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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421309/genetic-makeup-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-relation-to-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-shedding-a-microarray-analysis-of-isolates-from-swedish-children
#1
A Matussek, C Jernberg, I-M Einemo, S Monecke, R Ehricht, I Engelmann, S Löfgren, S Mernelius
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are the primary cause of acute renal failure in children worldwide. This study investigated the correlation of genetic makeup of STEC strains as revealed by DNA microarray to clinical symptoms and the duration of STEC shedding. All STEC isolated (n = 96) from patients <10 years of age in Jönköping County, Sweden from 2003 to 2015 were included. Isolates were characterized by DNA microarray, including almost 280 genes...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411228/day-to-day-dynamics-of-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-zimbabwean-cows-evidence-temporal-fluctuations-within-a-host-specific-population-structure
#2
Méril Massot, Camille Couffignal, Olivier Clermont, Camille D'Humières, Jérémie Chatel, Nicolas Plault, Antoine Andremont, Alexandre Caron, France Mentré, Erick Denamur
To get insights in the temporal pattern of commensal Escherichia coli populations, we daily sampled feces of four healthy cows from the same herd over 25 days, in the Hwange district of Zimbabwe. The cows did not receive antibiotic treatment during the 3 previous months. We performed viable E. coli counts, and characterized at a clonal level, screened for stx and eae genes, and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities the 326 isolates originating from the 98 sampled stools. We observed that E. coli counts and dominant clones were different among cows, and very few clones were shared...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399144/microbial-quality-of-agricultural-water-in-central-florida
#3
Zeynal Topalcengiz, Laura K Strawn, Michelle D Danyluk
The microbial quality of water that comes into the edible portion of produce is believed to directly relate to the safety of produce, and metrics describing indicator organisms are commonly used to ensure safety. The US FDA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) sets very specific microbiological water quality metrics for agricultural water that contacts the harvestable portion of produce. Validation of these metrics for agricultural water is essential for produce safety. Water samples (500 mL) from six agricultural ponds were collected during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons (46 and 44 samples respectively, 540 from all ponds)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389899/degradation-and-inactivation-of-shiga-toxins-by-nitrogen-gas-plasma
#4
Akikazu Sakudo, Yuichiro Imanishi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) leads to food poisoning by causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some STEC produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), a relatively stable protein toxin, necessitating the development of an efficient inactivation method. Here we applied a nitrogen gas plasma apparatus to the inactivation of Stx. Samples of Stx1 and Stx2 were treated with a nitrogen gas plasma generated by a plasma device using a short high-voltage pulse applied by a static induction thyristor power supply at 1...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377748/evidence-for-contemporary-switching-of-the-o-antigen-gene-cluster-between-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-colonizing-cattle
#5
Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Derek Pickard, Christian Berens, Stefanie A Barth
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) comprise a group of zoonotic enteric pathogens with ruminants, especially cattle, as the main reservoir. O-antigens are instrumental for host colonization and bacterial niche adaptation. They are highly immunogenic and, therefore, targeted by the adaptive immune system. The O-antigen is one of the most diverse bacterial cell constituents and variation not only exists between different bacterial species, but also between individual isolates/strains within a single species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370934/synthesis-and-identification-of-key-biosynthetic-intermediates-for-the-formation-of-the-tricyclic-skeleton-of-saxitoxin
#6
Shigeki Tsuchiya, Yuko Cho, Renpei Yoshioka, Keiichi Konoki, Kazuo Nagasawa, Yasukatsu Oshima, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues are potent voltage-gated sodium channel blockers biosynthesized by freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. We previously identified genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates of STX at early stages, Int-A' and Int-C'2, in these microorganisms. However, the mechanism to form the tricyclic skeleton of STX was unknown. To solve this problem, we screened for unidentified intermediates by analyzing the results from previous incorporation experiments with (15) N-labeled Int-C'2...
