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Cardiac Failure Review

Radek Pudil
Cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer remain the two most common causes of mortality in developed countries; however, progress in the treatment of malignant diseases significantly improved survival of oncological patients. Similarly, there is an increased number of the patients with malignancy who have a history of CV disease or an increased CV risk. Rates of CV problems from cancer-related therapeutics are high, and cardiotoxicity is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Ali Valika, Maria Rosa Costanzo
Sleep-disordered breathing is common in heart failure patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Central sleep apnea occurs more commonly in heart failure-reduced ejection fraction, and obstructive sleep apnea occurs more frequently in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Although the two types of sleep-disordered breathing have distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms, both contribute to abnormal cardiovascular consequences. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea in heart failure has been well defined, whereas treatment strategies for central sleep apnea in heart failure continue to evolve...
November 2017: Cardiac failure review
Martin R Cowie, Michel Komajda
QUALIFY (QUality of Adherence to guideline recommendations for LIFe-saving treatment in heart failure surveY) showed that good physician adherence to guideline recommendations for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and ivabradine, with prescription of at least 50 % of recommended dosages, was associated with better 6-month outcomes than moderate or poor adherence. Poor adherence was associated with higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2...
November 2017: Cardiac failure review
Ovidiu Chioncel, Sean P Collins, Stephen J Greene, Peter S Pang, Andrew P Ambrosy, Elena-Laura Antohi, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Javed Butler, Mihai Gheorghiade
Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a " multi-event disease" and hospitalisation is a critical event in the clinical course of HF. Despite relatively rapid relief of symptoms, hospitalisation for AHF is followed by an increased risk of death and re-hospitalisation. In AHF, risk stratification from clinically available data is increasingly important in evaluating long-term prognosis. From the perspective of patients, information on the risk of mortality and re-hospitalisation would be helpful in providing patients with insight into their disease...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Gian Franco Gensini, Camilla Alderighi, Raffaele Rasoini, Marco Mazzanti, Giancarlo Casolo
The use of telemonitoring and telemedicine is a relatively new but quickly developing area in medicine. As new digital tools and applications are being created and used to manage medical conditions such as heart failure, many implications require close consideration and further study, including the effectiveness and safety of these telemonitoring tools in diagnosing, treating and managing heart failure compared to traditional face-to-face doctor-patient interaction. When compared to multidisciplinary intervention programs which are frequently hindered by economic, geographic and bureaucratic barriers, non-invasive remote monitoring could be a solution to support and promote the care of patients over time...
November 2017: Cardiac failure review
Yih-Kai Chan, Alice M David, Caitlyn Mainland, Lei Chen, Simon Stewart
We report on our learning from many years of research testing the value of nurse-led, multidisciplinary, home-based management of heart failure. We discuss and highlight the key challenges we have experienced in testing this model of care relative to alternatives and evolving patient population. Accordingly, we propose a pragmatic approach to adapt current models of care to meet the needs of increasingly complex (and costly) patients with multimorbidity.
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
David Pham, Justin L Grodin
Despite advances in medical therapy over the past few decades, the incidence of heart failure hospitalisation continues to rise. Diuretics are the most common therapy used to treat heart failure as they relieve congestion. However, there is a lack of guidance on how to best use these medications. Guidelines support the use of diuretics at the lowest clinically effective dose but do not specify a diuretic strategy beyond that. Here we review the diuretics available for treatment, potential mechanisms of diuretic resistance and ways to address this in the ambulatory setting, and review tools that have been developed to help guide diuretic use in the treatment of chronic heart failure...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Izabella Uchmanowicz, Anna Chudiak, Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Robbert Gobbens
Hypertension is both a health problem and a financial one globally. It affects nearly 30 % of the general population. Elderly people, aged ≥65 years, are a special group of hypertensive patients. In this group, the overall prevalence of the disease reaches 60 %, rising to 70 % in those aged ≥80 years. In the elderly population, isolated systolic hypertension is quite common. High systolic blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, cognitive impairment and kidney disease...
