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Cardiac Failure Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206487/postpartum-cardiomyopathy-and-considerations-for-breastfeeding
#1
REVIEW
Laura Kearney, Paul Wright, Sadeer Fhadil, Martin Thomas
Postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare condition that develops near the end of pregnancy or in the months after giving birth, manifesting as heart failure secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Clinical progression varies considerably, with both end-stage heart failure occurring within days and spontaneous recovery seen. Treatment pathways for heart failure are well established, but the evidence about the safety of medicines passed to infants during breastfeeding is scarce and mainly poor; this often leads to an incorrect decision that a mother should not breastfeed...
August 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206486/exercise-training-in-heart-failure-patients-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-a-practical-approach
#2
REVIEW
Justien Cornelis, Jonathan Myers, Hein Heidbuchel, Christiaan Vrints, Paul Beckers
Persistent AF is present in at least 20 % of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is related to a poor prognosis and more severe cardiac arrhythmias. CHF and AF share a common pathophysiology and can exacerbate one another. Exercise programmes for people with CHF have been shown to improve aerobic capacity, prognosis and quality of life. Given that patients with both CHF and AF show greater impairment in exercise performance, exercise training programmes have the potential to be highly beneficial. Optimal clinical evaluation using a cardiopulmonary exercise test should be performed before starting a training programme...
August 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206485/frailty-in-heart-failure-implications-for-management
#3
REVIEW
Cristiana Vitale, Ilaria Spoletini, Giuseppe Mc Rosano
Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome associated with ageing and chronic illness, resulting from multiple organ impairment; physiological reserves decrease and vulnerability to stressors increase. The role of frailty in cardiovascular disease has become increasingly recognised. Up to 79% of patients with heart failure are frail. Moreover, frailty is associated with a worse quality of life and poor prognosis. This review summarises the available literature on frailty in HF and highlights indications for its management...
August 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206484/metabolic-modulation-of-cardiac-metabolism-in-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mc Rosano, Cristiana Vitale
Heart failure (HF) is associated with metabolic changes that cause a progressive impairment of cardiac and skeletal muscle high-energy phosphate production. As a consequence of the impaired cardiac metabolism, other processes are activated in the failing heart that further exacerbate the progression of HF. The reduced production of high-energy phosphates has important implications for both systole and diastole in HF with both preserved and reduced left ventricular function. The aim of this review is to summarise the state-of-the-art on metabolic therapy in HF with a particular focus on trimetazidine...
August 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206483/calming-the-nervous-heart-autonomic-therapies-in-heart-failure
#5
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
Heart failure (HF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease is characterised by autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic activity. Despite the use of medical therapies that target, in part, the neurohormonal axis, rates of HF progression, morbidity and mortality remain high. Emerging therapies centred on neuromodulation of autonomic control of the heart provide an alternative device-based approach to restoring sympathovagal balance...
August 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206482/heart-brain-interactions-in-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Nadja Scherbakov, Wolfram Doehner
Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease with a growing incidence worldwide. HF is accompanied by a wide range of conditions which affect disease progression, functional performance and contribute to growing healthcare costs. The interactions between a failing myocardium and altered cerebral functions contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with HF, affecting many comorbidities and causing a poor prognosis. This article provides a condensed version of the 2018 position paper from the Study Group on Heart and Brain Interaction of the Heart Failure Association...
August 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206481/imaging-of-valvular-heart-disease-in-heart-failure
#7
REVIEW
Tomaz Podlesnikar, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
Valvular heart disease (VHD) and heart failure (HF) are major health issues that are steadily increasing in prevalence in Western populations. VHD and HF frequently co-exist, which can complicate the accurate diagnosis of the severity of valve stenosis or regurgitation and affect decisions about therapeutic options. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality to determine left ventricular (LV) systolic function, to grade valvular stenosis or regurgitation and to characterise the mechanism underlying valvular dysfunction...
August 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206480/advances-in-imaging-and-heart-failure-where-are-we-heading
#8
REVIEW
Santhi Adigopula, Julia Grapsa
Advanced cardiac imaging, following technological advances, has progressed significantly; it now serves as a diagnostic as well as a prognostic tool. Heart failure patients demand constant follow-up with baseline imaging such as echocardiography or more advanced imaging such as stress imaging. Imaging guides treatment as well as interventional procedures for the improvement of heart failure patients. This review aims to summarise the latest imaging techniques in heart failure diagnosis and treatment.
August 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206479/heart-failure-with-mid-range-ejection-fraction-lessons-from-charm
#9
REVIEW
Lars H Lund
The newly defined category of heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF; EF 40-49 %) is beginning to be characterised but little is known about the potential for treating it. Trials and observational studies suggest that standard therapy for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; EF <40 %) may also offer some benefit to patients with EF ≥40 %; however, any difference between its effects on HFmrEF and true HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have until now not been explored...
