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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891338/non-o157-h7-shiga-toxin-producing-diarrhoeagenic-escherichia-coli-stec-in-southern-india-a-tinderbox-for-starting-epidemic
#1
Shashank Purwar, Subrana Roy, Sharada Metgud
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks due to non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) resulting in Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) have garnered much attention because of associated mortality transcending across continents and also because diarrhoea due to E.coli itself is rare in developed countries. The actual incidence of non-O157:H7 STEC in sporadic acute diarrhoea is not fully elucidated, both in developing as well as in developed countries. Due to larger extent of faecal-oral transmission in developing countries it is prudent to look for non-O157: H7 STEC in such epidemiological settings because of very high potential to spread across larger geographical regions and cause life threatening illness...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862045/capillary-electrophoresis-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-metal-tag-for-ultra-sensitively-determining-trace-saxitoxin-in-seafood
#2
Ye He, Fan Mo, Danlong Chen, LiangJun Xu, Yongning Wu, FengFu Fu
As one of paralytic shellfish toxins, the saxitoxin (STX) in the aqueous environment can be accumulated by most shellfish, and thus harms human health through the food chain. Therefore, it is crucial to determine trace STX in seafood samples in order to ensure the safety of seafood consumption. In this study, we developed a novel indirect method for ultra-sensitively determining trace STX in seafood by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) together with Eu(3+) chelate labeling...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857935/synchronous-disease-kinetics-in-a-murine-model-for-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-infection-using-food-borne-inoculation
#3
Laurice J Flowers, Elsa N Bou Ghanem, John M Leong
Upon colonization of the intestinal epithelium, the attaching and effacing (AE) pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) effaces microvilli and forms pedestal-like structures beneath the adherent bacterium. The production of one of its virulence factors, the phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) results in systemic disease, including the development of renal failure. Although EHEC does not productively infect conventional mice, EHEC infection can be modeled in mice utilizing a derivative of the natural murine AE pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854514/subtyping-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-isolated-from-feces-of-beef-cattle-and-clinical-cases-in-alberta
#4
Renata Tostes, Noriko Goji, Kingsley Amoako, Linda Chui, John Kastelic, Rebekah DeVinney, Kim Stanford, Tim Reuter
Clinical outcomes of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli infection are largely determined by virulence gene subtypes. This study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-pyrosequencing assay to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms for subtyping three major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) of pathogenic E. coli (O157, O26, O111, and O103) isolated from cattle over a 2-year interval (n = 465) and human clinical cases (n = 42) in western Canada. Most bovine isolates were PCR positive for at least one target virulence gene (367/465), whereas 100% of human isolates harbored eae in combination with at least one stx gene...
November 17, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853704/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-in-china
#5
Xiangning Bai, Bin Hu, Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Ailan Zhao, Pengbin Ba, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Yujuan Jin, Hong Wang, Qiusheng Guo, Xuebin Xu, Shan Lu, Yanwen Xiong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826079/purified-stx-and-%C3%AE-phage-initiator-o-proteins-bind-specifically-to-two-different-origins-of-replication-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Katarzyna I Kozłowska, Joanna Tymecka-Mulik, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
The O protein is a crucial factor initiating the DNA replication of lambdoid bacteriophage. Efficient DNA replication of Shiga toxin-converting phage is necessary for effective production of Shiga toxin - main virulence factor of STEC strains. We developed an improved protocol for overproduction, bacterial cell lysis and purification of λO protein. With use of this method we have also isolated O proteins of Stx-phage P27 and 933W that were never purified before. Purified proteins were tested for their DNA binding activity and revealed a sequence specific interactions...
November 5, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822867/rapid-snp-detection-and-genotyping-of-bacterial-pathogens-by-pyrosequencing
#7
Kingsley K Amoako, Matthew C Thomas, Timothy W Janzen, Noriko Goji
Bacterial identification and typing are fixtures of microbiology laboratories and are vital aspects of our response mechanisms in the event of foodborne outbreaks and bioterrorist events. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is leading the way in terms of expanding our ability to identify and characterize bacteria through the identification of subtle differences between genomes (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions). Modern high-throughput technologies such as pyrosequencing can facilitate the typing of bacteria by generating short-read sequence data of informative regions identified by WGS analyses, at a fraction of the cost of WGS...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817832/column-switching-combined-with-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-saxitoxin-analogues-and-their-biosynthetic-intermediates-in-dinoflagellates
#8
Yuko Cho, Shigeki Tsuchiya, Renpei Yoshioka, Takuo Omura, Keiichi Konoki, Yasukatsu Oshima, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC) is reportedly useful for the analysis of saxitoxin (STX) analogues, collectively known as paralytic shellfish toxins. Column switching and two-step gradient elution using HILIC combined with mass spectrometry enabled the simultaneous analysis of the 15 primary STX analogues and their biosynthetic intermediates, arginine, Int-A', and Int-C'2, and the shunt product, Cyclic-C'. Crude extracts of toxin-producing dinoflagellates can be injected without any treatment except filtration...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800426/prevalence-and-molecular-characterisation-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-raw-milk-cheeses-from-lazio-region-italy
#9
Selene Marozzi, Paola De Santis, Sarah Lovari, Roberto Condoleo, Stefano Bilei, Rita Marcianò, Ziad Mezher
In recent years, the incidence of foodborne diseases caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has increased globally. For this reason, within the specific regional control plan for the detection of STEC in food products in Italy, the presence of STEC in unpasteurised milk cheeses was investigated. In total, 203 samples obtained from March 2011 to December 2013 were analysed, with two standard methods (ISO 16654:2001 and ISO 13136:2012). Two strains of E. coli O157 were isolated (2/161, 1.2%) but did not carry any virulence-associated genes and 22 stx-positive samples (22/146, 15...
