPID specific to the linac is essential...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287277/inhibitory-potential-of-strepthonium-a-against-shiga-toxin-production-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-ehec-strain-edl933
#7
Cheng Cheng, Srikkanth Balasubramanian, Agnes Fekete, Markus Krischke, Martin J Mueller, Ute Hentschel, Tobias A Oelschlaeger, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
The production of shiga toxin (Stx) is a critical step in the establishment and progress of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. The possible release of Stx from dead and dying bacteria, and the risk of resistance development have restricted the usage of antibiotics against EHEC. The chlorinated quaternary ammonium compound, strepthonium A, was isolated from the culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT345 that was cultivated from the Mediterranean sponge Agelas oroides. The structure was elucidated and confirmed by spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-HRMS, as well as ESI-HRMS(2)...
March 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274429/pectic-oligosaccharide-structure-function-relationships-prebiotics-inhibitors-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-adhesion-and-reduction-of-shiga-toxin-cytotoxicity-in-ht29-cells
#8
Rong Di, Malathi S Vakkalanka, Chatchaya Onumpai, Hoa K Chau, Andre White, Robert A Rastall, Kit Yam, Arland T Hotchkiss
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing, food-contaminating Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major health concern. Plant-derived pectin and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) have been considered as prebiotics and for the protection of humans from Stx. Of five structurally different citrus pectic samples, POS1, POS2 and modified citrus pectin 1 (MCP1) were bifidogenic with similar fermentabilities in human faecal cultures and arabinose-rich POS2 had the greatest prebiotic potential. Pectic oligosaccharides also enhanced lactobacilli growth during mixed batch faecal fermentation...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250989/apolipoprotein-c-i-levels-are-associated-with-the-urinary-protein-urinary-creatinine-ratio-in-pediatric-idiopathic-steroid-sensitive-nephrotic-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#9
Jun Odaka, Takahiro Kanai, Takane Ito, Takashi Saito, Jun Aoyagi, Hiroyuki Betsui, Takanori Yamagata
Humoral factors may cause idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (ISSNS). In the present study, we analyzed serum proteins using mass spectrometry (MS) to identify proteins associated with the pathophysiology of pediatric ISSNS. We collected serial serum samples from 33 children during each ISSNS phase; Phase A1 is the acute phase prior to steroid treatment (STx), Phase A2 represents the remission period with STx, and Phase A3 represents the remission period after completion of STx. Children with normal urinalyses (Group B) and children with a nephrotic syndrome other than ISSNS (Group C) served as controls...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238857/asiaticoside-attenuation-of-rotenone-induced-oxidative-burden-in-a-rat-model-of-hemiparkinsonism-by-maintaining-the-phosphoinositide-mediated-synaptic-integrity
#10
Margabandhu Gopi, Vanisree Arambakkam Janardhanam
Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Indian medicinal herb Centella asiatica is known to exert a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and pathological changes in animal models. However, its potential neuroprotection in rotenone-induced hemiparkinsonism which implicates phospholipid-mediated neurotransmission remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of AS in rat model of ROT-infused hemiparkinsonism with respect to phosphoinositides-assisted cytodynamics and synaptic function...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230102/identification-of-a-new-virulent-clade-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o26-h11-h-sequence-type-29
#11
Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Tomomi Kuwahara, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Saori Yoneda, Atsushi Iguchi, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunao Iyoda
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP-/espP+/etpD-...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224710/extended-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin-inhibits-neurite-outgrowth-in-model-neuronal-cells
#12
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) belongs to a group of structurally related analogues produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. The toxins act by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels stopping the inflow of sodium ions and the generation of action potentials. Exposure from marine sources occurs as a result of consuming shellfish which have concentrated the toxins, and freshwater exposure can occur from drinking water although there have been no acute poisonings from the latter source to date...
