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Nature Ecology & Evolution

Eric Lewitus, Lucie Bittner, Shruti Malviya, Chris Bowler, Hélène Morlon
In the version of this Article originally published, the authors did not give credit to David G. Mann for the four microscopic images used in Fig. 1a. This has now been amended in all versions of the Article.
November 13, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Alberto Navarro, José Vicente López-Bao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Claude Murat, Thibaut Payen, Benjamin Noel, Alan Kuo, Emmanuelle Morin, Juan Chen, Annegret Kohler, Krisztina Krizsán, Raffaella Balestrini, Corinne Da Silva, Barbara Montanini, Mathieu Hainaut, Elisabetta Levati, Kerrie W Barry, Beatrice Belfiori, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Rhyan B Dockter, Laure Fauchery, Julie Guy, Mirco Iotti, François Le Tacon, Erika A Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Fabienne Malagnac, Antonietta Mello, Virginie Molinier, Shingo Miyauchi, Julie Poulain, Claudia Riccioni, Andrea Rubini, Yaron Sitrit, Richard Splivallo, Stefanie Traeger, Mei Wang, Lucia Žifčáková, Daniel Wipf, Alessandra Zambonelli, Francesco Paolocci, Minou Nowrousian, Simone Ottonello, Petr Baldrian, Joseph W Spatafora, Bernard Henrissat, Laszlo G Nagy, Jean-Marc Aury, Patrick Wincker, Igor V Grigoriev, Paola Bonfante, Francis M Martin
Tuberaceae is one of the most diverse lineages of symbiotic truffle-forming fungi. To understand the molecular underpinning of the ectomycorrhizal truffle lifestyle, we compared the genomes of Piedmont white truffle (Tuber magnatum), Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum), Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum), pig truffle (Choiromyces venosus) and desert truffle (Terfezia boudieri) to saprotrophic Pezizomycetes. Reconstructed gene duplication/loss histories along a time-calibrated phylogeny of Ascomycetes revealed that Tuberaceae-specific traits may be related to a higher gene diversification rate...
November 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Kun Huang, Jianyang Xia, Yingping Wang, Anders Ahlström, Jiquan Chen, Robert B Cook, Erqian Cui, Yuanyuan Fang, Joshua B Fisher, Deborah Nicole Huntzinger, Zhao Li, Anna M Michalak, Yang Qiao, Kevin Schaefer, Christopher Schwalm, Jing Wang, Yaxing Wei, Xiaoni Xu, Liming Yan, Chenyu Bian, Yiqi Luo
The annual peak growth of vegetation is critical in characterizing the capacity of terrestrial ecosystem productivity and shaping the seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The recent greening of global lands suggests an increasing trend of terrestrial vegetation growth, but whether or not the peak growth has been globally enhanced still remains unclear. Here, we use two global datasets of gross primary productivity (GPP) and a satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to characterize recent changes in annual peak vegetation growth (that is, GPPmax and NDVImax )...
November 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Sara Vicca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
James P W Robinson, Shaun K Wilson, Jan Robinson, Calvin Gerry, Juliette Lucas, Cindy Assan, Rodney Govinden, Simon Jennings, Nicholas A J Graham
Tropical coastal communities are highly reliant on coral reefs, which provide nutrition and employment for millions of people. Climate-driven coral bleaching events are fundamentally changing coral reef ecosystems and are predicted to reduce productivity of coral reef fish and fisheries, with significant implications for food security and livelihoods. Yet evidence of long-term bleaching impacts on coral reef fishery productivity is lacking. Here, we analyse over 20 years of fish abundance, catch and habitat data to assess long-term impacts of climate-driven coral mass mortality and regime shifts on nearshore artisanal coral reef fisheries in the Seychelles...
November 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Patrick Goymer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Liesje Mommer, Jasper van Ruijven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Maria Thaker, Amod Zambre, Harshal Bhosale
Wind farms are a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating the effects of climate change, but they also have complex ecological consequences. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India, we find that wind farms reduce the abundance and activity of predatory birds (for example, Buteo, Butastur and Elanus species), which consequently increases the density of lizards, Sarada superba. The cascading effects of wind turbines on lizards include changes in behaviour, physiology and morphology that reflect a combination of predator release and density-dependent competition...