January 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796937/cytotoxic-effects-of-environmental-toxins-on-human-glial-cells
#10
Fiona D'Mello, Nady Braidy, Helder Marçal, Gilles Guillemin, Fanny Rossi, Mirielle Chinian, Dominique Laurent, Charles Teo, Brett A Neilan
Toxins produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates have increasingly become a public health concern due to their degenerative effects on mammalian tissue and cells. In particular, emerging evidence has called attention to the neurodegenerative effects of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Other toxins such as the neurotoxins saxitoxin and ciguatoxin, as well as the hepatotoxic microcystin, have been previously shown to have a range of effects upon the nervous system. However, the capacity of these toxins to cause neurodegeneration in human cells has not, to our knowledge, been previously investigated...
October 29, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792838/adsorption-of-shiga-toxin-to-poly-%C3%AE-glutamate-precipitated
#11
Tsukie Goto, Makiko Tsuji, Kaori Kanemaru, Kumio Yokoigawa
We screened foods containing indigestible ingredients in the ability to adsorb Shiga toxin (Stx). When 5 mg of foods and dietary fibers such as dry vegetables and inulin were mixed and incubated with 0.5 mL of Stx solution (100 ng/mL) containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin, both Stx1 and Stx2 seemed to be adsorbed by only a fermented food, natto (a traditional Japanese food prepared from steamed soybeans by the biological action of Bacillus subtilis). We purified the Stx-adsorbing substance from natto by extraction with H2 O, acid treatment, Proteinase K treatment, and an ion exchange chromatography...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782735/evaluation-of-the-dose-calculation-accuracy-for-small-fields-defined-by-jaw-or-mlc-for-aaa-and-acuros-xb-algorithms
#12
Antonella Fogliata, Francesca Lobefalo, Giacomo Reggiori, Antonella Stravato, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi
PURPOSE: Small field measurements are challenging, due to the physical characteristics coming from the lack of charged particle equilibrium, the partial occlusion of the finite radiation source, and to the detector response. These characteristics can be modeled in the dose calculations in the treatment planning systems. Aim of the present work is to evaluate the MU calculation accuracy for small fields, defined by jaw or MLC, for anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB algorithms, relative to output measurements on the beam central axis...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781486/quality-of-tri-co-60-mr-igrt-treatment-plans-in-comparison-with-vmat-treatment-plans-for-spine-sabr
#13
Chang Heon Choi, So-Yeon Park, Jung-In Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Kyubo Kim, Joel Carlson, Jong Min Park
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for spine stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). METHODS: A total of 20 patients with spine metastasis were retrospectively selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were generated. The spinal cords were defined based on magnetic resonance images for the tri-Co-60 IMRT, while isotropic 1 mm margins were added to the spinal cords for the VMAT plans...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764234/uncovering-the-complex-transcriptome-response-of-mytilus-chilensis-against-saxitoxin-implications-of-harmful-algal-blooms-on-mussel-populations
#14
Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757771/the-influence-of-mineral-matrices-on-the-thermal-behavior-of-glycine
#15
Punam Dalai, Hannes Lukas Pleyer, Henry Strasdeit, Stefan Fox
On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior...
October 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754366/crystal-structure-of-ribosome-inactivating-protein-ricin-a-chain-in-complex-with-the-c-terminal-peptide-of-the-ribosomal-stalk-protein-p2
#16
Wei-Wei Shi, Yun-Sang Tang, See-Yuen Sze, Zhen-Ning Zhu, Kam-Bo Wong, Pang-Chui Shaw
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751617/single-fraction-flattening-filter-free-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-for-lung-cancer-dosimetric-results-and-comparison-with-flattened-beams-technique
#17
Sara Barbiero, Alexandra Rink, Fabrizio Matteucci, David Fedele, Fabiola Paiar, Francesco Pasqualetti, Michele Avanzo
PURPOSE: To report on single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (RT) (SBRT) with flattening filter (FF)-free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lung cancer and to compare dosimetric results with VMAT with FF. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Overall, 25 patients were treated with 6-MV FFF VMAT (Varian TrueBeam STx LINAC) to a prescribed dose of 24Gy in a single fraction. Treatment plans were recreated using FF VMAT. Dose-volume indices, monitor units (MU), and treatment times were compared between FFF and FF VMAT techniques...
October 14, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748445/dynamics-of-the-mouse-brain-cortical-synaptic-proteome-during-postnatal-brain-development
#18
Miguel A Gonzalez-Lozano, Patricia Klemmer, Titia Gebuis, Chopie Hassan, Pim van Nierop, Ronald E van Kesteren, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Development of the brain involves the formation and maturation of numerous synapses. This process requires prominent changes of the synaptic proteome and potentially involves thousands of different proteins at every synapse. To date the proteome analysis of synapse development has been studied sparsely. Here, we analyzed the cortical synaptic membrane proteome of juvenile postnatal days 9 (P9), P15, P21, P27, adolescent (P35) and different adult ages P70, P140 and P280 of C57Bl6/J mice. Using a quantitative proteomics workflow we quantified 1560 proteins of which 696 showed statistically significant differences over time...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747196/shiga-toxin-mediated-neurologic-changes-in-murine-model-of-disease
#19
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725813/active-shiga-like-toxin-produced-by-some-aeromonas-spp-isolated-in-mexico-city
#20
Ingrid Palma-Martínez, Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Manuel J Ruiz-Ruiz, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, José Molina-López, Virgilio Bocanegra-García, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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