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Annals of Work Exposures and Health

Gabriel González, Alejandra Vives
Introduction: It is widely known that women have a higher prevalence of depression than men. These differences may be explained by social differences between women and men due to gender roles. In Chile, as elsewhere, women have greater household responsibilities, lower job incomes, and especially low labor market participation. However, the incidence of these gender differences on the higher prevalence of depression in women requires further study in the Chilean context. Objective: To identify main social differences between women and men associated with gender differences in the prevalence of depression in middle-aged Chilean men and women...
January 9, 2019: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Peter E J Baldwin, Timothy Yates, Helen Beattie, Chris Keen, Nicholas Warren
The aim of this work was to benchmark respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposures in brick manufacturing and stone working sectors in Great Britain. This will contribute to a larger programme of work, which will be used to better understand the role of health surveillance in preventing the development of further cases of silicosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This work was undertaken by means of site visits to measure RCS and respirable dust exposures and assess exposure controls. In addition, historic exposure reports from the sites were collated to allow assessment of exposure trends...
January 9, 2019: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Eelco Kuijpers, Anjoeka Pronk, Antti Joonas Koivisto, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Roel Vermeulen, Wouter Fransman
Introduction: Knowledge on the exposure characteristics, including release of nanomaterials, is especially needed in the later stages of nano-enabled products' life cycles to perform better occupational risk assessments. The objective of this study was to assess the concentrations during sawing and drilling in car bumpers containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanosized organic pigment (OP) under variable realistic workplace situations related to the ventilation in the room and machine settings...
January 5, 2019: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Alison Connolly, Marie A Coggins, Karen S Galea, Kate Jones, Laura Kenny, Padraic McGowan, Ioannis Basinas
Objective: To evaluate determinants of dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposure and assess their contribution to total body burden among amenity horticultural users using glyphosate-based pesticide products. Methods: A dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposure assessment was completed alongside a biomonitoring study among amenity horticultural workers. Linear mixed effect regression models were elaborated to evaluate determinants of exposure and their contribution to total body burden...
January 4, 2019: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Ryan Mead-Hunter, Linda A Selvey, Krassi B Rumchev, Kevin J Netto, Benjamin J Mullins
Noise presents an ongoing occupational health and safety issue, which despite numerous studies still presents a significant risk in agriculture with high exposures prevalent. In this study, we measured noise exposures associated with significant activities on 42 mixed grain and livestock farms in Western Australia. Employing a mixture of personal noise measurements using dosimeters, noise measurements using sound level meters, and a validated survey, we identified that 32% of farm workers were exposed to noise levels above the LAeq,8h 85 dB(A) limit, before considering extended shifts...
December 20, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Daniella van de Langenberg, Jelle J Vlaanderen, Martijn Et Dollé, Matti A Rookus, Linda Wm van Kerkhof, Roel Ch Vermeulen
Background: Night-shift work has been reported to have an impact on nutrition, daylight exposure, and physical activity, which might play a role in observed health effects. Because these exposures show diurnal variation, and shift work has been related with disturbances in the circadian rhythm, the timing of assessment of these factors requires careful consideration. Our aim was to describe the changes in patterns of diet, physical activity, and daylight exposure associated with night-shift work...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Nai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Ruei-Hao Shie, Wei-Heng Liao, Yaw-Huei Hwang
Volatile organic chemical exposure resulting from surgical operations is common in operating room personnel. The potential risk of long-term exposure to these low-level chemicals is always a concern. This study was conducted in an area hospital located in northern Taiwan to investigate the internal exposure scenario for operating room personnel. Breath samples were collected before and after surgery, whereas area samples were collected during the surgeries in process. There were 18 volatile organic compounds identified in the samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Jérôme Lavoué, Lawrence Joseph, Peter Knott, Hugh Davies, France Labrèche, Frédéric Clerc, Gautier Mater, Tracy Kirkham
Introduction: Interpretation of exposure measurements has evolved into a framework based on the lognormal distribution. Most available practical tools are based on traditional frequentist statistical procedures that do not satisfactorily account for censored data and are not amenable to simple probabilistic risk statements. Bayesian methods offer promising solutions to these challenges. Such methods have been proposed in the literature but are not widely and freely available to practitioners...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Apostolos Salmatonidis, Carla Ribalta, Vicenta Sanfélix, Spyridon Bezantakos, George Biskos, Adriana Vulpoi, Simon Simion, Eliseo Monfort, Mar Viana
Thermal spraying is widely used for industrial-scale application of ceramic coatings onto metallic surfaces. The particular process has implications for occupational health, as the high energy process generates high emissions of metal-bearing nanoparticles. Emissions and their impact on exposure were characterized during thermal spraying in a work environment, by monitoring size-resolved number and mass concentrations, lung-deposited surface area, particle morphology, and chemical composition. Along with exposure quantification, the modal analysis of the emissions assisted in distinguishing particles from different sources, while an inhalation model provided evidence regarding the potential deposition of particulate matter on human respiratory system...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Eun Gyung Lee, Judith Lamb, Nenad Savic, Ioannis Basinas, Bojan Gasic, Christian Jung, Michael L Kashon, Jongwoon Kim, Martin Tischer, Martie van Tongeren, David Vernez, Martin Harper
Stoffenmanager®v4.5 and Advanced REACH Tool (ART) v1.5, two higher tier exposure assessment tools for use under REACH, were evaluated by determining accuracy and robustness. A total of 282 exposure measurements from 51 exposure situations (ESs) were collected and categorized by exposure category. In this study, only the results of liquids with vapor pressure (VP) > 10 Pa category having a sufficient number of exposure measurements (n = 251 with 42 ESs) were utilized. In addition, the results were presented by handling/activity description and input parameters for the same exposure category...
