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EFORT Open Reviews

Philipp Schleicher, Andreas Pingel, Frank Kandziora
Cervical spine injuries are frequent and often caused by a blunt trauma mechanism. They can have severe consequences, with a high mortality rate and a high rate of neurological lesions.Diagnosis is a three-step process: 1) risk assessment according to the history and clinical features, guided by a clinical decision rule such as the Canadian C-Spine rule; 2) imaging if needed; 3) classification of the injury according to different classification systems in the different regions of the cervical spine.The urgency of treatment is dependent on the presence of a neurological lesion and/or instability...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Pedro Cano-Luís, Miguel Ángel Giráldez-Sánchez, Pablo Andrés-Cano
The most common cause of post-traumatic pelvic asymmetry is, by far, initial nonoperative treatment.Open reduction and internal fixation of unstable pelvic fractures are recommended to avoid pelvic nonunion or subsequent structural deformities.The most common symptom is pelvic pain. Pelvic instability is another symptom, as well as persistent urogenital problems and neurological sequelae.Preoperative evaluation of these patients requires careful clinical and functional assessment, in addition to a complete radiological study...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Horacio Caviglia, Adrian Mejail, Maria Eulalia Landro, Nosratolah Vatani
The objective of surgery for acetabular fractures is to achieve precise reduction to restore joint congruence, fix internal bone fragments, avoid displacement of the fracture and allow rapid rehabilitation.Open reduction and internal fixation is the benchmark method for displaced acetabular fractures, but open reductions can increase morbidity, causing neurovascular injury, blood loss, heterotopic bone formation, infection and poor wound healing.An anatomical reduction with a gap of 2 mm or less is a predictor of good joint function and reduced risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Abdel Rahim Elniel, Peter V Giannoudis
Open fractures of the lower extremity are the most common open long bone injuries, yet their management remains a topic of debate.This article discusses the basic tenets of management and the subsequent impact on clinical outcome. These include the rationale for initial debridement, antimicrobial cover, addressing the soft-tissue injury and definitive skeletal management.The classification of injury severity continues to be a useful tool in guiding treatment and predicting outcome and prognosis. The Gustilo-Anderson classification continues to be the mainstay, but the adoption of severity scores such as the Ganga Hospital score may provide additional predictive utility...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Simon M Lambert
Interfragmental ischaemia is a prerequisite for the initiation of the inflammatory and immunological response to fracturing of bone.Intrafragmental ischaemia is inevitable: the extent of the initial ischaemic insult does not, however, directly relate to the outcome for healing of the fracture zones and avascular necrosis of the humeral head. The survival of distal regions of fragments with critical perfusion may be the result of a type of inosculation (blood vessel contact), which establishes reperfusion before either revascularization or neo-angiogenesis has occurred...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Vasileios Lampridis, Nikolaos Gougoulias, Anthony Sakellariou
Medial column (deltoid ligament) integrity is of key importance when considering the stability of isolated lateral malleolus ankle fractures.Weight-bearing radiographs are the best method of evaluating stability of isolated distal fibula fractures.Computed tomography (CT) scanning is mandatory for the assessment of complex ankle fractures, especially those involving the posterior malleolus.Most isolated trans-syndesmotic fibular fractures (Weber-B, SER, AO 44-B) are stable and can safely be treated non-operatively...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Ilkka J Helenius
Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is defined as a spinal deformity occurring before the age of ten years.Untreated EOS or early spinal fusion resulting in a short spine is associated with increased mortality and cardiopulmonary compromise.EOS may progress rapidly, and therefore prompt clinical diagnosis and referral to a paediatric orthopaedic or spine unit is necessary.Casting under general anaesthesia can be effective and may prevent or delay the need for surgery in curves of less than 60°.'Growing' rods (traditional or magnetically-controlled) represent the standard surgical treatment in progressive curves of 45° or greater...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
François Lintz, Cesar de Cesar Netto, Alexeij Barg, Arne Burssens, Martinus Richter
The 3D anatomical complexity of the foot and ankle and the importance of weight-bearing in diagnosis have required the combination of conventional radiographs and medical CT.Conventional plain radiographs (XR) have demonstrated substantial limitations such as perspective, rotational and fan distortion, as well as poor reproducibility of radiographic installations. Conventional CT produces high levels of radiation exposure and does not offer weight-bearing capabilities.The literature investigating biometrics based on 2D XR has inherent limitations due to the technology itself and thereby can focus only on whether measurements are reproducible, when the real question is whether the radiographs are...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Önder I Kılıçoğlu, Mehmet Demirel, Şamil Aktaş
Although there are various types of therapeutic footwear currently used to treat diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), recent literature has enforced the concept that total-contact casts are the benchmark.Besides conventional clinical tests and imaging modalities, advanced MRI techniques and high-sensitivity nuclear medicine modalities present several advantages for the investigation of diabetic foot problems.The currently accepted principles of DFU care are rigorous debridement followed by modern wound dressings to provide a moist wound environment...