April 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221921/national-survey-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotypes-o26-o45-o103-o111-o121-o145-and-o157-in-australian-beef-cattle-feces
#13
Glen E Mellor, Narelle Fegan, Lesley L Duffy, Kate E McMILLAN, David Jordan, Robert S Barlow
Escherichia coli O157 and six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, colloquially referred to as the "big 6") have been classified as adulterants of raw nonintact beef products in the United States. While beef cattle are a known reservoir for the prototype STEC serotype, E. coli O157, less is known about the dissemination of non-O157 STEC serotypes in Australian cattle. In the present study, 1,500 fecal samples were collected at slaughter from adult (n =628) and young (n =286) beef cattle, adult (n =128) and young (n =143) dairy cattle, and veal calves (n = 315) across 31 Australian export-registered processing establishments...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221838/use-of-the-escherichia-coli-identification-microarray-for-characterizing-the-health-risks-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-foods
#14
David W Lacher, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Isha Patel, Christopher A Elkins, Peter C H Feng
More than 470 serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been identified, but not all cause severe illness in humans. Most STEC that cause severe diseases can adhere to epithelial cells, produce specific stx subtypes, and belong to certain serotypes; therefore, these traits appear to be critical STEC risk factors. However, testing for these traits is labor intensive, and serotyping is inadequate because of extensive variations among E. coli O and H antigen types. In the present study, the E...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209476/the-role-of-a-psp-producing-alexandrium-bloom-in-an-unprecedented-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin-mortality-event-in-flanders-bay-new-york-usa
#15
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Robert J Ossiboff, Craig A Burnell, Carlton D Rauschenberg, Kevin Hynes, Russell L Burke, Elizabeth M Bunting, Kim Durham, Christopher J Gobler
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are a threatened or endangered species in much of their range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Over an approximately three-week period from late April to mid-May 2015, hundreds of adult diamondback terrapins were found dead on the shores of Flanders Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Concurrent with the mortality event, elevated densities of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense (>10(4) cells L(-1)) and high levels of PST in bivalves (maximal levels = 540 μg STX eq...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207302/characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-in-slaughtered-reindeer-from-northern-finland
#16
Claudio Zweifel, Lisa Fierz, Nicole Cernela, Sauli Laaksonen, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Roger Stephan
Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H(-) isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliCH7) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H(-) isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178427/pathogenesis-of-colitis-in-germ-free-mice-infected-with-ehec-o157-h7
#17
K A Eaton, C Fontaine, D I Friedman, N Conti, C J Alteri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161846/genotypic-analysis-of-virulence-genes-and-antimicrobial-profile-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-lambs-in-iran
#18
Reza Ghanbarpour, Nasrin Askari, Masoud Ghorbanpour, Yahya Tahamtan, Khoobyar Mashayekhi, Narjes Afsharipour, Nasim Darijani
The aim of the present study was to determine the analysis of virulence genes and antimicrobial profile of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased lambs. Two hundred ninety E. coli isolates were recovered from 300 rectal swabs of diarrheic lambs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. The pathotype determination was done according to the presence of genes including f5, f41, LTI, STI, bfp, ipaH, stx 1 , stx 2 , eae, ehlyA, cnf 1 , cnf 2 , cdIII, cdIV, and f17 by PCR method. Sixty-six isolates (23...
March 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150898/biofilm-formation-invasiveness-and-colicinogeny-in-locus-of-enterocyte-and-effacement-negative-o113-h21-shigatoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#19
L F Dos Santos, F T Biscola, E M Gonçalves, B E C Guth
AIMS: Although Shiga toxins (Stx) are well-established virulence traits of O113:H21 Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, a shortage in the knowledge of other virulence properties that may contribute to pathogenesis may exist in this serotype. This study investigated biofilm, invasiveness and colicinogeny capabilities in O113:H21 STEC isolated in Brazil, mostly from animal reservoirs. A search for genes that were reported to participate in the process of biofilm formation was also performed...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143511/a-novel-salmonella-strain-inactivated-by-a-regulated-autolysis-system-and-expressing-the-b-subunit-of-shiga-toxin-2e-efficiently-elicits-immune-responses-and-confers-protection-against-virulent-stx2e-producing-escherichia-coli
#20
Gayeon Won, Tae Hoon Kim, John Hwa Lee
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inactivated by a regulated autolysis system was genetically engineered to express the homo-pentameric B subunit of Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2eB) on its surface. To prepare a strain able to yield autolyzed Salmonella bearing Stx2eB, the plasmid pJHL184 harboring stx 2eB gene was transformed into the attenuated S. Typhimurium strain, JOL1454. Stx2eB subcloned into the antigen delivery cassette of the plasmid was expressed as fusion protein with the outer membrane protein RESULTS: The expression of Stx2eB fused to the signal peptide in JOL1454 was validated by immunoblot analysis...
February 1, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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