November 2017: Cardiac failure review
Ernest Spitzer, Ben Ren, Felix Zijlstra, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Marcel L Geleijnse
Ejection fraction is one of the most powerful determinants of prognosis and is a crucial parameter for the determination of cardiovascular therapies in conditions such as heart failure, valvular conditions and ischaemic heart disease. Among echocardiographic methods, 3D echocardiography has been attributed as the preferred one for its assessment, given an increased accuracy and reproducibility. Full-volume multi-beat acquisitions are prone to stitching artefacts due to arrhythmias and require prolonged breath holds...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Robert D Adam, James Shambrook, Andrew S Flett
Despite significant advances in heart failure diagnostics and therapy, the prognosis remains poor, with one in three dying within a year of hospital admission. This is at least in part due to the difficulties in risk stratification and personalisation of therapy. The use of left ventricular systolic function as the main arbiter for entrance into clinical trials for drugs and advanced therapy, such as implantable defibrillators, grossly simplifies the complex heterogeneous nature of the syndrome. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance offers a wealth of data to aid in diagnosis and prognostication...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Joe Gallagher, Chris Watson, Patricia Campbell, Mark Ledwidge, Kenneth McDonald
There is increasing interest in the concept of personalised medicine, whereby conditions with common pathophysiologies are targeted together, and also using biomarkers to identify patients who will most benefit from certain interventions. Several data sets indicate that natriuretic peptides are effective in refining risk prediction for heart failure and cardiovascular disease and add predictive power to conventional risk factors. To date two trials have tested the approach of using natriuretic peptides as part of a strategy to identify those at highest risk of cardiovascular events: St...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Mark Im Noble
Attempts have been made to assess and measure ventricular contractility in patients and whether it can be used to identify heart failure. Due to the assumption that if the contractility of all the muscle fibres in a heart were lower, could it be called heart failure? Early attempts involved the assumption of a model of muscle that had a contractile unit in series with an elastic element, but this was found to be incorrect. Further attempts applied the series elastic model but this model also proved challenging...
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Andrew Js Coats, Giuseppe Rosano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Carine E Hamo, Michelle W Bloom
Cancer and cardiovascular disease account for nearly half of all deaths in the US. The majority of cancer therapies are known to cause potential cardiac toxicity in some form. Patients with underlying cardiac disease are at a particularly increased risk for worse outcomes following cancer therapy. Most alarming is the potential for heart failure as a result of cancer treatment, which may lead to early disruption or withdrawal of life-saving cancer therapies and can potentially increase cardiovascular mortality...
April 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Mark Sweeney, Angela Yiu, Alexander R Lyon
Functional changes in the heart in patients with cancer can be a result of both the disease itself and various cancer therapies, and limiting cardiac damage has become an increasingly important issue as survival rates in patients with cancer have improved. Processes involved in cancer-induced cardiac atrophy may include cardiomyocyte atrophy and apoptosis, decreased protein synthesis, increased autophagy and proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteosome system. Further to direct effects of malignancy on the heart, several chemotherapeutic agents are known to affect the myocardium, in particular the anthracyclines...
April 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Jelena Čelutkienė, Mindaugas Balčiūnas, Denis Kablučko, Liucija Vaitkevičiūtė, Jelena Blaščiuk, Edvardas Danila
Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity poses substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in acute care settings. The specific role of pulmonary comorbidity in the treatment and outcomes of cardiovascular disease patients was not addressed in any short- or long-term prospective study. Both HF and COPD can be interpreted as systemic disorders associated with low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling and skeletal muscle atrophy. HF is regularly treated as a broader cardiopulmonary syndrome utilising acute respiratory therapy...
April 2017: Cardiac failure review
Giuseppe Mc Rosano, Cristiana Vitale, Petar Seferovic
Diabetes and heart failure are closely related: patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing heart failure and those with heart failure are at higher risk of developing diabetes. Furthermore, antidiabetic medications increase the risk of mortality and hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with and without pre-existing heart failure. When the two diseases are considered individually, heart failure has a much poorer prognosis than diabetes mellitus; therefore heart failure has to be a priority for treatment in patients presenting with the two conditions, and the diabetic patient with heart failure should be managed by the heart failure team...
April 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Eilidh Hill, Jackie Taylor
In developed countries, it is estimated that more than 10 % of adults aged over 70 years have heart failure (HF). Despite therapeutic advances, it remains a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is one of the commonest causes of unscheduled hospital admissions in older adults and data consistently show a lower uptake of evidence-based investigations and therapies as well as higher rates of HF hospitalisations and mortality than in younger adults. These rates are highest amongst patients discharged to 'skilled nursing facilities', where comorbidities, frailty and cognitive impairment are common and have a significant impact on outcomes...
April 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Ferdinando Iellamo, Karl Werdan, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Giuseppe Rosano, Maurizio Volterrani
Despite the availability of new drugs and devices, the treatment of cardiovascular disease remains suboptimal. Single-pill combination therapy offers a number of potential advantages. It can combine different classes of drugs to increase efficacy while mitigating the risks of treatment-related adverse events, reduce pill burden, lower medical cost, and improve patient adherence. Furthermore, in hypertension, single pill combinations include standard to lower doses of each drug than would be necessary to achieve goals with monotherapy, which may explain their better tolerability compared with higher dose monotherapy...
April 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
Mitja Lainscak
Medications that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) form the mainstay of current heart failure (HF) therapy in patients with reduced ejection fraction. Concerns about the risk of hyperkalaemia have created a significant barrier to optimal RAAS inhibitor therapy in patients with HF, however, and many patients are discontinuing or receiving suboptimal doses of these lifesaving therapies. This has serious health and economic implications due to adverse renal and cardiovascular events. There is therefore an important unmet need for novel therapeutic options for the long-term management of patients with, and at risk for, hyperkalaemia...
April 2017: Cardiac Failure Review
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