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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326037/experimental-uptake-and-depuration-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii
#1
Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull
In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PST-contaminated mussels are a potential vector enabling toxin accumulation in J...
January 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284677/munc18c-depletion-attenuates-caerulein-hyperstimulation-induced-pancreatitis
#2
Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Abrahim I Orabi, Li Xie, Douglas Holmyard, Tanveer A Javed, Nestor A Fernandez, Huanli Xie, Mark S Cattral, Debbie C Thurmond, Peter Thorn, Herbert Y Gaisano
Epithelial pancreatic acinar cells perform crucial functions in food digestion, and acinar cell homoeostasis required for secretion of digestive enzymes relies on SNARE-mediated exocytosis. The ubiquitously expressed Sec1/Munc18 protein mammalian uncoordinated-18c (Munc18c) regulates membrane fusion by activating syntaxin-4 (STX-4) to bind cognate SNARE proteins to form a SNARE complex that mediates exocytosis in many cell types. However, in the acinar cell, Munc18c's functions in exocytosis and homeostasis remain inconclusive...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284205/pathogenic-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-retail-meats-in-south-korea
#3
June Bong Lee, Dalmuri Han, Hyung Tae Lee, Seon Mi Wi, Jeong Hoon Park, Jeong Woo Jo, Young-Jae Cho, Tae-Wook Hahn, Sunjin Lee, Byunghak Kang, Hyo Sun Kwak, Jonghyun Kim, Jang Won Yoon
Herein, we report the pathogenic and phylogenetic characteristics of seven Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from 434 retail meats in Korea during 2006-2012. The experimental analyses revealed that all the isolates (i) were identified as non-O157 STEC, including O91:H14 (3 isolates), O121:H10 (2), O91:H21 (1), and O18:H20 (1), (ii) carried diverse Stx subtype genes (stx1, stx2c, stx2e, or stx1+stx2b) whose expression levels were varied strain by strain, and (iii) lacked the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, a major virulence factor of STEC, but possessed one or more alternative virulence genes encoding cytotoxins (Cdt and SubAB) and/or adhesins (Saa, Iha, and EcpA)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243991/zoonotic-agents-in-feral-pigeons-columba-livia-from-costa-rica-possible-improvements-to-diminish-contagion-risks
#4
Ana María Torres-Mejía, César Rodríguez, Francisco Duarte, Mauricio Jiménez-Soto, Fernando Esperón, Kinndle Blanco-Peña
Most studies on zoonotic agents in pigeons have been conducted in the Palearctic region, but the scarcity of data is notorious in the Neotropical region, where these birds can breed all year around and are in close contact with humans. In this study, we used a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to identify infectious agents in 141 fecal samples from pigeons collected at four urban parks from Costa Rica. Of these we identified 34 positive samples for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Braenderup (24...
December 15, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225287/lysogenisation-of-shiga-toxin-encoding-bacteriophage-represses-cell-motility
#5
Shoichi Mitsunaka, Naoki Sudo, Yasuhiko Sekine
Bacteriophages are genetic elements that play key roles in the evolution and diversification of bacterial genomes. The Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phage plays an important role in the horizontal transfer of the stx gene. However, the influence of the Stx phage integration on the physiological properties and gene expression pattern of the host have not been clearly resolved. In this study, we constructed the Sp5 lysogen through lysogenisation of E. coli K-12 by Sp5, an Stx2 phage in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 Sakai, and examined the effect of the resulting lysogen on cell motility under various growth conditions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214442/shiga-toxin-triggers-endothelial-and-podocyte-injury-the-role-of-complement-activation
#6
REVIEW
Carlamaria Zoja, Simona Buelli, Marina Morigi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the offending agent in post-diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney failure, with thrombi occluding the renal microvasculature. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as the trigger event in the development of microangiopathic processes. Glomerular endothelial cells are susceptible to the toxic effects of Stxs that, via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, induce the expression of genes encoding for adhesion molecules and chemokines, culminating in leukocyte adhesion and platelet thrombus formation on the activated endothelium...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214000/role-of-antigen-43-on-biofilm-formation-and-horizontal-antibiotic-resistance-gene-transfer-in-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains
#7
Roholla Taghadosi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Reza Ghanbarpour, Hossein Hosseini-Nave
