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Matthew E Dupre, Alicia Nelson
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197)...
October 15, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
Insomnia is considered a hyperarousal disorder, in which several psychophysiological domains including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are over-activated, potentially contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Here, we aimed to determine whether insomnia that develops in the context of the transition to menopause (menopausal transition insomnia, MTI) is similarly characterized by autonomic arousal. We also took into account modulation of the ANS by the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, a factor that has not previously been considered in studies on insomnia...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yan Xu, Yawei Xing, Yanjie Xu, Chahua Huang, Huihui Bao, Kui Hong, Xiaoshu Cheng
We know that silencing Bim, a pro-apoptosis protein, significantly attenuates glucose and oxygen-deprived induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the Bim activation in the heart have remained unknown. Pim-2 is one of three Pim serine/threonine kinase family members thought to be involved in cell survival and proliferation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) condition in vitro, mimicking ischemic/reperfusion injury in vivo. H/R augmented the expression of Bim, Cyt C, and Pim-2 and induced H9c2 cell apoptosis...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Isabelle F van der Velpen, Stephanie Feleus, Anne Suzanne Bertens, Behnam Sabayan
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac function is a key player in maintaining energy homeostasis in the brain. Heart failure is closely related to higher risk of neurocognitive disorders. Recent evidence shows that this relationship might not be limited to patients with advanced heart failure, and even suboptimal cardiac functioning is associated with accelerated brain aging. Hence, hemodynamic and serum cardiac markers may provide valuable information about the risk of dementia. METHODS: We provide an overview on the link between cardiac markers and cognitive function by a systematic search in five databases...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Jinah Jang, Hun-Jun Park, Seok-Won Kim, Heejin Kim, Ju Young Park, Soo Jin Na, Hyeon Ji Kim, Moon Nyeo Park, Seung Hyun Choi, Sun Hwa Park, Sung Won Kim, Sang-Mo Kwon, Pum-Joon Kim, Dong-Woo Cho
Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic method for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases; however, some challenges prohibit the efficacy after cell delivery due to hostile microenvironment of the injured myocardium. 3D printed pre-vascularized stem cell patch can enhance the therapeutic efficacy for cardiac repair through promotion of rapid vascularization after patch transplantation. In this study, stem cell-laden decellularized extracellular matrix bioinks are used in 3D printing of pre-vascularized and functional multi-material structures...
October 14, 2016: Biomaterials
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
C V Ananth, J A Lavery, A M Friedman, R J Wapner, J D Wright
OBJECTIVE: We examined rates of serious maternal complications in relation to severe pre-eclampsia based on the delivering hospital's annualised volume. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. POPULATION AND SETTING: Singleton deliveries (n = 25 782 235) in 439 hospitals in the USA. METHODS: Annualised hospital volume was categorised as 25-500, 501-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of in-hospital maternal death and serious maternal complications, including puerperal cerebrovascular disorders, pulmonary oedema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal, heart and liver failure, sepsis, haemorrhage and intubation in relation to severe pre-eclampsia...
October 21, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Lijiang Ma, Wendy K Chung
Group 1 pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation and occlusion of small pulmonary arterioles, leading to progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Historically it has been associated with a high mortality rate, although over the last decade, treatment has improved survival. PAH includes idiopathic PAH (IPAH), heritable PAH (HPAH), and PAH associated with certain medical conditions...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Wilfried Dinh, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Mihai Gheorghiade, Adriaan A Voors, Michael van der Laan, Hani N Sabbah
Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels...
October 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Xingqun Liang, Sylvia M Evans, Yunfu Sun
The sinoatrial node (SAN) is the dominant pacemaker of the heart. Abnormalities in SAN formation and function can cause sinus arrhythmia, including sick sinus syndrome and sudden death. A better understanding of genes and signaling pathways that regulate SAN development and function is essential to develop more effective treatment to sinus arrhythmia, including biological pacemakers. In this review, we briefly summarize the key processes of SAN morphogenesis during development, and focus on the transcriptional network that drives SAN development...