December 9, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Eun Gyung Lee, Judith Lamb, Nenad Savic, Ioannis Basinas, Bojan Gasic, Christian Jung, Michael L Kashon, Jongwoon Kim, Martin Tischer, Martie van Tongeren, David Vernez, Martin Harper
Tier 1 occupational exposure assessment tools recommended for use under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) were evaluated using newly collected measurement data. Evaluated tools included the ECETOC TRAv2 and TRAv3, MEASEv1.02.01, and EMKG-EXPO-TOOL. Fifty-three exposure situations (ESs) based on tasks/chemicals were developed from National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health field surveys. During the field surveys, high quality contextual information required for evaluating the tools was also collected...
December 9, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Anna Kokkonen, Maija Väänänen, Arto Säämänen, Pertti Pasanen
Objective: To shorten the time for airborne dust concentration to be reduced to a lower level after a renovation task has been completed, a short-term water misting method was assessed. A short-term water misting method is based on low water consumption to avoid harmful wetting of materials. The method is considered similar to a general ventilation method that dilutes work-generated airborne dust concentrations. Thus, short-term misting is not intended to replace the source control measures...
December 8, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Perry Gottesfeld, Simba Tirima, Shehu Mohammed Anka, Adolpe Fotso, Michael Manti Nota
Purpose: An ongoing health crisis across a large area of Northern Nigeria has resulted in hundreds of deaths and thousands of cases of lead poisoning from artisanal small-scale gold mining. Occupational Knowledge International (OK International) and Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) have formed a partnership to conduct a pilot project to introduce safer mining practices in selected communities. The primary objective was to reduce lead exposures among artisanal small-scale miners and minimize take home exposures by reducing dust contamination on clothing and body surfaces...
December 8, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Carla Ribalta, Mar Viana, Ana López-Lilao, Sara Estupiñá, Maria Cruz Minguillón, Joan Mendoza, Jordi Díaz, Dirk Dahmann, Eliseo Monfort
Exposure to ceramic powders, which is frequent during handling operations, is known to cause adverse health effects. Finding proxy parameters to quantify exposure is useful for efficient and timely exposure assessments. Worker exposure during handling of five materials [a silica sand (SI1), three quartzes (Q1, Q2, and Q3), and a kaolin (K1)] with different particle shape (prismatic and platy) and sizes (3.4-120 µm) was assessed. Materials handling was simulated using a dry pendular mill under two different energy settings (low and high)...
December 1, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Seokwon Lee, Kyoungho Lee, Hyunwook Kim
This study aims to evaluate the accuracy, precision and conservatism of three models (ECETOC TRA 3.1, Stoffenmanager 7.0 and ART 1.5) by comparing model predictions and repeated exposure measurements in Korea. We collected the exposure measurements (n = 390) and detailed contextual information extracted from 10 survey reports published by Ministry of Employment and Labour in the mid-2000s. Using these three models, seven occupational health professionals predicted inhalation exposure to 10 solvents used for cleaning tasks in 51 situations at 33 companies in 15 industries...
November 15, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Ryan F LeBouf, Brie Hawley, Kristin J Cummings
Objectives: Workers using flavoring formulations containing diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione may be at risk of inhalational exposure, as these volatile hazardous chemicals are emitted from the bulk material, especially at elevated temperatures. However, flavoring formulations that contain diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione might not list these ingredients because they are generally recognized as safe to ingest, may be part of a proprietary mixture deemed a trade secret, or may not be required to be listed if they are present at <1% composition...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Volker Mostert, Sebastien Bonifay, Christopher Dobe, Ralph Fliege, Joachim Krass, Renate Vosswinkel, Matthias Wormuth
Background: Substances used as co-formulants in plant protection products (PPP) may require registration under Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH), and additionally where an exposure assessment is required, this must take into consideration the specifics of the PPP use. Objectives: This work reports a customized screening level model developed to support human health risk assessment of operators, workers, and bystanders (OWB) for co-formulants used in PPP. The OWB model was designed to closely integrate with REACH generic exposure scenarios (GES) for PPP developed by the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA)...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Anila Bello, Christopher Mugford, Amanda Murray, Susan Shepherd, Susan R Woskie
Objectives: Exposures to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) and respirable dust (RD) were investigated during demolition, crushing, and chipping at several Massachusetts construction sites. Methods: Personal breathing zone samples (n = 51) were collected on operating engineers working at demolition and crushing sites, laborers performing miscellaneous tasks at demolition sites, crushing machine tenders at crushing sites, and chipping workers at substructure bridge repair sites...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Hanna E Landberg, Maria Hedmer, Håkan Westberg, Håkan Tinnerberg
Risk assessments based on occupational exposure to chemicals have increased since REACH (European regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and restriction of Chemicals) came into force. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) recommends that chemical exposure could be calculated using exposure models and that parameters used to calculate the exposure scenario (ES) should be communicated in extended safety data sheets (e-SDS) as workplace instructions which downstream users are obligated to follow...
October 29, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Tran Huynh, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Harrison Quick, Jooyeon Hwang, Peter C Raynor, Bruce H Alexander, Jeffrey H Mandel
Studies in environmental epidemiology and of occupational cohorts have implicated the effects of fine particulates with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Motivated by this evidence, we conducted an ambient air monitoring campaign to characterize fine aerosol concentrations around various taconite ore processes in six taconite mines in northeastern Minnesota. The ore processes were first categorized into 16 broad work areas/buildings. We then took air samples at 91 fixed locations using an array of direct-reading instruments to obtain measurements of mass (PM2...
October 23, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
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