Background and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles, biofilm formation, presence of antigen 43 (Ag43) gene, and transfer of antibiotic resistance phenotype among non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Materials and Methods: From October 2014 to November 2015 a total of 276 stool samples were collected from healthy calves, goats and 395 patients with the sign of nonbloody diarrhea and screened for presence of stx and serotype O157 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208163/population-structure-of-escherichia-coli-o26%C3%A2-%C3%A2-h11-with-recent-and-repeated-stx2-acquisition-in-multiple-lineages
#8
Yoshitoshi Ogura, Yasuhiro Gotoh, Takehiko Itoh, Mitsuhiko P Sato, Kazuko Seto, Shyuji Yoshino, Junko Isobe, Yoshiki Etoh, Mariko Kurogi, Keiko Kimata, Eriko Maeda, Denis Piérard, Masahiro Kusumoto, Masato Akiba, Kiyoshi Tominaga, Yumi Kirino, Yuki Kato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tadasuke Ooka, Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Sunao Iyoda, Jacques Georges Mainil, Tetsuya Hayashi
A key virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx). Stxs are classified into two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and Stx2-producing strains are thought to cause more severe infections than strains producing only Stx1. Although O26 : H11 is the second most prevalent EHEC following O157 : H7, the majority of O26 : H11 strains produce Stx1 alone. However, Stx2-producing O26 strains have increasingly been detected worldwide. Through a large-scale genome analysis, we present a global phylogenetic overview and evolutionary timescale for E...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195146/fast-and-quantitative-determination-of-saxitoxin-and-neosaxitoxin-in-urine-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-based-on-the-cleanup-of-solid-phase-extraction-with-hydrophilic-interaction-mechanism
#9
Xiao-Min Xu, Bai-Fen Huang, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Zeng-Xuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Qing Chen, Jian-Long Han
Saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) are water-soluble toxins and their cleanup in bio-matrix is a hot topic but difficult problem. A fast and quantitative determination method for STX and NEO in urine was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based on the cleanup of solid phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mechanism. Acetonitrile/methanol/water mixture was used to extract the toxins in urine. Polyamide (PA) was used as HILIC SPE material to clean the toxins in sample matrix...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183554/molecular-characterisation-of-human-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o26-strains-results-of-an-outbreak-investigation-romania-february-to-august-2016
#10
Codruţa-Romaniţa Usein, Adriana Simona Ciontea, Cornelia Mãdãlina Militaru, Maria Condei, Sorin Dinu, Mihaela Oprea, Daniela Cristea, Valeria Michelacci, Gaia Scavia, Lavinia Cipriana Zota, Alina Zaharia, Stefano Morabito
IntroductionAt the beginning of 2016, an increase in paediatric haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases was observed in Romania. The microbiological investigations allowed isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 as the causative agent from most cases. Methods: An enhanced national surveillance of HUS and severe diarrhoea was established across the country following the identification of the first cases and was carried out until August 2016. A total of 15 strains were isolated from 10 HUS and five diarrhoea cases...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164427/virulence-traits-of-avian-pathogenic-apec-and-fecal-afec-e-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-in-algeria
#11
Lounis Mohamed, Zhao Ge, Li Yuehua, Gao Yubin, Kaidi Rachid, Oumouna Mustapha, Wang Junwei, Oumouna Karine
Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is the etiologic agent of avian colibacillosis, the most common disease responsible for chicken morbidity in the world. Although multiple virulence-associated factors were identified, their prevalence in Algeria is still poorly known. In the present research, 92 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolates were recovered from broilers with clinical signs and lesions of colibacillosis. In addition, 32 E. coli isolates collected from feces of healthy birds (AFEC) were included for comparison...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148397/evolutionary-context-of-non-sorbitol-fermenting-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o55-h7
#12
Kyle Schutz, Lauren A Cowley, Sharif Shaaban, Anne Carroll, Eleanor McNamara, David L Gally, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman
In July 2014, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 in England involved 31 patients, 13 (42%) of whom had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with publicly available sequences of E. coli O55:H7 and O157:H7. A core-genome phylogeny of the evolutionary history of the STEC O55:H7 outbreak strain revealed that the most parsimonious model was a progenitor enteropathogenic O55:H7 sorbitol-fermenting strain, lysogenized by a Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-encoding phage, followed by loss of the ability to ferment sorbitol because of a non-sense mutation in srlA...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128272/cytoprotection-of-lipoic-acid-against-toxicity-induced-by-saxitoxin-in-hippocampal-cell-line-ht-22-through-in-silico-modeling-and-in-vitro-assays
#13
Patrícia Ramos, Marcos Schmitz, Sibele Gama, Aline Portantiolo, Michael Gonzalez Durruthy, Ana Paula de Souza Votto, Luisa Rodrigues Cornetet, Karina Dos Santos Machado, Adriano Wehrli, Mariana Zancan Tonel, Solange Binotto Fagan, João Sarkis Yunes, José Maria Monserrat
