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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641131/children-s-brain-activation-during-risky-decision-making-a-contributor-to-substance-problems
#1
Thomas J Crowley, Manish S Dalwani, Joseph T Sakai, Kristen M Raymond, Shannon K McWilliams, Marie T Banich, Susan K Mikulich-Gilbertson
OBJECTIVE: Among young children excessive externalizing behaviors often predict adolescent conduct and substance use disorders. Adolescents with those disorders show aberrant brain function when choosing between risky or cautious options. We therefore asked whether similarly aberrant brain function during risky decision-making accompanies excessive externalizing behaviors among children, hypothesizing an association between externalizing severity and regional intensity of brain activation during risky decision-making...
June 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641130/sexual-orientation-minority-stress-social-norms-and-substance-use-among-racially-diverse-adolescents
#2
Ethan H Mereish, Jeremy T Goldbach, Claire Burgess, Angelo M DiBello
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641122/working-with-parents-to-treat-anxiety-disordered-children-a-proof-of-concept-rct-evaluating-fear-less-triple-p
#3
Vanessa E Cobham, Ania Filus, Matthew R Sanders
Little is known about the efficacy of parent-only interventions and the maintenance of gains over time with anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a 6-session parent-focused intervention (Fear-less Triple P) in reducing children's anxiety symptomatology. The parents of 61 anxiety-disordered children (7-14 years) were randomly assigned to either the 6-session parent-only group CBT intervention or a wait-list control (WL) group. Diagnostic and questionnaire measures were administered at post-treatment; as well as 3-, 6- and 12 months following the completion of treatment...
June 15, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641071/giving-it-our-best-shot-human-papillomavirus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-immunization-among-refugees-massachusetts-2011-2013
#4
Rachel Stein Berman, Laura Smock, Megan H Bair-Merritt, Jennifer Cochran, Paul L Geltman
INTRODUCTION: The receipt rate of hepatitis B virus vaccine among adolescents in the United States is high, while the receipt rate of human papillomavirus vaccine is low. Rates have not been closely studied among refugees, whose home countries have high rates of disease caused by these viruses. METHODS: We examined human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus immunization rates among 2,269 refugees aged 9 to 26 years who resettled in Massachusetts from 2011 through 2013...
June 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641065/motivations-and-contents-of-parent-child-value-transmission
#5
Daniela Barni, Silvia Donato, Rosa Rosnati, Francesca Danioni
This study focused on parents' motivations to transmit values to their adolescent children. According to Self-Determination Theory, controlled motivations (i.e., external and introjected)-which refer to doing something because it leads to approval or rewards-and autonomous motivations (i.e., identified and integrated)-which refer to doing something because it is perceived as inherently worthy-were examined. 325 Italian parental couples, with one child aged between 14 and 18 years, filled out a self-report questionnaire...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641063/launching-adoptees-into-adulthood-mothers-and-fathers-promotion-of-volitional-functioning
#6
Sonia Ranieri, Laura Ferrari, Daniela Barni, Rosa Rosnati
In the psychological literature, there is growing evidence that parental support of children's volitional functioning is one of the most prominent protective factors during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. According to the Self-Determination Theory, children cope best with developmental tasks when they acquire a sense of self-governance and self-endorsed functioning. In the field of adoption research, however, the parental promotion of volitional functioning (PVF) and its relation to the adopted child's development are still underinvestigated...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641061/positive-parenting-as-responsible-care-risks-protective-factors-and-intervention-evaluation
#7
Silvia Donato, Anna Bertoni
In this themed issue of the Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, the first four contributions provide knowledge on factors that can support or hinder positive parenting throughout children's lives. In particular, the first article examined the spillover of work stressors on parenting behaviors and the role of spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. The second contribution examines the association between parents' promotion of volitional functioning and adopted children's sense of strength of family bonds and belonging to the adoptive family...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641049/a-study-of-physicians-experiences-with-recommending-hpv-vaccines-to-adolescent-boys
#8
Li Ping Wong, Zobaida Edib, Haridah Alias, Sharina M Mohamad Shakir, Raja N A Raja Muhammad Yusoff, I-Ching Sam, Gregory D Zimet
Assessing physicians' experiences in HPV vaccine recommendation and delivery to adolescent boys is essential to providing an understanding of the issues of vaccine acceptance and an insight for policymakers to enhance HPV vaccinations among adolescent boys. Between January and April 2014 a mail survey was conducted using physicians in Malaysia known to provide either one or both HPV vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) immunisation services. A total of 357 completed questionnaires were received (response rate 22...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640991/a-risk-algorithm-for-the-persistence-of-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-during-college
#9
Philippe Mortier, Glenn Kiekens, Randy P Auerbach, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, Jennifer G Green, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronny Bruffaerts
OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of this study are to (a) identify patterns of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) during college among students with lifetime pre-matriculation STB and (b) develop a risk-screening algorithm for persistence of pre-matriculation STB during college. METHODS: Data come from the Leuven College Surveys, a series of prospective cohort studies of all incoming KU Leuven University freshmen. In the academic year 2012-2013, 4,889 incoming freshmen (73...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640907/accelerometer-measured-levels-of-moderate-to-vigorous-intensity-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Rabha Elmesmari, John J Reilly, Anne Martin, James Y Paton
