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NPJ Microgravity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644337/novel-moon-and-mars-partial-gravity-simulation-paradigms-and-their-effects-on-the-balance-between-cell-growth-and-cell-proliferation-during-early-plant-development
#1
Aránzazu Manzano, Raúl Herranz, Leonardus A den Toom, Sjoerd Te Slaa, Guus Borst, Martijn Visser, F Javier Medina, Jack J W A van Loon
Clinostats and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) are used to simulate microgravity, but, for space exploration, we need to know the response of living systems to fractional levels of gravity (partial gravity) as they exist on Moon and Mars. We have developed and compared two different paradigms to simulate partial gravity using the RPM, one by implementing a centrifuge on the RPM (RPMHW ), the other by applying specific software protocols to driving the RPM motors (RPMSW ). The effects of the simulated partial gravity were tested in plant root meristematic cells, a system with known response to real and simulated microgravity...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644336/limitations-in-predicting-the-space-radiation-health-risk-for-exploration-astronauts
#2
REVIEW
Jeffery C Chancellor, Rebecca S Blue, Keith A Cengel, Serena M Auñón-Chancellor, Kathleen H Rubins, Helmut G Katzgraber, Ann R Kennedy
Despite years of research, understanding of the space radiation environment and the risk it poses to long-duration astronauts remains limited. There is a disparity between research results and observed empirical effects seen in human astronaut crews, likely due to the numerous factors that limit terrestrial simulation of the complex space environment and extrapolation of human clinical consequences from varied animal models. Given the intended future of human spaceflight, with efforts now to rapidly expand capabilities for human missions to the moon and Mars, there is a pressing need to improve upon the understanding of the space radiation risk, predict likely clinical outcomes of interplanetary radiation exposure, and develop appropriate and effective mitigation strategies for future missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619409/electrophysiological-experiments-in-microgravity-lessons-learned-and-future-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Simon L Wuest, Benjamin Gantenbein, Fabian Ille, Marcel Egli
Advances in electrophysiological experiments have led to the discovery of mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) and the identification of the physiological function of specific MSCs. They are believed to play important roles in mechanosensitive pathways by allowing for cells to sense their mechanical environment. However, the physiological function of many MSCs has not been conclusively identified. Therefore, experiments have been developed that expose cells to various mechanical loads, such as shear flow, membrane indentation, osmotic challenges and hydrostatic pressure...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560415/biomedical-findings-from-nasa-s-project-mercury-a-case-series
#4
William R Carpentier, John B Charles, Mark Shelhamer, Amanda S Hackler, Tracy L Johnson, Catherine M M Domingo, Jeffrey P Sutton, Graham B I Scott, Virginia E Wotring
The United States first sent humans into space during six flights of Project Mercury from May 1961 to May 1963. These flights were brief, with durations ranging from about 15 min to just over 34 h. A primary purpose of the project was to determine if humans could perform meaningful tasks while in space. This was supported by a series of biomedical measurements on each astronaut before, during (when feasible), and after flight to document the effects of exposure to the spaceflight environment. While almost all of the data presented here have been published in technical reports, this is the first integrated summary of the main results...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507873/anaesthesia-in-austere-environments-literature-review-and-considerations-for-future-space-exploration-missions
#5
REVIEW
Matthieu Komorowski, Sarah Fleming, Mala Mawkin, Jochen Hinkelbein
Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery. Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Austere and isolated environments (such as polar bases or submarines) have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387784/gene-metabolite-profile-integration-to-understand-the-cause-of-spaceflight-induced-immunodeficiency
#6
