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Nature Ecology & Evolution

Richard A Fuller, Charlotte E Wainwright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Adriaan M Dokter, Andrew Farnsworth, Daniel Fink, Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez, Wesley M Hochachka, Frank A La Sorte, Orin J Robinson, Kenneth V Rosenberg, Steve Kelling
Avian migration is one of Earth's largest processes of biomass transport, involving billions of birds. We estimated continental biomass flows of nocturnal avian migrants across the contiguous United States using a network of 143 weather radars. We show that, relative to biomass leaving in autumn, proportionally more biomass returned in spring across the southern United States than across the northern United States. Neotropical migrants apparently achieved higher survival during the combined migration and non-breeding period, despite an average three- to fourfold longer migration distance, compared with a more northern assemblage of mostly temperate-wintering migrants...
September 17, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Erica M Goss, Sujan Timilsina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Simon A F Darroch, Marc Laflamme, Peter J Wagner
A long-running debate over the affinities of the Neoproterozoic 'Ediacara biota' has led to contrasting interpretations of Ediacaran ecosystem complexity. A 'simple' model assumes that most, if not all, Ediacaran organisms shared similar basic ecologies. A contrasting 'complex' model suggests that the Ediacara biota more likely represent organisms from a variety of different positions on the eukaryotic tree and thus occupied a wide range of different ecologies. We perform a quantitative test of Ediacaran ecosystem complexity using rank abundance distributions (RADs)...
September 17, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
W Daniel Kissling, Ramona Walls, Anne Bowser, Matthew O Jones, Jens Kattge, Donat Agosti, Josep Amengual, Alberto Basset, Peter M van Bodegom, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Ellen G Denny, Salud Deudero, Willi Egloff, Sarah C Elmendorf, Enrique Alonso García, Katherine D Jones, Owen R Jones, Sandra Lavorel, Dan Lear, Laetitia M Navarro, Samraat Pawar, Rebecca Pirzl, Nadja Rüger, Sofia Sal, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Dmitry Schigel, Katja-Sabine Schulz, Andrew Skidmore, Robert P Guralnick
Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) allow observation and reporting of global biodiversity change, but a detailed framework for the empirical derivation of specific EBVs has yet to be developed. Here, we re-examine and refine the previous candidate set of species traits EBVs and show how traits related to phenology, morphology, reproduction, physiology and movement can contribute to EBV operationalization. The selected EBVs express intra-specific trait variation and allow monitoring of how organisms respond to global change...
September 17, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Halley E Froehlich, Rebecca R Gentry, Benjamin S Halpern
Climate change is an immediate and future threat to food security globally. The consequences for fisheries and agriculture production potential are well studied, yet the possible outcomes for aquaculture (that is, aquatic farming)-one of the fastest growing food sectors on the planet-remain a major gap in scientific understanding. With over one-third of aquaculture produced in marine waters and this proportion increasing, it is critical to anticipate new opportunities and challenges in marine production under climate change...
September 10, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Claudia Igler, Mato Lagator, Gašper Tkačik, Jonathan P Bollback, Călin C Guet
Gene regulatory networks evolve through rewiring of individual components-that is, through changes in regulatory connections. However, the mechanistic basis of regulatory rewiring is poorly understood. Using a canonical gene regulatory system, we quantify the properties of transcription factors that determine the evolutionary potential for rewiring of regulatory connections: robustness, tunability and evolvability. In vivo repression measurements of two repressors at mutated operator sites reveal their contrasting evolutionary potential: while robustness and evolvability were positively correlated, both were in trade-off with tunability...
September 10, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Dennis Sandgathe, Shannon McPherron, Paul Goldberg, Vera Aldeias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Petr Čapek, Stefano Manzoni, Eva Kaštovská, Birgit Wild, Kateřina Diáková, Jiří Bárta, Jörg Schnecker, Christina Biasi, Pertti J Martikainen, Ricardo Jorge Eloy Alves, Georg Guggenberger, Norman Gentsch, Gustaf Hugelius, Juri Palmtag, Robert Mikutta, Olga Shibistova, Tim Urich, Christa Schleper, Andreas Richter, Hana Šantrůčková
In most terrestrial ecosystems, plant growth is limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Adding either nutrient to soil usually affects primary production, but their effects can be positive or negative. Here we provide a general stoichiometric framework for interpreting these contrasting effects. First, we identify nitrogen and phosphorus limitations on plants and soil microorganisms using their respective nitrogen to phosphorus critical ratios. Second, we use these ratios to show how soil microorganisms mediate the response of primary production to limiting and non-limiting nutrient addition along a wide gradient of soil nutrient availability...
September 10, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Jonathan F Schmitz, Kristian K Ullrich, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
A recent surge of studies have suggested that many novel genes arise de novo from previously noncoding DNA and not by duplication. However, most studies concentrated on longer evolutionary time scales and rarely considered protein structural properties. Therefore, it remains unclear how these properties are shaped by evolution, depend on genetic mechanisms and influence gene survival. Here we compare open reading frames (ORFs) from high coverage transcriptomes from mouse and another four mammals covering 160 million years of evolution...
September 10, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Davide Foffa, Mark T Young, Thomas L Stubbs, Kyle G Dexter, Stephen L Brusatte
Marine reptiles flourished in the Mesozoic oceans, filling ecological roles today dominated by crocodylians, large fish, sharks and cetaceans. Many groups of these reptiles coexisted for over 50 million years (Myr), through major environmental changes. However, little is known about how the structure of their ecosystems or their ecologies changed over millions of years. We use the most common marine reptile fossils-teeth-to establish a quantitative system that assigns species to dietary guilds and then track the evolution of these guilds over the roughly 18-million-year history of a single seaway, the Jurassic Sub-Boreal Seaway of the United Kingdom...