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Samuel E Wuest, Pascal A Niklaus
Despite extensive evidence that biodiversity promotes plant community productivity, progress towards understanding the mechanistic basis of this effect remains slow, impeding the development of predictive ecological theory and agricultural applications. Here, we analysed non-additive interactions between genetically divergent Arabidopsis accessions in experimental plant communities. By combining methods from ecology and quantitative genetics, we identify a major effect locus at which allelic differences between individuals increase the above-ground productivity of communities...
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Alistair M S Smith, Crystal A Kolden, David M J S Bowman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Jeffrey R Smith, Andrew D Letten, Po-Ju Ke, Christopher B Anderson, J Nicholas Hendershot, Manpreet K Dhami, Glade A Dlott, Tess N Grainger, Meghan E Howard, Beth M L Morrison, Devin Routh, Priscilla A San Juan, Harold A Mooney, Erin A Mordecai, Thomas W Crowther, Gretchen C Daily
A foundational paradigm in biological and Earth sciences is that our planet is divided into distinct ecoregions and biomes demarking unique assemblages of species. This notion has profoundly influenced scientific research and environmental policy. Given recent advances in technology and data availability, however, we are now poised to ask whether ecoregions meaningfully delimit biological communities. Using over 200 million observations of plants, animals and fungi we show compelling evidence that ecoregions delineate terrestrial biodiversity patterns...
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Qingyun Liu, Aijing Ma, Lanhai Wei, Yu Pang, Beibei Wu, Tao Luo, Yang Zhou, Hong-Xiang Zheng, Qi Jiang, Mingyu Gan, Tianyu Zuo, Mei Liu, Chongguang Yang, Li Jin, Iñaki Comas, Sebastien Gagneux, Yanlin Zhao, Caitlin S Pepperell, Qian Gao
A small number of high-burden countries account for the majority of tuberculosis cases worldwide. Detailed data are lacking from these regions. To explore the evolutionary history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China-the country with the third highest tuberculosis burden-we analysed a countrywide collection of 4,578 isolates. Little genetic diversity was detected, with 99.4% of the bacterial population belonging to lineage 2 and three sublineages of lineage 4. The deeply rooted phylogenetic positions and geographic restriction of these four genotypes indicate that their populations expanded in situ following a small number of introductions to China...
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Tadeu Siqueira, Alison Wunderlich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Emanuel A Fronhofer, Delphine Legrand, Florian Altermatt, Armelle Ansart, Simon Blanchet, Dries Bonte, Alexis Chaine, Maxime Dahirel, Frederik De Laender, Jonathan De Raedt, Lucie di Gesu, Staffan Jacob, Oliver Kaltz, Estelle Laurent, Chelsea J Little, Luc Madec, Florent Manzi, Stefano Masier, Felix Pellerin, Frank Pennekamp, Nicolas Schtickzelle, Lieven Therry, Alexandre Vong, Laurane Winandy, Julien Cote
Ecology and evolution unfold in spatially structured communities, where dispersal links dynamics across scales. Because dispersal is multicausal, identifying general drivers remains challenging. In a coordinated distributed experiment spanning organisms from protozoa to vertebrates, we tested whether two fundamental determinants of local dynamics, top-down and bottom-up control, generally explain active dispersal. We show that both factors consistently increased emigration rates and use metacommunity modelling to highlight consequences on local and regional dynamics...