March 31, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359039/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-their-relationships-with-environmental-variables-in-british-columbia-canada-from-2002-to-2012
#7
Stephen Finnis, Nikolas Krstic, Lorraine McIntyre, Trisalyn A Nelson, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349851/first-report-of-neurotoxic-effect-of-the-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-on-the-motility-of-trematode-metacercariae
#8
K C Lopes, A S Ferrão-Filho, E G N Santos, C P Santos
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that can produce cytotoxic (cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxic cyanotoxins (saxitoxins). In Brazil the strains of C. raciborskii are reported to produce only saxitoxins (STX) and their effect on fish parasites has not been tested to date. The fish Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider is a common host for the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, and this fish-parasite interaction is a model for behavioural and ecotoxicological studies...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348836/evolution-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen-investigating-prophage-diversity-in-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-by-long-read-sequencing
#9
Sharif Shaaban, Lauren A Cowley, Sean P McAteer, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman, James L Bono, David L Gally
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 is a zoonotic pathogen for which colonization of cattle and virulence in humans is associated with multiple horizontally acquired genes, the majority present in active or cryptic prophages. Our understanding of the evolution and phylogeny of EHEC O157 continues to develop primarily based on core genome analyses; however, such short-read sequences have limited value for the analysis of prophage content and its chromosomal location. In this study, we applied Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing, using the Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing platform, to isolates selected from the main sub-clusters of this clonal group...
December 2016: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330283/multiplex-pcr-for-simultaneous-identification-of-e-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-spp-and-l-monocytogenes-in-food
#10
Thuy Trang Nguyen, Vo Van Giau, Tuong Kha Vo
The rapid detection of pathogens in food is becoming increasingly critical for ensuring the safety of consumers, since the majority of food-borne illnesses and deaths are caused by pathogenic bacteria. Hence, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and convenient approaches to detect food-borne pathogenic bacteria is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was established...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320988/characterization-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-from-feces-of-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-in-japan-using-pcr-binary-typing-analysis-to-evaluate-their-potential-human-pathogenicity
#11
Hidenori Kabeya, Shingo Sato, Shinya Oda, Megumi Kawamura, Mariko Nagasaka, Masanari Kuranaga, Eiji Yokoyama, Shinichiro Hirai, Atsushi Iguchi, Tomoe Ishihara, Toshiro Kuroki, Tomoko Morita-Ishihara, Sunao Iyoda, Jun Terajima, Makoto Ohnishi, Soichi Maruyama
This study examined the potential pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in feces of sika deer by PCR binary typing (P-BIT), using 24 selected STEC genes. A total of 31 STEC strains derived from sika deer in 6 prefectures of Japan were O-serotyped and found to be O93 (n=12), O146 (n=5), O176 (n=3), O130 (n=3), O5 (n=2), O7 (n=1), O96 (n=1), O116 (n=1), O141 (n=1), O157 (n=1) and O-untypable (n=1). Of the 31 STEC strains, 13 carried both stx1 and stx2, 5 carried only stx1, and 13 carried one or two variants of stx2...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316592/influence-of-stress-factors-related-to-cheese-making-process-and-to-stec-detection-procedure-on-the-induction-of-stx-phages-from-stec-o26-h11
#12
Ludivine Bonanno, Benjamin Delubac, Valérie Michel, Frédéric Auvray
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303131/multiplexed-single-intact-cell-droplet-digital-pcr-music-ddpcr-method-for-specific-detection-of-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-ehec-in-food-enrichment-cultures
#13
Tanis C McMahon, Burton W Blais, Alex Wong, Catherine D Carrillo
Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297290/gafchromic-ebt-xd-film-dosimetry-characterization-in-high-dose-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy
#14
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Fumika Hosono, Naoki Sumida, Toshiya Okazue, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
Radiochromic films are important tools for assessing complex dose distributions. Gafchromic EBT-XD films have been designed for optimal performance in the 40-4,000 cGy dose range. We investigated the dosimetric characteristics of these films, including their dose-response, postexposure density growth, and dependence on scanner orientation, beam energy, and dose rate with applications to high-dose volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification. A 10 MV beam from a TrueBeam STx linear accelerator was used to irradiate the films with doses in the 0-4,000 cGy range...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291939/pixel-response-based-epid-dosimetry-for-patient-specific-qa