CONTEXT: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) are important for child and adolescent health. OBJECTIVE: To examine habitual levels of accelerometer measured MVPA and ST in children and adolescents with chronic disease, and how these levels compare with healthy peers. METHODS: Data sources: An extensive search was carried out in Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL from 2000-2017. Study selection: Studies with accelerometer-measured MVPA and/or ST (at least 3 days and 6 hours/day to provide estimates of habitual levels) in children 0-19 years of age with chronic diseases but without co-morbidities that would present major impediments to physical activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640698/pediatric-gliomas-current-concepts-on-diagnosis-biology-and-clinical-management
#11
Dominik Sturm, Stefan M Pfister, David T W Jones
Gliomas are the most common CNS tumors in children and adolescents, and they show an extremely broad range of clinical behavior. The majority of pediatric gliomas present as benign, slow-growing lesions classified as grade I or II by the WHO classification of CNS tumors. These pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are fundamentally different from IDH-mutant LGGs occurring in adults, because they rarely undergo malignant transformation and show excellent overall survival under current treatment strategies. However, a significant fraction of gliomas develop over a short period of time and progress rapidly and are therefore classified as WHO grade III or IV high-grade gliomas (HGGs)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637291/pediatric-to-adult-care-transition-perspectives-of-young-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Jerlym S Porter, Kimberly M Wesley, Mimi S Zhao, Rebecca J Rupff, Jane S Hankins
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637153/dutch-version-of-the-fear-of-pain-questionnaire-for-adolescents-with-chronic-pain
#13
Carolien Dekker, Caroline H G Bastiaenen, Janneke E de Vries, Laura E Simons, Mariëlle E J B Goossens, Jeanine A M C F Verbunt
BACKGROUND: Fear of pain is important in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire-Child version has been developed to assess pain related fear in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Translating the original questionnaire into Dutch, and investigating internal consistency and construct validity to enable use in the Dutch pain rehabilitation setting for treatment and research. METHODS: Cross-sectional validation study: After forward and back translation of the FOPQ-C, adolescents (11-22 years old) with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed an assessment containing the Dutch Fear of Pain Questionnaire, and questionnaires about demographics, pain catastrophizing, functional disability, and pain intensity...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636758/fetal-overnutrition-and-offspring-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-the-exploring-perinatal-outcomes-among-children-epoch-study
#14
K A Sauder, C W Hockett, B M Ringham, D H Glueck, D Dabelea
AIMS: To examine the associations of intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity with offspring insulin resistance, β-cell function and oral disposition index in a longitudinal observational study of ethnically diverse offspring. METHODS: A total of 445 offspring who were exposed (n=81) or not exposed (n=364) to maternal diabetes in utero completed two fasting blood measurements at mean (sd) ages of 10.5 (1.5) and 16.5 (1.2) years, respectively, and an oral glucose tolerance test at the second visit...
June 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636697/role-of-positive-parenting-in-the-association-between-neighborhood-social-disadvantage-and-brain-development-across-adolescence
#15
Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Meg Dennison, Orli Schwartz, Christos Pantelis, Lisa Sheeber, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Importance: The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. Objective: To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636644/longitudinal-changes-in-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-body-mass-index-in-adolescence-migrations-towards-different-weight-cluster
#16
José Devís-Devís, Jorge Lizandra, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Esther Pérez-Gimeno, Xavier García-Massò, Carmen Peiró-Velert
This study examined longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescents, specifically their migrations towards a different weight cluster. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year study. A clustering Self-Organized Maps Analysis was performed to visualize changes in subjects' characteristics between the first and second assessment, and how adolescents were grouped. Also a classification tree was used to identify the behavioral characteristics of the groups that changed their weight cluster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636610/chronotypes-in-the-us-influence-of-age-and-sex
#17
Dorothee Fischer, David A Lombardi, Helen Marucci-Wellman, Till Roenneberg
An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636580/mediator-effects-of-positive-emotions-on-social-support-and-depression-among-adolescents-suffering-from-mobile-phone-addiction
#18
Menglong Li, Xia Jiang, Yujia Ren
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emotions on the relationship between social support and depression among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636479/decrements-in-knee-extensor-and-flexor-strength-are-associated-with-performance-fatigue-during-simulated-basketball-game-play-in-adolescent-male-players
#19
Aaron T Scanlan, Jordan L Fox, Nattai R Borges, Anne Delextrat, Tania Spiteri, Vincent J Dalbo, Robert Stanton, Crystal O Kean
This study quantified lower-limb strength decrements and assessed the relationships between strength decrements and performance fatigue during simulated basketball. Ten adolescent, male basketball players completed a circuit-based, basketball simulation. Sprint and jump performance were assessed during each circuit, with knee flexion and extension peak concentric torques measured at baseline, half-time, and full-time. Decrement scores were calculated for all measures. Mean knee flexor strength decrement was significantly (P < 0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636414/non-dipping-status-and-selected-adipokines-concentration-in-children-with-primary-arterial-hypertension
#20
Agnieszka Jędzura, Piotr Adamczyk, Omar Bjanid, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Dagmara Roszkowska-Bjanid, Anna Baraniecka, Beata Banaszak, Krzysztof Plesiński, Aurelia Morawiec-Knysak, Katarzyna Ziora, Maria Szczepańska
High blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents is associated with increased risk of persistent hypertension (HT) in adulthood and, consequently, cardiovascular disease and target organ damage. AIM: The values of selected anthropometric parameters and laboratory test results including leptin and apelin concentration were evaluated with regard to averaged values of office BP measurements and 24-hour ABPM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 55 children: 23-with primary HT and coexisting overweight or obese (HT-OB), 16-with primary HT and normal weight (HT-NW), and 16 healthy children (C)...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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