Saxitoxins (STXs) are potent neurotoxins that block voltage-gated channels in neurons and induce cytotoxicity. These toxins not only can generate reactive oxygen species but also can alter antioxidant levels, promoting oxidative stress. Under this pro-oxidant situation, the use of the antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) can represent a chemoprotective alternative to minimize the deleterious effects induced by neurotoxins as STXs. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a well-known ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that plays a crucial role in the extrusion of toxic substances, decreasing their accumulation and potential intracellular effects in virtue of its broad substrate specificity, its expression in many excretory tissues and its large efflux capacity...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#14
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116960/image-quality-and-geometric-distortion-of-modern-diffusion-weighted-imaging-sequences-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-prostate
#15
Daniel Stocker, Andrei Manoliu, Anton S Becker, Borna K Barth, Daniel Nanz, Markus Klarhöfer, Olivio F Donati
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare qualitative and quantitative image quality and geometric distortion of 4 magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences of the prostate using comparable imaging parameters and similar acquisition times. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Axial T2-weighted turbo spin echo images and axial DWI echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences, including single-shot spin-echo (ss-EPI), readout-segmented multishot (rs-EPI), selective excitation-reduced field of view (sTX-EPI), and prototype single-shot technique applying slice-specific shimming (iShim-EPI) sequences, were acquired at 3 T in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age, 26...
November 8, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109054/assessing-the-presence-of-marine-toxins-in-bivalve-molluscs-from-southwest-india
#16
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106378/two-argument-total-scatter-factor-for-small-fields-simultaneously-collimated-by-mlc-and-jaws-application-to-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-radiotherapy
#17
Zhaohui Han, Scott Friesen, Fred L Hacker, Piotr Zygmanski
Direct use of the total scatter factor (S<sub>tot</sub>) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S<sub>c</sub>) and phantom scatter (S<sub>p</sub>), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S<sub>tot</sub> in water for field sizes down to 0...
November 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100123/comparative-studies-of-saxitoxin-stx-induced-cytotoxicity-in-neuro-2a-and-rtg-2%C3%A2-cell-lines-an-explanation-with-respect-to-changes-in-ros
#18
Zhongyuan Zhou, Xuexi Tang, Hongmei Chen, You Wang
Saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) produced from toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellates, was selected to comparatively investigate the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and a possible mechanism based on changes in the antioxidant defence system of two cellular strains: the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a and the rainbow trout fish cell line RTG-2. Increasing concentrations of STX (0-256 nM) presented little cytotoxic or apoptotic effects on the two cell lines. Measurements of cellular viability, lethal ratio and LDH leakage showed slight changes in Neuro-2a and RTG-2 cells (p > 0...
October 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096139/feasibility-of-stereotactic-catheter-ventriculocisternostomy-for-cisternal-lavage-therapy-in-patients-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Peter C Reinacher, Volker A Coenen, Rainer Kraeutle, Christian Scheiwe, Ramazan Jabbarli, Roland Roelz
OBJECTIVE: Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) confers considerable morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Available prevention strategies are insufficient. Cisternal blood clearance by stereotactic catheter ventriculocisternostomy (STX-VCS) and cisternal lavage therapy is a novel concept for DCI prevention. Here, we assess the general feasibility, pitfalls and imaging requirements of STX-VCS after aSAH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 73 aSAH patients admitted between 2008 and 2015 with appropriate imaging for simulation of stereotactic procedures were included...
December 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080423/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-finishing-pigs-implications-on-public-health
#20
Wonhee Cha, Pina M Fratamico, Leah E Ruth, Andrew S Bowman, Jacqueline M Nolting, Shannon D Manning, Julie A Funk
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, which can cause serious illnesses, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. To study the epidemiology of STEC in finishing pigs and examine the potential risks they pose for human STEC infections, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study in three finishing sites. Six cohorts of pigs (2 cohorts/site, 20 pigs/cohort) were randomly selected, and fecal samples (n=898) were collected every two weeks through their finishing period...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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