Nabarun Chakraborty, Amrita Cheema, Aarti Gautam, Duncan Donohue, Allison Hoke, Carolynn Conley, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Spaceflight presents a spectrum of stresses very different from those associated with terrestrial conditions. Our previous study (BMC Genom. 15 : 659, 2014) integrated the expressions of mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins and results indicated that microgravity induces an immunosuppressive state that can facilitate opportunistic pathogenic attack. However, the existing data are not sufficient for elucidating the molecular drivers of the given immunosuppressed state. To meet this knowledge gap, we focused on the metabolite profile of spaceflown human cells...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367947/the-influence-of-gravity-and-light-on-locomotion-and-orientation-of-heterocypris-incongruens-and-notodromas-monacha-crustacea-ostracoda
#7
Jessica Fischer, Christian Laforsch
For future manned long-d uration space missions, the supply of essentials, such as food, water, and oxygen with the least possible material resupply from Earth is vital. This need could be satisfied utilizing aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), as they facilitate recycling and autochthonous production. However, few organisms can cope with the instable environmental conditions and organic pollution potentially prevailing in such BLSS. Ostracoda, however, occur in eu- and even hypertrophic waters, tolerate organic and chemical waste, varying temperatures, salinity, and pH ranges...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355237/erratum-author-correction-successful-amplification-of-dna-aboard-the-international-space-station
#8
Anna-Sophia Boguraev, Holly C Christensen, Ashley R Bonneau, John A Pezza, Nicole M Nichols, Antonio J Giraldez, Michelle M Gray, Brandon M Wagner, Jordan T Aken, Kevin D Foley, D Scott Copeland, Sebastian Kraves, Ezequiel Alvarez Saavedra
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41526-017-0033-9.].
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354685/inflammatory-gene-expression-signatures-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-possible-implications-in-microgravity-induced-icp-elevation
#9
Susana B Zanello, Vasisht Tadigotla, James Hurley, Johan Skog, Brian Stevens, Eusebia Calvillo, Eric Bershad
The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a neuro-ophthalmologic condition described in astronauts returning from long duration space missions. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri, is characterized by a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of an intracranial mass lesion. Because VIIP and IIH share some neurologic and ophthalmologic manifestations, the latter might be used as a model to study some of the processes underlying VIIP...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214212/erratum-brain-structural-plasticity-with-spaceflight
#10
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41526-016-0001-9.].
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184903/international-roadmap-for-artificial-gravity-research
#11
REVIEW
Gilles Clément
In this paper, we summarize the current and future research activities that will determine the requirements for implementing artificial gravity (AG) to mitigate the effects of long duration exposure to microgravity on board exploration class space vehicles. NASA and its international partners have developed an AG roadmap that contains a common set of goals, objectives, and milestones. This roadmap includes both ground-based and space-based projects, and involves human subjects as well as animal and cell models...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167819/successful-amplification-of-dna-aboard-the-international-space-station
#12
Anna-Sophia Boguraev, Holly C Christensen, Ashley R Bonneau, John A Pezza, Nicole M Nichols, Antonio J Giraldez, Michelle M Gray, Brandon M Wagner, Jordan T Aken, Kevin D Foley, D Scott Copeland, Sebastian Kraves, Ezequiel Alvarez Saavedra
As the range and duration of human ventures into space increase, it becomes imperative that we understand the effects of the cosmic environment on astronaut health. Molecular technologies now widely used in research and medicine will need to become available in space to ensure appropriate care of astronauts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for DNA analysis, yet its potential for use on-orbit remains under-explored. We describe DNA amplification aboard the International Space Station (ISS) through the use of a miniaturized miniPCR system...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147680/coculture-of-meniscus-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-simulated-microgravity
#13
William M Weiss, Aillette Mulet-Sierra, Melanie Kunze, Nadr M Jomha, Adetola B Adesida
Simulated microgravity has been shown to enhance cartilaginous matrix formation by chondrocytes and chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Similarly, coculture of primary chondrocytes with MSCs has been shown as a strategy to simultaneously retain the differentiated phenotype of chondrocytes and enhance cartilaginous matrix formation. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated microgravity on cocultures of primary human meniscus cells and adipose-derived MSCs. We used biochemical, qPCR, and immunofluorescence assays to conduct our investigation...
