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Juan F Aranda, Stefan Rathjen, Ludger Johannes, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Retrograde transport (RT) allows cells the retrieval of receptors and other cellular cargoes to the Golgi contributing to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. This transport route is also commonly used by several bacterial toxins to exert their deleterious actions on eukaryotic cells. While the retrograde transport process has been well characterized, the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating this cellular transport mechanism remains unknown. Here, we identified that the intronic miRNA family, miR-199a/b , coordinate genes regulating RT and endosome trafficking...
March 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Kathryn M Wright, Nicola J Holden
Microgreens are edible plants used in food preparation for their appealing flavours and colours. They are grown beyond the point of harvest of sprouted seeds, and normally include the cotyledons and first true leaves. Their method of production is similar to sprouted seeds, which is known to be favourable for growth of microbial pathogens, although there is little data on the potential of food-borne pathogens such as Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) to colonise these plants. We found colonisation of nine different species of microgreen plants by STEC (isolate Sakai, stx-), with high levels of growth over five days, of approximately 5 orders of magnitude, for plants propagated at 21 °C...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Marni E Cueno, Kenichi Imai
Staphylococcus aureus is associated with several clinically significant infections among humans and infections associated with antibiotic-resistant strains are growing in frequency. Antivirulence strategies shift the target of drugs from bacterial growth to the infection process resulting to milder evolutionary pressure for the development of bacterial resistant strains. Staphyloxanthin (STX) is a yellowish-orange carotenoid pigment synthesized by S. aureus and this carotenoid functions as an important virulence factor for the bacteria...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Maziar Jajarmi, Mahdi Askari Badouei, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Reza Ghanbarpour, Ali Ahmadi
BACKGROUND: All over the world, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered as important zoonotic pathogens. Eight serogroups have the greatest role in the outbreaks and diseases caused by STEC which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145 and O157. Ruminants, especially cattle are the main reservoirs but the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of human infections has not been thoroughly assessed in many countries. The objective of this research was to investigate the pathogenic potential of the STEC strains isolated from slaughtered goats...
March 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Pragathi B Shridhar, Isha R Patel, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Lance W Noll, Xiaorong Shi, Jianfa Bai, Christopher A Elkins, Nancy A Strockbine, T G Nagaraja
Escherichia coli O104:H4, a Shiga toxin-producing hybrid pathotype that was implicated in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle. However, serotypes of O104, other than O104:H4, have been isolated from cattle feces, with O104:H7 being the most predominant. In this study, we investigated, based on whole genome sequence analyses, the virulence potential of E. coli O104 strains isolated from cattle feces, since cattle are asymptomatic carriers of E. coli O104. The genomes of ten bovine E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sylwia Bloch, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Karolina Pierzynowska, Ewa Piotrowska, Alicja Węgrzyn, Christelle Marminon, Zouhair Bouaziz, Pascal Nebois, Joachim Jose, Marc Le Borgne, Luciano Saso, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
Oxidative stress may be the major cause of induction of Shiga toxin-converting (Stx) prophages from chromosomes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in human intestine. Thus, we aimed to test a series of novel antioxidant compounds for their activities against prophage induction, thus, preventing pathogenicity of STEC. Forty-six compounds (derivatives of carbazole, indazole, triazole, quinolone, ninhydrine, and indenoindole) were tested. Fifteen of them gave promising results and were further characterized...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Seav-Ly Tran, Claire Jenkins, Valérie Livrelli, Stephanie Schüller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are characterized by the release of potent Shiga toxins (Stx), which are associated with severe intestinal and renal disease. Although all STEC strains produce Stx, only a few serotypes cause infection in humans. To determine which virulence traits in vitro are linked to human disease in vivo, 13 Stx2a-producing STEC strains of seropathotype (SPT) A or B (associated with severe human intestinal disease and outbreaks) and 6 strains of SPT D or E (rarely or not linked to human disease) were evaluated in a microaerobic human colonic epithelial infection model...
March 13, 2018: Microbiology
Nadine Schmidt, Stefanie A Barth, Jana Frahm, Ulrich Meyer, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge
The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. We examined whether immunization with genetically inactivated recombinant Shiga toxoids (rStx1MUT /rStx2MUT ) influences STEC shedding in a calf cohort. A group of 24 calves was passively (colostrum from immunized cows) and actively (intra-muscularly at 5th and 8th week) vaccinated. Twenty-four calves served as unvaccinated controls (fed with low anti-Stx colostrum, placebo injected)...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Christian Patry, Christian Betzen, Farnoosh Fathalizadeh, Alexander Fichtner, Jens H Westhoff, Thomas Fleming, Volker Eckstein, Tom Bruckner, Martina Bielaszewska, Helge Karch, Georg F Hoffmann, Burkhard Tönshoff, Neysan Rafat
Endothelial injury with consecutive microangiopathy and endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the post-enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS). To identify new treatment strategies, we examined the regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in an in vitro model of Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-induced glomerular endothelial injury present in D+HUS and the mechanisms of EPC-triggered endothelial regeneration. We simulated the pro-inflammatory milieu present in D+HUS by priming human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGEC) with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α prior to stimulation with Stx2a...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Shuo Niu, John Paluszynski, Zhen Bian, Lei Shi, Koby Kidder, Yuan Liu
Shiga toxin (Stx)-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a life-threatening complication associated with Stx-producing Escherichia coli infection. One critical barrier of understanding HUS is how Stx transports from infected intestine to kidney to cause HUS. Passive dissemination seems unlikely, while circulating blood cells have been debated to serve as the toxin carrier. Employing a murine model of Stx2-induced HUS with LPS priming (LPS-Stx2), we investigate how Stx causes HUS and identify possible toxin carrier...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ximena Blanco Crivelli, María P Bonino, Paula Von Wernich Castillo, Armando Navarro, Osvaldo Degregorio, Adriana Bentancor
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are pathovars of E. coli that impact human health by causing childhood diseases. In this work, 118 synanthropic rodents of the genus Rattus from Buenos Aires, Argentina were evaluated as EPEC and STEC carriers. Rectal swab samples from captured animals were evaluated by conventional PCR to detect the presence of the eae , stx 1, stx 2, and rfb O157 genes. Twenty-one isolates were obtained (17 EPEC isolates from seven animals and four STEC isolates from the same animal)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
A Krüger, J Burgán, A W Friedrich, Rossen Jwa, Lucchesi Pma
Shiga toxins (Stx) are the main virulence factor of a pathogroup of Escherichia coli strains that cause severe human diseases. These toxins are encoded in prophages (Stx prophages), and generally their expression depends on prophage induction. Several studies have reported high diversity among both Stx prophages and Stx. In particular, the toxin subtype Stx2a is associated with high virulence and HUS. Here, we report the genome of ArgO145, an inducible Stx2a prophage identified in a bovine O145:H- strain which produced high levels of Shiga toxin and Stx phage particles...