August 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892479/a-review-of-plant-based-diets-to-prevent-and-treat-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
Conor P Kerley
Evidence supporting the role of nutrition in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity is growing. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using relevant keywords to identify human studies including diet and HF. Several plant-based diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity, notably the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets. Several other plant-based dietary patterns, including low-fat diets and the rice diet, also show promise...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892478/identification-and-treatment-of-central-sleep-apnoea-beyond-serve-hf
#11
REVIEW
William T Abraham, Adam Pleister, Robin Germany
Central sleep apnoea (CSA) occurs in a large proportion of HF patients. CSA has clear detrimental effects, resulting in intermittent hypoxia and sympathetic activation, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment options are limited following the results of a recent trial in which adaptive servo-ventilation resulted in an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Ongoing studies utilising other forms of positive airway pressure may provide additional insight into the results of this trial...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892477/bromocriptine-for-the-treatment-of-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#12
REVIEW
Tobias Koenig, Johann Bauersachs, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a life-threatening, pregnancy-associated heart disease that develops towards the end of pregnancy or in the first months following delivery in previously healthy women. Understanding of the pathophysiology has progressed in recent years, highlighting an oxidative-stress mediated cleavage of the nursing hormone prolactin into a toxic 16-kDa prolactin fragment as a major factor driving the disease. The 16-kDa prolactin fragment induces detrimental but potentially reversible effects on heart function...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892476/ambulatory-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-in-advanced-heart-failure
#13
REVIEW
Syed Yaseen Naqvi, Ibrahim G Salama, Ayhan Yoruk, Leway Chen
Cardiac transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with advanced congestive heart failure that is refractory to maximal medical therapy. However, donor heart availability remains the major limiting factor, resulting in a large number of patients waiting long periods of time before transplantation. As a result, mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly used as a 'bridge' in order to sustain organ function and stabilise haemodynamics while patients remain on the transplant waiting list or undergo left ventricular assist device surgery...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892475/optimising-heart-failure-therapies-in-the-acute-setting
#14
REVIEW
Mattia Arrigo, Petra Nijst, Alain Rudiger
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate treatment. The initial therapy should take into account the clinical presentation, pathophysiology at play, precipitating factors and underlying cardiac pathology. Particular attention should be given to polymorbidity and the avoidance of potential iatrogenic harm. Patient preferences and ethical issues should be integrated into the treatment plan at an early stage. The average survival of AHF patients is 2 years and the most vulnerable period is the 3-month time window directly after discharge...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892474/ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#15
REVIEW
Jackson J Liang, David J Callans
AF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) frequently coexist. Catheter ablation is an increasingly utilised treatment strategy for patients with AF and can be safely performed and is effective in achieving sinus rhythm for patients with HFrEF. Successful ablation may result in improved LV function, clinical heart failure status, quality of life and possibly even mortality. This review summarises the literature analysing efficacy, safety and outcomes of AF ablation for patients with HFrEF.
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892473/iron-therapy-in-heart-failure-ready-for-primetime
#16
REVIEW
Ify R Mordi, Aaron Tee, Chim C Lang
There is an increasing awareness of the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF) and its contributory role in the morbidity and mortality of HF. It is important to note that many HF patients have ID without being anaemic, hence it is vital to screen for ID even in patients with haemoglobin within the normal laboratory range. This review summarises the pathophysiology and epidemiology of ID in HF before discussing the evidence for iron replacement therapy in HF patients. Finally, it discusses the ongoing large outcome trials evaluating iron replacement in HF...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892472/pharmacological-interventions-effective-in-improving-exercise-capacity-in-heart-failure
#17
REVIEW
Cristiana Vitale, Spoletini Ilaria, Giuseppe Mc Rosano
Heart failure (HF) is characterised by exercise intolerance, which substantially impairs quality of life (QOL) and prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarise the state of the art on pharmacological interventions that are able to improve exercise capacity in HF. Ivabradine, trimetazidine and intravenous iron are the only drugs included in the European Society of Cardiology HF guidelines that have consistently been shown to positively affect functional capacity in HF. The beneficial effects on HF symptoms, physical performance and QOL using these pharmacological approaches are described...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892471/heart-failure-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
REVIEW
Joseph Gallagher, Kenneth McDonald, Mark Ledwidge, Chris J Watson
Heart failure is a growing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This arises as the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease rises, life expectancy increases and causes of heart failure more common in Africa, such as rheumatic heart disease and endomyocardial fibrosis, continue to be a significant issue. Lack of access to diagnostics is an issue with the expense and technical expertise required for echocardiography limiting access. Biomarker strategies may play a role here. Access to essential medicines is also limited and requires a renewed focus by the international community to ensure that appropriate medications are readily available, similar to that which has been implemented for HIV and malaria...
May 2018: Cardiac Failure Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892470/left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-the-setting-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-a-review-of-clinical-patterns-and-practical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Kenan Yalta, Mustafa Yilmaztepe, Cafer Zorkun
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is primarily regarded as a form of acute and transient myocardial disease with a variety of characteristic wall-motion abnormalities. Importantly, a significant portion of TTC cases generally present with variable degrees of acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with or without clinical HF. On the other hand, LV dysfunction in the setting of TTC has been universally and exclusively considered as a synonym for systolic dysfunction, potentially overlooking other forms of myocardial pathologies, including transient diastolic dysfunction, in this setting...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892469/heart-failure-with-mid-range-ejection-fraction-and-how-to-treat-it
#20
REVIEW
Yuri Lopatin
The introduction of heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) as a distinct phenotype has achieved its aim of stimulating research into the underlying characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of 40-49 %. Comparison of clinical characteristics, comorbidities, outcomes and prognosis among patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction, HFmrEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction allowed consideration of HFmrEF as an intermediate phenotype, which often resembles HF with reduced ejection fraction more than HF with preserved ejection fraction...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
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