November 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Sally E Koerner, Melinda D Smith, Deron E Burkepile, Niall P Hanan, Meghan L Avolio, Scott L Collins, Alan K Knapp, Nathan P Lemoine, Elisabeth J Forrestel, Stephanie Eby, Dave I Thompson, Gerardo A Aguado-Santacruz, John P Anderson, T Michael Anderson, Ayana Angassa, Sumanta Bagchi, Elisabeth S Bakker, Gary Bastin, Lauren E Baur, Karen H Beard, Erik A Beever, Patrick J Bohlen, Elizabeth H Boughton, Don Canestro, Ariela Cesa, Enrique Chaneton, Jimin Cheng, Carla M D'Antonio, Claire Deleglise, Fadiala Dembélé, Josh Dorrough, David J Eldridge, Barbara Fernandez-Going, Silvia Fernández-Lugo, Lauchlan H Fraser, Bill Freedman, Gonzalo García-Salgado, Jacob R Goheen, Liang Guo, Sean Husheer, Moussa Karembé, Johannes M H Knops, Tineke Kraaij, Andrew Kulmatiski, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita, Felipe Lezama, Gregory Loucougaray, Alejandro Loydi, Dan G Milchunas, Suzanne J Milton, John W Morgan, Claire Moxham, Kyle C Nehring, Han Olff, Todd M Palmer, Salvador Rebollo, Corinna Riginos, Anita C Risch, Marta Rueda, Mahesh Sankaran, Takehiro Sasaki, Kathryn A Schoenecker, Nick L Schultz, Martin Schütz, Angelika Schwabe, Frances Siebert, Christian Smit, Karen A Stahlheber, Christian Storm, Dustin J Strong, Jishuai Su, Yadugiri V Tiruvaimozhi, Claudia Tyler, James Val, Martijn L Vandegehuchte, Kari E Veblen, Lance T Vermeire, David Ward, Jianshuang Wu, Truman P Young, Qiang Yu, Tamara Jane Zelikova
Herbivores alter plant biodiversity (species richness) in many of the world's ecosystems, but the magnitude and the direction of herbivore effects on biodiversity vary widely within and among ecosystems. One current theory predicts that herbivores enhance plant biodiversity at high productivity but have the opposite effect at low productivity. Yet, empirical support for the importance of site productivity as a mediator of these herbivore impacts is equivocal. Here, we synthesize data from 252 large-herbivore exclusion studies, spanning a 20-fold range in site productivity, to test an alternative hypothesis-that herbivore-induced changes in the competitive environment determine the response of plant biodiversity to herbivory irrespective of productivity...
October 29, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Thomas Denk, Constantin M Zohner, Guido W Grimm, Susanne S Renner
Reconstruction of palaeobiomes, ancient communities that exhibit a physiognomic and functional structure controlled by their environment, depends on proxies from different disciplines. Based on terrestrial mammal fossils, the late Miocene vegetation from China to the eastern Mediterranean and East Africa has been reconstructed as a single cohesive biome with increasingly arid conditions, with modern African savannahs the surviving remnant. Here, we test this reconstruction using plant fossils spanning 14-4 million years ago from sites in Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, the Tian Shan Mountains and Baode County in China, and East Africa...
October 29, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Sonia Zarrillo, Nilesh Gaikwad, Claire Lanaud, Terry Powis, Christopher Viot, Isabelle Lesur, Olivier Fouet, Xavier Argout, Erwan Guichoux, Franck Salin, Rey Loor Solorzano, Olivier Bouchez, Hélène Vignes, Patrick Severts, Julio Hurtado, Alexandra Yepez, Louis Grivetti, Michael Blake, Francisco Valdez
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop, yet studies of its domestication history and early uses are limited. Traditionally, cacao is thought to have been first domesticated in Mesoamerica. However, genomic research shows that T. cacao's greatest diversity is in the upper Amazon region of northwest South America, pointing to this region as its centre of origin. Here, we report cacao use identified by three independent lines of archaeological evidence-cacao starch grains, absorbed theobromine residues and ancient DNA-dating from approximately 5,300 years ago recovered from the Santa Ana-La Florida (SALF) site in southeast Ecuador...
October 29, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Patrick Roberts, Mathew Stewart, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Paul Breeze, Ian Candy, Nick Drake, Huw S Groucutt, Eleanor M L Scerri, Julia Lee-Thorp, Julien Louys, Iyad S Zalmout, Yahya S A Al-Mufarreh, Jana Zech, Abdullah M Alsharekh, Abdulaziz Al Omari, Nicole Boivin, Michael Petraglia
Despite its largely hyper-arid and inhospitable climate today, the Arabian Peninsula is emerging as an important area for investigating Pleistocene hominin dispersals. Recently, a member of our own species was found in northern Arabia dating to ca. 90 ka, while stone tools and fossil finds have hinted at an earlier, middle Pleistocene, hominin presence. However, there remain few direct insights into Pleistocene environments, and associated hominin adaptations, that accompanied the movement of populations into this region...
October 29, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Yann Czorlich, Tutku Aykanat, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell, Craig Robert Primmer
Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide an empirical example of contemporary adaptive evolution of a large-effect locus driving contrasting sex-specific evolutionary responses at the phenotypic level...
October 1, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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