September 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Matthew C Metz, Douglas J Emlen, Daniel R Stahler, Daniel R MacNulty, Douglas W Smith, Mark Hebblewhite
Sexually selected weapons evolved to maximize the individual reproductive success of males in many polygynous breeding species. Many weapons are also retained outside of reproductive periods for secondary reasons, but the importance of these secondary functions is poorly understood. Here we leveraged a unique opportunity from the predator-prey system in northern Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA to evaluate whether predation by a widespread, coursing predator (wolves) has influenced a specific weapon trait (antler retention time) in their primary cervid prey (elk)...
September 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Daniel P Costa, Arliss J Winship, Scott R Benson, Steven J Bograd, Michelle Antolos, Aaron B Carlisle, Heidi Dewar, Peter H Dutton, Salvador J Jorgensen, Suzanne Kohin, Bruce R Mate, Patrick W Robinson, Kurt M Schaefer, Scott A Shaffer, George L Shillinger, Samantha E Simmons, Kevin C Weng, Kristina M Gjerde, Barbara A Block
During their migrations, marine predators experience varying levels of protection and face many threats as they travel through multiple countries' jurisdictions and across ocean basins. Some populations are declining rapidly. Contributing to such declines is a failure of some international agreements to ensure effective cooperation by the stakeholders responsible for managing species throughout their ranges, including in the high seas, a global commons. Here we use biologging data from marine predators to provide quantitative measures with great potential to inform local, national and international management efforts in the Pacific Ocean...
September 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Lysanne Snijders, Ralf H J M Kurvers, Stefan Krause, Indar W Ramnarine, Jens Krause
Individual foraging is under strong natural selection. Yet, whether individuals differ consistently in their foraging success across environments, and which individual- and population-level traits might drive such differences, is largely unknown. We addressed this question in a field experiment, conducting over 1,100 foraging trials with subpopulations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, translocated across environments in the wild. We show that individuals consistently differed in reaching and acquiring food resources, but not control 'resources', across environments...
September 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
William Cross, Michal Kovac, Ville Mustonen, Daniel Temko, Hayley Davis, Ann-Marie Baker, Sujata Biswas, Roland Arnold, Laura Chegwidden, Chandler Gatenbee, Alexander R Anderson, Viktor H Koelzer, Pierre Martinez, Xiaowei Jiang, Enric Domingo, Dan J Woodcock, Yun Feng, Monika Kovacova, Tim Maughan, Marnix Jansen, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Shazad Ashraf, Richard Guy, Christopher Cunningham, James E East, David C Wedge, Lai Mun Wang, Claire Palles, Karl Heinimann, Andrea Sottoriva, Simon J Leedham, Trevor A Graham, Ian P M Tomlinson
The evolutionary events that cause colorectal adenomas (benign) to progress to carcinomas (malignant) remain largely undetermined. Using multi-region genome and exome sequencing of 24 benign and malignant colorectal tumours, we investigate the evolutionary fitness landscape occupied by these neoplasms. Unlike carcinomas, advanced adenomas frequently harbour sub-clonal driver mutations-considered to be functionally important in the carcinogenic process-that have not swept to fixation, and have relatively high genetic heterogeneity...
August 31, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Zachary W Culumber, Michael Tobler
In the version of this Article originally published, some production notes starting "Should we change..." were mistakenly left in at the end of the section 'Sexual selection'; these notes have now been removed.
August 30, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Axel Barlow, James A Cahill, Stefanie Hartmann, Christoph Theunert, Georgios Xenikoudakis, Gloria G Fortes, Johanna L A Paijmans, Gernot Rabeder, Christine Frischauf, Aurora Grandal-d'Anglade, Ana García-Vázquez, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Urmas Saarma, Peeter Anijalg, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Giorgio Bertorelle, Boris Gasparian, Guy Bar-Oz, Ron Pinhasi, Montgomery Slatkin, Love Dalén, Beth Shapiro, Michael Hofreiter
Although many large mammal species went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, their DNA may persist due to past episodes of interspecies admixture. However, direct empirical evidence of the persistence of ancient alleles remains scarce. Here, we present multifold coverage genomic data from four Late Pleistocene cave bears (Ursus spelaeus complex) and show that cave bears hybridized with brown bears (Ursus arctos) during the Pleistocene. We develop an approach to assess both the directionality and relative timing of gene flow...
August 27, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Alice S A Johnston, Richard M Sibly
Soil respiration represents a major carbon flux between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and is expected to accelerate under climate warming. Despite its importance in climate change forecasts, however, our understanding of the effects of temperature on soil respiration (RS ) is incomplete. Using a metabolic ecology approach we link soil biota metabolism, community composition and heterotrophic activity to predict RS rates across five biomes. We find that accounting for the ecological mechanisms underpinning decomposition processes predicts climatological RS variations observed in an independent dataset (n = 312)...
August 27, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Ryo Mizuuchi, Norikazu Ichihashi
Cooperation among independently replicating molecules is a key phenomenon that allowed the development of complexity during the early evolution of life. Generally, this process is vulnerable to parasitic or selfish entities, which can easily appear and destroy such cooperation. It remains unclear how this fragile cooperation process appeared and has been sustained through evolution. Theoretical studies have indicated that spatial structures, such as compartments, allow sustainable replication and the evolution of cooperative replication, although this has yet to be confirmed experimentally...
August 27, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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