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Nature Human Behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736420/multiple-motor-memories-are-learned-to-control-different-points-on-a-tool
#1
James B Heald, James N Ingram, J Randall Flanagan, Daniel M Wolpert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152591/the-idiosyncratic-nature-of-confidence
#2
Joaquin Navajas, Chandni Hindocha, Hebah Foda, Mehdi Keramati, Peter E Latham, Bahador Bahrami
Confidence is the 'feeling of knowing' that accompanies decision making. Bayesian theory proposes that confidence is a function solely of the perceived probability of being correct. Empirical research has suggested, however, that different individuals may perform different computations to estimate confidence from uncertain evidence. To test this hypothesis, we collected confidence reports in a task where subjects made categorical decisions about the mean of a sequence. We found that for most individuals, confidence did indeed reflect the perceived probability of being correct...
November 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051922/hidden-heritability-due-to-heterogeneity-across-seven-populations
#3
Felix C Tropf, S Hong Lee, Renske M Verweij, Gert Stulp, Peter J van der Most, Ronald de Vlaming, Andrew Bakshi, Daniel A Briley, Charles Rahal, Robert Hellpap, Anastasia Nyman, Tõnu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin, Nicola Barban, Harold Snieder, Matthew R Robinson, Melinda C Mills
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which dominate genetic discovery are based on data from diverse historical time periods and populations. Genetic scores derived from GWAS explain only a fraction of the heritability estimates obtained from whole-genome studies on single populations, known as the 'hidden heritability' puzzle. Using seven sampling populations (N=35,062), we test whether hidden heritability is attributed to heterogeneity across sampling populations and time, showing that estimates are substantially smaller from across compared to within populations...
October 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944297/reciprocity-and-the-tragedies-of-maintaining-and-providing-the-commons
#4
Simon Gächter, Felix Kölle, Simone Quercia
Social cooperation often requires collectively beneficial but individually costly restraint to maintain a public good1-4, or it needs costly generosity to create one1,5. Status quo effects6 predict that maintaining a public good is easier than providing a new one. Here we show experimentally and with simulations that even under identical incentives, low levels of cooperation (the 'tragedy of the commons'2) are systematically more likely in Maintenance than Provision. Across three series of experiments, we find that strong and weak positive reciprocity, known to be fundamental tendencies underpinning human cooperation7-10, are substantially diminished under Maintenance compared to Provision...
September 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#5
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804782/dopaminergic-medication-increases-reliance-on-current-information-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Iris Vilares, Konrad P Kording
The neurotransmitter dopamine is crucial for decision-making under uncertainty but its computational role is still a subject of intense debate. To test potential roles, we had patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have less internally-generated dopamine, participate in a visual decision-making task in which uncertainty in both prior and current sensory information was varied and where behavior is often predicted by Bayesian statistics. We found that many aspects of uncertainty processing were conserved in PD: they could learn the prior uncertainty and utilize both priors and current sensory information...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819649/prosocial-apathy-for-helping-others-when-effort-is-required
#7
Patricia L Lockwood, Mathilde Hamonet, Samuel H Zhang, Anya Ratnavel, Florentine U Salmony, Masud Husain, Matthew A J Apps
Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves...
July 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520375/dual-enhancement-mechanisms-for-overnight-motor-memory-consolidation
#8
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553662/subsistence-styles-shape-human-social-learning-strategies
#9
Luke Glowacki, Lucas Molleman
Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1-6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8-13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning...
April 28, 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480333/a-unified-model-of-human-semantic-knowledge-and-its-disorders
#10
Lang Chen, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Timothy T Rogers
How is knowledge about the meanings of words and objects represented in the human brain? Current theories embrace two radically different proposals: either distinct cortical systems have evolved to represent different kinds of things, or knowledge for all kinds is encoded within a single domain-general network. Neither view explains the full scope of relevant evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Here we propose that graded category-specificity emerges in some components of the semantic network through joint effects of learning and network connectivity...