May 2018: EFORT open reviews
Mahmut Nedim Doral, Onur Bilge, Gazi Huri, Egemen Turhan, René Verdonk
The complex ultrastructure of the meniscus determines its vital functions for the knee, the lower extremity, and the body.The most recent concise, reliable, and valid classification system for meniscal tears is the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (ISAKOS) Classification, which takes into account the subsequent parameters: tear depth, tear pattern, tear length, tear location/rim width, radial location, location according to the popliteal hiatus, and quality of the meniscal tissue...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Gareth G Jones, Martin Jaere, Susannah Clarke, Justin Cobb
High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a relatively conservative surgical option in the management of medial knee pain. Thus far, the outcomes have been variable, and apparently worse than the arthroplasty alternatives when judged using conventional metrics, owing in large part to uncertainty around the extent of the correction planned and achieved.This review paper introduces the concept of detailed 3D planning of the procedure, and describes the 3D printing technology that enables the plan to be performed.The different ways that the osteotomy can be undertaken, and the varying guide designs that enable accurate registration are discussed and described...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Gareth G Jones, Susannah Clarke, Martin Jaere, Justin Cobb
In suitable patients, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) offers a number of advantages compared with total knee arthroplasty. However, the procedure is technically demanding, with a small tolerance for error. Assistive technology has the potential to improve the accuracy of implant positioning.This review paper describes the concept of detailed UKA planning in 3D, and the 3D printing technology that enables a plan to be delivered intraoperatively using patient-specific instrumentation (PSI).The varying guide designs that enable accurate registration are discussed and described...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Cécile Batailler, Philippe Neyret
Recurrent patellar dislocation is a disabling condition, which can lead to articular cartilage injuries, osteochondral fractures, recurrent instability, pain, decreased activity and patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Trochlear dysplasia represents an important component of patellar dislocation.Imaging provides an objective basis for the morphological abnormalities and thus allows determination of the surgical strategy according to the concept of 'à la carte' surgery.The main surgical techniques of trochleoplasty are the sulcus deepening trochleoplasty, the 'Bereiter' trochleoplasty and the recession trochleoplasty...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Theofilos Karachalios, George Komnos, Antonios Koutalos
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a very satisfactory surgical procedure for end-stage hip disorders.Implant modifications, such as large femoral heads to improve stability, porous metals to enhance fixation and alternative bearings to improve wear, have been introduced over the last decade in order to decrease the rate of early and late failures.There is a changing pattern of THA failure modes.The relationship between failure modes and patient-related factors, and the time and type of revision are important for understanding and preventing short and late failure of implants...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Georgios Tsikandylakis, Maziar Mohaddes, Peter Cnudde, Antti Eskelinen, Johan Kärrholm, Ola Rolfson
The use of larger femoral head size in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has increased during the past decade; 32 mm and 36 mm are the most commonly used femoral head sizes, as reported by several arthroplasty registries.The use of large femoral heads seems to be a trade-off between increased stability and decreased THA survivorship.We reviewed the literature, mainly focussing on the past 5 years, identifying benefits and complications associated with the trend of using larger femoral heads in THA.We found that there is no benefit in hip range of movement or hip function when head sizes > 36 mm are used...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Luigi Zagra, Enrico Gallazzi
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is widely considered one of the most successful surgical procedures in orthopaedics. It is associated with high satisfaction rates and significant improvements in quality of life following surgery. On the other hand, the main cause of late revision is osteolysis and wear, often a result of failure of bearing surfaces.Currently, several options are available to the surgeon when choosing the bearing surface in THA (ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoPE), metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE)), each with advantages and drawbacks...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Lars Adolfsson
Post-traumatic and post-operative stiffness of the elbow joint is relatively common and may in pronounced cases markedly interfere with normal upper extremity function.Soft-tissue contractures and heterotopic bone formation are two major causes of limited movement.Extensive recent research has elucidated many of the pathways contributing to these conditions, but the exact mechanisms are still unknown.In the early phase of soft-tissue contractures conservative treatment may be valuable, but in longstanding cases operative treatment is often necessary...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Alexandre Lädermann, Philippe Collin, George S Athwal, Markus Scheibel, Matthias A Zumstein, Geoffroy Nourissat
Various procedures exist for patients with irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears (IRCT). At present, no single surgical option has demonstrated clinical superiority.There is no panacea for treatment and patients must be aware, in cases of palliative or non-prosthetic options, of an alarming rate of structural failure (around 50%) in the short term.The current review does not support the initial use of complex and expensive techniques in the management of posterosuperior IRCT.Further prospective and comparative studies with large cohort populations and long-term follow-up are necessary to establish effectiveness of expensive or complicated procedures such as superior capsular reconstruction (SCR), subacromial spacers or biological augmentation as reliable and useful alternative treatments for IRCT...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Emmanuelle Ferrero, Pierre Guigui
Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a common disease of the degenerative spine, often associated with lumbar canal stenosis. However, the choice between the different medical or surgical treatments remains under debate.Preference for surgical strategy is based on the functional symptoms, and when surgical treatment is selected, several questions should be posed and the surgical strategy adapted accordingly.One of the main goals of surgery is to improve neurological symptoms. Therefore, radicular decompression may be necessary...
May 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Cristina Alves
Scientific education and a clinical background allow orthopaedic surgeons to perform leading research. Several resources, skills and techniques may be developed to maximize their research potential.Surgeon-researchers should develop Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-defined (SMART) goals. It is critical to define a timeline - which can be 1 year, 3 years, 5 years - to re-evaluate goals and to plan and identify potential obstacles.Physician-scientists are a product of training, funding, resources, practice setting, context, environment, and infrastructure...
May 2018: EFORT open reviews
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