2017: NPJ microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147679/dense-fluidized-granular-media-in-microgravity
#14
Philip Born, Johannes Schmitz, Matthias Sperl
Handling and transport of granular media are inevitably governed by the settling of particles. Settling into a dense state is one of the defining characteristics of granular media, among dissipation and absence of thermal agitation. Hence, settling complicates the adaptation of microscopic theories from atomic, molecular, or colloidal media to granular media. It is desirable to provide experiments in which selectively one of the granular characteristics is tuned to test suitable adaptation of a theory. Here we show that gas fluidization of granular media in microgravity is a suitable approach to achieve steady states closer to thermally agitated systems free of settling...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046893/the-measurement-of-the-surface-energy-of-solids-using-a-laboratory-drop-tower
#15
Alfredo Calvimontes
This work presents a technique for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems. The instrument and the evaluation method for the measurements obtained by it, allow the analysis of the energy changes of sessile drops submitted to microgravity. A mathematical model based on the thermodynamic of wetting is applied to evaluate the interfacial energies as a function of the drop shape changes due to the effect of the release of gravitation during the experiment. The presented model bases on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the interfaces and not on the balance of bi-dimensional tensors on the contour line...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894789/impact-of-the-mk-vi-skinsuit-on-skin-microbiota-of-terrestrial-volunteers-and-an-international-space-station-bound-astronaut
#16
Richard A Stabler, Helena Rosado, Ronan Doyle, David Negus, Philip A Carvil, Juan G Kristjánsson, David A Green, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Cadi Davies, Andreas Mogensen, Jonathan Scott, Peter W Taylor
Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879229/erratum-a-cubesat-centrifuge-for-long-duration-milligravity-research
#17
Erik Asphaug, Jekan Thangevelautham, Andrew Klesh, Aman Chandra, Ravi Nallapu, Laksh Raura, Mercedes Herreras-Martinez, Stephen Schwartz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41526-017-0021-0.].
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879228/thermodiffusion-in-multicomponent-n-alkane-mixtures
#18
Guillaume Galliero, Henri Bataller, Jean-Patrick Bazile, Joseph Diaz, Fabrizio Croccolo, Hai Hoang, Romain Vermorel, Pierre-Arnaud Artola, Bernard Rousseau, Velisa Vesovic, M Mounir Bou-Ali, José M Ortiz de Zárate, Shenghua Xu, Ke Zhang, François Montel, Antonio Verga, Olivier Minster
Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n-alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868355/stability-of-gene-expression-in-human-t-cells-in-different-gravity-environments-is-clustered-in-chromosomal-region-11p15-4
#19
Cora S Thiel, Andreas Huge, Swantje Hauschild, Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A Lauber, Jennifer Polzer, Katrin Paulsen, Hartwin Lier, Frank Engelmann, Burkhard Schmitz, Andreas Schütte, Liliana E Layer, Oliver Ullrich
In the last decades, a plethora of in vitro studies with living human cells contributed a vast amount of knowledge about cellular and molecular effects of microgravity. Previous studies focused mostly on the identification of gravity-responsive genes, whereas a multi-platform analysis at an integrative level, which specifically evaluates the extent and robustness of transcriptional response to an altered gravity environment was not performed so far. Therefore, we investigated the stability of gene expression response in non-activated human Jurkat T lymphocytic cells in different gravity environments through the combination of parabolic flights with a suborbital ballistic rocket and 2D clinostat and centrifuge experiments, using strict controls for excluding all possible other factors of influence...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868354/differential-dynamic-microscopy-of-bidisperse-colloidal-suspensions
#20
Mohammad S Safari, Ryan Poling-Skutvik, Peter G Vekilov, Jacinta C Conrad
Research tasks in microgravity include monitoring the dynamics of constituents of varying size and mobility in processes such as aggregation, phase separation, or self-assembly. We use differential dynamic microscopy, a method readily implemented with equipment available on the International Space Station, to simultaneously resolve the dynamics of particles of radius 50 nm and 1 μm in bidisperse aqueous suspensions. Whereas traditional dynamic light scattering fails to detect a signal from the larger particles at low concentrations, differential dynamic microscopy exhibits enhanced sensitivity in these conditions by accessing smaller wavevectors where scattering from the large particles is stronger...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
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