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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506884/enhancing-effect-of-50%C3%A2-hz-rotating-magnetic-field-on-induction-of-shiga-toxin-converting-lambdoid-prophages
#1
M Struk, B Grygorcewicz, P Nawrotek, A Augustyniak, M Konopacki, M Kordas, R Rakoczy
Studies aimed at investigating factors and mechanism of induction of prophages, a major pathogenesis factor of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are considered important to develop an effective treatment for STEC infections. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effect of the rotating magnetic field (RMF) of induction B = 34 mT and frequency ƒ = 50 Hz at a constant temperature of 37 °C and mitomycin C (MMC), that resulted in a higher level of induction of stx-carrying lambdoid Stx prophages...
May 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499121/molecular-characterization-of-o157-h7-o26-h11-and-o103-h2-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-dairy-products
#2
T Douëllou, S Delannoy, S Ganet, P Fach, E Loukiadis, M-C Montel, D Sergentet-Thevenot
Pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are recognized worldwide as environment and foodborne pathogens which can be transmitted by ingestion of ready-to-eat food such as raw milk-derived products. STEC show a prevalence rate in dairy products of 0.9%, yet comparably few outbreaks have been related to dairy products consumption. In this study, we used rt-qPCR to identify the virulence potential of O157, O26 and O103 STEC strains isolated from raw-milk dairy products by analyzing virulence-related gene frequencies and associations with O-island (OI) 44, OI-48, OI-50, OI-57, OI-71 and OI-122...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495477/quantification-of-saxitoxin-in-human-blood-by-elisa
#3
Rebekah E Wharton, Melanie C Feyereisen, Andrea L Gonzalez, Nicole L Abbott, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent marine toxin that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which can result in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Low lethal doses, rapid onset of PSP symptoms, and brief STX half-life in vivo require sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques to monitor human exposures. Our laboratory has validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of STX from 0.020 to 0.80 ng/mL in human whole blood and from 0.06 to 2.0 ng/mL in dried human blood which is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective...
May 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490985/imaged-guided-liver-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-using-vmat-and-real-time-adaptive-tumor-gating-concerns-about-technique-and-preliminary-clinical-results
#4
Carmen Llacer-Moscardo, Olivier Riou, David Azria, Ludovic Bedos, Norbert Ailleres, Francois Quenet, Philippe Rouanet, Marc Ychou, Pascal Fenoglietto
BACKGROUND: Motion management is a major challenge in abdominal SBRT. We present our study of SBRT for liver tumors using intrafraction motion review (IMR) allowing simultaneous KV information and MV delivery to synchronize the beam during gated RapidArc treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2012 and March 2015, 41 patients were treated by liver SBRT using gated RapidArc technique in a Varian Novalis Truebeam STx linear accelerator. PTV was created by expanding 5 mm from the ITV...
March 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490984/evaluation-of-reproducibility-of-tumor-repositioning-during-multiple-breathing-cycles-for-liver-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-treatment
#5
Ludovic Bedos, Olivier Riou, Norbert Aillères, Antoine Braccini, Jessica Molinier, Carmen Llacer Moscardo, David Azria, Pascal Fenoglietto
AIM: To evaluate the tumor repositioning during gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for liver stereotactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment using implanted fiducial markers and intrafraction kilovoltage (kV) images acquired during dose delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since 2012, 47 liver cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers were treated using the gated VMAT technique with a Varian Truebeam STx linear accelerator. The fiducial markers were implanted inside or close to the tumor target before treatment simulation...
March 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468281/distinct-expression-of-immunoglobulin-binding-proteins-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-implicates-high-protein-stability-and-a-characteristic-phenotype
#6
Dennis Rubin, Wenlan Zhang, Helge Karch, Thorsten Kuczius
Several immunoglobulin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli (Eib) have been isolated from both non-pathogenic and pathogenic E. coli strains. Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) contain eibG either as a single gene or in combination with eibC, while other E. coli strains harbour single or multiple eib genes. The Eib proteins bind human immunoglobulins in a non-immune manner and contribute to bacterial chain-like adherence to human epithelial cells. In this study, the EibG expression in several STEC strains was analysed under different environmental conditions...