#15
Bin Han, Aiping Ding, Minghui Lu, Lei Xing
Increasing use of high dose rate, flattening filter free (FFF), and/or small-sized field beams presents a significant challenge to the medical physics community. In this work, we develop a strategy of using a high spatial resolution and high frame rate amorphous silicon flat panel electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for dosimetric measurements of these challenging cases, as well as for conventional external beam therapy. To convert a series of raw EPID-measured radiation field images into water-based dose distribution, a pixel-to-pixel dose-response function of the EPID specific to the linac is essential...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287277/inhibitory-potential-of-strepthonium-a-against-shiga-toxin-production-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-ehec-strain-edl933
#16
Cheng Cheng, Srikkanth Balasubramanian, Agnes Fekete, Markus Krischke, Martin J Mueller, Ute Hentschel, Tobias A Oelschlaeger, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
The production of shiga toxin (Stx) is a critical step in the establishment and progress of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. The possible release of Stx from dead and dying bacteria, and the risk of resistance development have restricted the usage of antibiotics against EHEC. The chlorinated quaternary ammonium compound, strepthonium A, was isolated from the culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT345 that was cultivated from the Mediterranean sponge Agelas oroides. The structure was elucidated and confirmed by spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-HRMS, as well as ESI-HRMS(2)...
March 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274429/pectic-oligosaccharide-structure-function-relationships-prebiotics-inhibitors-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-adhesion-and-reduction-of-shiga-toxin-cytotoxicity-in-ht29-cells
#17
Rong Di, Malathi S Vakkalanka, Chatchaya Onumpai, Hoa K Chau, Andre White, Robert A Rastall, Kit Yam, Arland T Hotchkiss
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing, food-contaminating Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major health concern. Plant-derived pectin and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) have been considered as prebiotics and for the protection of humans from Stx. Of five structurally different citrus pectic samples, POS1, POS2 and modified citrus pectin 1 (MCP1) were bifidogenic with similar fermentabilities in human faecal cultures and arabinose-rich POS2 had the greatest prebiotic potential. Pectic oligosaccharides also enhanced lactobacilli growth during mixed batch faecal fermentation...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250989/apolipoprotein-c-i-levels-are-associated-with-the-urinary-protein-urinary-creatinine-ratio-in-pediatric-idiopathic-steroid-sensitive-nephrotic-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#18
Jun Odaka, Takahiro Kanai, Takane Ito, Takashi Saito, Jun Aoyagi, Hiroyuki Betsui, Takanori Yamagata
Humoral factors may cause idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (ISSNS). In the present study, we analyzed serum proteins using mass spectrometry (MS) to identify proteins associated with the pathophysiology of pediatric ISSNS. We collected serial serum samples from 33 children during each ISSNS phase; Phase A1 is the acute phase prior to steroid treatment (STx), Phase A2 represents the remission period with STx, and Phase A3 represents the remission period after completion of STx. Children with normal urinalyses (Group B) and children with a nephrotic syndrome other than ISSNS (Group C) served as controls...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238857/asiaticoside-attenuation-of-rotenone-induced-oxidative-burden-in-a-rat-model-of-hemiparkinsonism-by-maintaining-the-phosphoinositide-mediated-synaptic-integrity
#19
Margabandhu Gopi, Vanisree Arambakkam Janardhanam
Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Indian medicinal herb Centella asiatica is known to exert a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and pathological changes in animal models. However, its potential neuroprotection in rotenone-induced hemiparkinsonism which implicates phospholipid-mediated neurotransmission remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of AS in rat model of ROT-infused hemiparkinsonism with respect to phosphoinositides-assisted cytodynamics and synaptic function...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230102/identification-of-a-new-virulent-clade-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o26-h11-h-sequence-type-29
#20
Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Tomomi Kuwahara, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Saori Yoneda, Atsushi Iguchi, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunao Iyoda
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP-/espP+/etpD-...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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