March 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239664/coherency-maximizing-exploration-in-the-supermarket
#11
Peter S Riefer, Rosie Prior, Nicholas Blair, Giles Pavey, Bradley C Love
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399639/increasing-verbal-knowledge-mediates-development-of-multidimensional-emotion-representations
#12
Erik C Nook, Stephanie F Sasse, Hilary K Lambert, Katie A McLaughlin, Leah H Somerville
How do people represent their own and others' emotional experiences? Contemporary emotion theories and growing evidence suggest that the conceptual representation of emotion plays a central role in how people understand the emotions both they and other people feel.1-6 Although decades of research indicate that adults typically represent emotion concepts as multidimensional, with valence (positive-negative) and arousal (activating-deactivating) as two primary dimensions,7-10 little is known about how this bidimensional (or circumplex ) representation arises...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367952/machine-learning-of-neural-representations-of-suicide-and-emotion-concepts-identifies-suicidal-youth
#13
Marcel Adam Just, Lisa Pan, Vladimir L Cherkassky, Dana McMakin, Christine Cha, Matthew K Nock, David Brent
The clinical assessment of suicidal risk would be significantly complemented by a biologically-based measure that assesses alterations in the neural representations of concepts related to death and life in people who engage in suicidal ideation. This study used machine-learning algorithms (Gaussian Naïve Bayes) to identify such individuals (17 suicidal ideators vs 17 controls) with high (91%) accuracy, based on their altered fMRI neural signatures of death and life-related concepts. The most discriminating concepts were death, cruelty, trouble, carefree, good, and praise ...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250604/behavioral-genetics-in-criminal-court
#14
Nicholas Scurich, Paul S Appelbaum
Introduction of behavioral genetic evidence of a predisposition to violent or impulsive behavior is on the rise in criminal trials. However, a panoply of data suggests that such evidence is ineffective at reducing judgments of culpability and punishment, and therefore its use in the legal process is likely to diminish.
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226255/differential-hemispheric-and-visual-stream-contributions-to-ensemble-coding-of-crowd-emotion
#15
Hee Yeon Im, Daniel N Albohn, Troy G Steiner, Cody A Cushing, Reginald B Adams, Kestutis Kveraga
In crowds, where scrutinizing individual facial expressions is inefficient, humans can make snap judgments about the prevailing mood by reading "crowd emotion". We investigated how the brain accomplishes this feat in a set of behavioral and fMRI studies. Participants were asked to either avoid or approach one of two crowds of faces presented in the left and right visual hemifields. Perception of crowd emotion was improved when crowd stimuli contained goal-congruent cues and was highly lateralized to the right hemisphere...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130070/perceptual-confidence-neglects-decision-incongruent-evidence-in-the-brain
#16
Megan A K Peters, Thomas Thesen, Yoshiaki D Ko, Brian Maniscalco, Chad Carlson, Matt Davidson, Werner Doyle, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Eric Halgren, Hakwan Lau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034334/arousal-related-adjustments-of-perceptual-biases-optimize-perception-in-dynamic-environments
#17
Kamesh Krishnamurthy, Matthew R Nassar, Shilpa Sarode, Joshua I Gold
Prior expectations can be used to improve perceptual judgments about ambiguous stimuli. However, little is known about if and how these improvements are maintained in dynamic environments in which the quality of appropriate priors changes from one stimulus to the next. Using a sound-localization task, we show that changes in stimulus predictability lead to arousal-mediated adjustments in the magnitude of prior-driven biases that optimize perceptual judgments about each stimulus. These adjustments depend on task-dependent changes in the relevance and reliability of prior expectations, which subjects update using both normative and idiosyncratic principles...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983518/evidence-for-a-large-scale-brain-system-supporting-allostasis-and-interoception-in-humans
#18
Ian R Kleckner, Jiahe Zhang, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Lorena Chanes, Chenjie Xia, W Kyle Simmons, Karen S Quigley, Bradford C Dickerson, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Large-scale intrinsic brain systems have been identified for exteroceptive senses (e.g., sight, hearing, touch). We introduce an analogous system for representing sensations from within the body, called interoception, and demonstrate its relation to regulating peripheral systems in the body, called allostasis. Employing the recently introduced Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding (EPIC) model, we used tract-tracing studies of macaque monkeys, followed by two intrinsic functional magnetic resonance imaging samples ( N = 280 and N = 270) to evaluate the existence of an intrinsic allostatic/interoceptive system in the human brain...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713861/behavioural-clusters-and-predictors-of-performance-during-recovery-from-stroke
#19
L E Ramsey, J S Siegel, C E Lang, M Strube, G L Shulman, M Corbetta
We examined the patterns and variability of recovery post-stroke in multiple behavioral domains. A large cohort of first time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions was studied prospectively and longitudinally at 1-2 weeks, 3 months and one year post-injury with structural MRI to measure lesion anatomy and in-depth neuropsychological assessment. Impairment was described at all timepoints by a few clusters of correlated deficits. The time course and magnitude of recovery was similar across domains, with change scores largely proportional to the initial deficit and most recovery occurring within the first three months...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649666/social-policy-targeting-programs-effectively
#20
James J Heckman, Jorge Luís García
By linking data from a 40-year birth cohort study with multiple administrative databases, Caspi and colleagues show that 20% of the population accounts for 60% - 80% of several adult social ills. Outcomes for this group can be accurately predicted from as early as age 3, using a small set of indicators of disadvantage. This finding supports policies that target children from disadvantaged families and complements recent literature on the life-cycle benefits of early childhood programmes.
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
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