February 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Åse Ballangrud, Li Cheng Kuo, Laura Happersett, Seng Boh Lim, Kathryn Beal, Yoshiya Yamada, Margie Hunt, James Mechalakos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study summarizes the cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) procedure at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were generated for 40 patients with 188 lesions (range 2-8, median 5) in Eclipse and treated on a TrueBeam STx. Limitations of the custom beam model outside the central 2.5 mm leaves necessitated more than one isocenter pending the spatial distribution of lesions...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Vera Luginbuehl, Nicolas Meier, Karin Kovar, Jack Rohrer
A treasure trove of intracellular cancer drug targets remains hidden behind cell membranes. However, engineered pathogen-derived toxins such as Shiga toxins can deliver small or macromolecular drugs to specific intracellular organelles. After binding to ganglioglobotriaosylceramide (Gb3, CD77), the non-toxic subunit B (StxB) of the Shiga-holotoxin is endocytosed and delivers its payload by a unique retrograde trafficking pathway via the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. This review provides an overview of biomedical applications of StxB-based drug delivery systems in targeted cancer diagnosis and therapy...
February 9, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Cecilia Cundon, Claudia Carolina Carbonari, Gisela Zolezzi, Marta Rivas, Adriana Bentancor
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is th etiological agent of gastrointestinal diseases as haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor. There are two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and several subtypes. Other virulence factors are involved in pathogenesis. While O157:H7 is the predominant serotype, at present non-O157 STEC strains are increasingly recognized as foodborne pathogens worldwide. In Argentina, STEC O174 stands out as an emerging pathogen and is one of the four most prevalent non-O157 STEC serogroups...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Stephanie W Chun, Meagan E Hinze, Meredith A Skiba, Alison R Narayan
Like many complex natural products, the intricate architecture of saxitoxin (STX) has hindered full exploration of this scaffold's utility as a tool for studying voltage-gated sodium ion channels and as a pharmaceutical agent. Established chemical strategies can provide access to the natural product; however, a chemoenzymatic route to saxitoxin that could provide expedited access to related compounds has not been devised. The first step toward realizing a chemoenzymatic approach toward this class of molecules is the elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic pathway...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lance W Noll, Jay N Worley, Xun Yang, Pragathi B Shridhar, Justin B Ludwig, Xiaorong Shi, Jianfa Bai, Doina Caragea, Jianghong Meng, T G Nagaraja
Escherichia coli O103, harbored in the hindgut and shed in the feces of cattle, can be enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), or putative non-pathotype. The genetic diversity particularly that of virulence gene profiles within O103 serogroup is likely to be broad, considering the wide range in severity of illness. However, virulence descriptions of the E. coli O103 strains isolated from cattle feces have been primarily limited to major genes, such as Shiga toxin and intimin genes. Less is known about the frequency at which other virulence genes exist or about genes associated with the mobile genetic elements of E...
2018: PloS One
Xiaohua He, Gianluigi Ardissino, Stephanie Patfield, Luisa W Cheng, Christopher J Silva, Maurizio Brigotti
Shiga toxins (Stx) released by Stx-producing E. coli (STEC) are virulence factors that are most closely 3associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening complication of intestinal infections by STEC. Stx have to enter into the circulatory system before they are delivered to target organs and cause damage. The presence of Stx in sera could be a risk indicator for HUS development. However, the detection of Stx, particularly Stx2, has been difficult due to the presence of Stx2-binding components in human serum...
January 31, 2018: Toxins
Shinichiro Hirai, Eiji Yokoyama, Taku Wakui, Taichiro Ishige, Masaki Nakamura
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strains can be classified into clades (one of several phylogenetic groups) by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): these are clade 1, clade 2, clade 3, descendant and ancestral clades 4/5, clade 6, clade 7, clade 8, clade 9, and clade 12. Some recent studies showed that some O157 strains in clade 8 produced a larger amount of Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 than other strains. In this study, 1121 epidemiologically unlinked strains of O157 isolated in Chiba Prefecture, Japan were classified into clades during 1996-2014...
2018: PloS One
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