April 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462690/comparison-of-online-6-degree-of-freedom-image-registration-of-varian-truebeam-cone-beam-ct-and-brainlab-exactrac-x-ray-for-intracranial-radiosurgery
#7
Jun Li, Wenyin Shi, David Andrews, Maria Werner-Wasik, Bo Lu, Yan Yu, Adam Dicker, Haisong Liu
PURPOSE: The study was aimed to compare online 6 degree-of-freedom image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam computed tomography and BrainLab ExacTrac X-ray imaging systems for intracranial radiosurgery. METHODS: Phantom and patient studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (version 2.5), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (version 6.1.1). The phantom study was based on a Rando head phantom and was designed to evaluate isocenter location dependence of the image registrations...
June 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458663/h-ns-mutation-mediated-crispr-cas-activation-inhibits-phage-release-and-toxin-production-of-escherichia-coli-stx2-phage-lysogen
#8
Qiang Fu, Shiyu Li, Zhaofei Wang, Wenya Shan, Jingjiao Ma, Yuqiang Cheng, Hengan Wang, Yaxian Yan, Jianhe Sun
Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages (Stx phages) carry the stx gene and convert nonpathogenic bacterial strains into Shiga toxin-producing bacteria. There is limited understanding of the effect that an Escherichia coli (E. coli) clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas adaptive immune system has on Stx phage lysogen. We investigated heat-stable nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) mutation-mediated CRISPR-Cas activation and its effect on E. coli Stx2 phage lysogen. The Δhns mutant (MG1655Δhns) of the E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450044/benzyl-alcohol-induces-a-reversible-fragmentation-of-the-golgi-apparatus-and-inhibits-membrane-trafficking-between-endosomes-and-the-trans-golgi-network
#9
Roger Simm, Audun Sverre Kvalvaag, Bo van Deurs, Toril Lindbäck, Kirsten Sandvig
Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) is widely used as a component of foods, cosmetics, household products and medical products. It is generally considered to be safe for human use, however, it has been connected to a number of adverse effects, including hypersensitivity reactions and neonatal deaths. BnOH is a membrane fluidizing agent that can affect membrane protein activity and cellular processes such as ligand binding to cell surface receptors, endocytosis and degradation of lysosomal cargo. In this study, we examined the effects of BnOH on intracellular transport using Shiga toxin (Stx), diphtheria toxin (DT) and ricin...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447417/diagnostic-approach-to-microangiopathic-hemolytic-disorders
#10
REVIEW
K Kottke-Marchant
Thrombotic micro-angiopathies (TMA) are a group of related disorders that are characterized by thrombosis of the microvasculature and associated organ dysfunction, and encompass congenital, acquired, and infectious etiologies. A hall mark of TMAs is the fragmentation of erythrocytes by the microvascular thrombi, resulting in a hemolytic anemia. There are several distinct pathophysiologies leading to microangiopathic hemolysis, ranging from decreased degradation of von Willebrand factor as seen in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) to endothelial damage facilitated by Escherichia coli shiga toxin or complement dysregulation, seen in shiga toxin-related hemolytic-uremic syndrome (Stx-HUS) and complement-mediated TMA (also called atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome), respectively...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443248/shiga-toxin-subtypes-of-non-o157-escherichia-coli-serogroups-isolated-from-cattle-feces
#11
Pragathi B Shridhar, Chris Siepker, Lance W Noll, Xiaorong Shi, T G Nagaraja, Jianfa Bai
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important foodborne pathogens responsible for human illnesses. Cattle are a major reservoir that harbor the organism in the hindgut and shed in the feces. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors associated with STEC illnesses. The two antigenically distinct Stx types, Stx1 and Stx2, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, share approximately 56% amino acid sequence identity. Genetic variants exist within Stx1 and Stx2 based on differences in amino acid composition and in cytotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441594/cotransport-of-human-adenoviruses-with-clay-colloids-and-tio2-nanoparticles-in-saturated-porous-media-effect-of-flow-velocity
#12
Vasiliki I Syngouna, Constantinos V Chrysikopoulos, Petros Kokkinos, Maria A Tselepi, Apostolos Vantarakis
This study focuses on the effects of two clay colloids (kaolinite, KGa-1b and montmorillonite, STx-1b) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) on human adenovirus transport and retention in water saturated porous media at three different pore water velocities (0.38, 0.74, and 1.21cm/min). Transport and cotransport experiments were performed in 30-cm long laboratory columns packed with clean glass beads with 2mm diameter. The experimental results suggested that the presence of KGa-1b, STx-1b and TiO2 NPs increased human adenovirus inactivation and attachment onto the solid matrix, due to the additional attachment sites available...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439301/prevalence-virulence-potential-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-profiling-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-cattle
#13
Hee-Jin Dong, Soomin Lee, Woohyun Kim, Jae-Uk An, Junhyung Kim, Danil Kim, Seongbeom Cho