October 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Mieke L G Ten Eikelder, Kelly Mast, Annemarie van der Velden, Kitty W M Bloemenkamp, Ben W Mol
Importance: Induction of labor is a widely used obstetric intervention, occurring in one in four pregnancies. When the cervix is unfavorable, still many different induction methods are used. Objective: We compared Foley catheter alone to different misoprostol dosages and administration routes, and the combination of Foley catheter with misoprostol. Evidence acquisition: We reviewed the literature on the best induction method regarding their safety and effectiveness, using the outcome measures hyperstimulation, fetal distress, neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as cesarean delivery, vaginal instrumental delivery, and maternal morbidity...
October 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
K L Yew, Z Kang, A Anum
Coronary artery anomalies are often discovered incidentally during cardiac catheterization or computed tomography coronary angiography and may involve the affected coronary artery origin and its course. Coronary artery anomalies are associated with congenital heart disease. The affected coronary arteries may have an unusual high take off origin, origin from contralateral or non-coronary sinus, origin from the pulmonary artery, single coronary system or coronary artery fistula.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
F Y Kwok, S Venugobal
BACKGROUND: Induction of anaesthesia with propofol is often associated with a significant decrease in arterial pressure, especially in the older population. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of phenylephrine in two different doses i.e. 100mcg and 200mcg, given during induction to counteract the anticipated hypotensive effect of propofol in older patients aged over 55 years. METHODS: Seventy-two ASA physical status I - II patients aged 55 years or older were randomly allocated to group 1 (received propofol mixed with normal saline), group 2 (propofol mixed with 100mcg of phenylephrine) or group 3 (propofol mixed with 200mcg of pheynylphrine)...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Hilary Bradbury, Svante Lifvergren
We discuss action research healthcare as a transformative approach that continuously innovates in healthcare, attending to the "quadruple" aim. This article is shaped around a decade of evidence in Sweden. At the heart of healthcare action research is the endeavour to "learn by doing" with the participation of key stakeholders, including the patient. Experience suggests that an action research approach is particularly relevant when treating patients with chronic diseases and complex care needs. This inclusion is itself a social learning process and is key to realizing the improved outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shigemiki Omiya, Yosuke Omori, Manabu Taneike, Andrea Protti, Osamu Yamaguchi, Shizuo Akira, Ajay M Shah, Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
We have reported that the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of pressure overload-induced inflammatory responses and heart failure. However, its role in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction has not been elucidated.TLR9-deficient and control C57Bl/6 wild-type mice were subjected to left coronary artery ligation. The survival rate 14 days post-operation was significantly lower in TLR9-deficient mice than that in wild-type mice with evidence of cardiac rupture in all dead mice...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Claudiu Nistor, Daniel P Fudulu, Daniel Pantile, Teodor Horvat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Jennifer C Cook, Richard H Tran, J Herbert Patterson, Jo E Rodgers
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles of evolving therapies for the management of chronic heart failure (HF) and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are described. SUMMARY: HF confers a significant financial burden despite the widespread use of traditional guideline-directed medical therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and the rates of HF-related mortality and hospitalization have remained unacceptably high...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Toby N Weingarten, Tasha L Welch, Tamara L Moore, Gulshat F Walters, Joni L Whipple, Alexandre Cavalcante, Irina Bancos, William F Young, Lucinda M Gruber, Muhammad Z Shah, Travis J McKenzie, Darrell R Schroeder, Juraj Sprung
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, despite pharmacologic adrenergic receptor blockade, higher preoperative levels of catecholamines and metanephrines (adrenergic activity) are associated with increased intraoperative complications. METHODS: Records of patients undergoing paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma (PGL-PCC) resection from January 1, 2000, through June 31, 2015, were reviewed for preoperative levels of adrenergic activity, intraoperative variability in blood pressure and heart rate (range), and postoperative outcomes (hypotension requiring treatment)...
October 18, 2016: Urology
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