BACKGROUND: As a primary source of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, cattle are often targeted to develop strategies for reducing STEC contamination. Monitoring the virulence potentials of STEC isolates from cattle is important for tracing contamination sources, managing outbreaks or sporadic cases, and reducing the risks for human infection. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of STEC in cattle farm samples in South Korea and to assess their virulence potentials...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#14
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434982/novel-monoclonal-antibodies-against-stx1d-and-1e-and-their-use-for-improving-immunoassays
#15
Xiaohua He, Stephanie Patfield, Reuven Rasooly, Daniela Mavrici
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are major causative agents for bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome, a life-threatening disease in humans. No effective treatment is available. Early detection of Stxs in clinical samples is critical for disease management. As bacteria evolve, new Stxs are produced; therefore, methods used to identify them need to be improved as well. In this study, new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Stx1d and 1e were developed and used to improve a commercial Stx1 kit. Incorporation of the new mAbs into the Abraxis Stx1 kit not only increased the assay sensitivity to Stx1d, but the assay was conferred the ability to detect Stx1e, a newly identified subtype of Stx1 produced by an atypical Stx-producing bacterial strain, Enterobacter cloacae M12X01451, isolated from a clinical specimen...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421309/genetic-makeup-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-relation-to-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-shedding-a-microarray-analysis-of-isolates-from-swedish-children
#16
A Matussek, C Jernberg, I-M Einemo, S Monecke, R Ehricht, I Engelmann, S Löfgren, S Mernelius
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are the primary cause of acute renal failure in children worldwide. This study investigated the correlation of genetic makeup of STEC strains as revealed by DNA microarray to clinical symptoms and the duration of STEC shedding. All STEC isolated (n = 96) from patients <10 years of age in Jönköping County, Sweden from 2003 to 2015 were included. Isolates were characterized by DNA microarray, including almost 280 genes...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411228/day-to-day-dynamics-of-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-zimbabwean-cows-evidence-temporal-fluctuations-within-a-host-specific-population-structure
#17
Méril Massot, Camille Couffignal, Olivier Clermont, Camille D'Humières, Jérémie Chatel, Nicolas Plault, Antoine Andremont, Alexandre Caron, France Mentré, Erick Denamur
To get insights in the temporal pattern of commensal Escherichia coli populations, we daily sampled feces of four healthy cows from the same herd over 25 days, in the Hwange district of Zimbabwe. The cows did not receive antibiotic treatment during the 3 previous months. We performed viable E. coli counts, and characterized at a clonal level, screened for stx and eae genes, and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities the 326 isolates originating from the 98 sampled stools. We observed that E. coli counts and dominant clones were different among cows, and very few clones were shared...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399144/microbial-quality-of-agricultural-water-in-central-florida
#18
Zeynal Topalcengiz, Laura K Strawn, Michelle D Danyluk
The microbial quality of water that comes into the edible portion of produce is believed to directly relate to the safety of produce, and metrics describing indicator organisms are commonly used to ensure safety. The US FDA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) sets very specific microbiological water quality metrics for agricultural water that contacts the harvestable portion of produce. Validation of these metrics for agricultural water is essential for produce safety. Water samples (500 mL) from six agricultural ponds were collected during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons (46 and 44 samples respectively, 540 from all ponds)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389899/degradation-and-inactivation-of-shiga-toxins-by-nitrogen-gas-plasma
#19
Akikazu Sakudo, Yuichiro Imanishi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) leads to food poisoning by causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some STEC produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), a relatively stable protein toxin, necessitating the development of an efficient inactivation method. Here we applied a nitrogen gas plasma apparatus to the inactivation of Stx. Samples of Stx1 and Stx2 were treated with a nitrogen gas plasma generated by a plasma device using a short high-voltage pulse applied by a static induction thyristor power supply at 1...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377748/evidence-for-contemporary-switching-of-the-o-antigen-gene-cluster-between-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-colonizing-cattle
#20
Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Derek Pickard, Christian Berens, Stefanie A Barth
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) comprise a group of zoonotic enteric pathogens with ruminants, especially cattle, as the main reservoir. O-antigens are instrumental for host colonization and bacterial niche adaptation. They are highly immunogenic and, therefore, targeted by the adaptive immune system. The O-antigen is one of the most diverse bacterial cell constituents and variation not only exists between different bacterial species, but also between individual isolates/strains within a single species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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