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GeroScience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736782/exercise-attenuates-age-associated-changes-in-motoneuron-number-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-proteins-and-neuromuscular-health
#1
Ashley Gillon, Kathrine Nielsen, Charlotte Steel, Jon Cornwall, Philip Sheard
Life expectancy continues to extend, although frailty caused by loss of skeletal muscle mass continues unimpeded. Muscle atrophy caused by withdrawal of motor nerves is a feature of old age, as it is in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which skeletal muscle denervation results from motoneuron death. In ALS, direct links have been established between motoneuron death and altered nucleocytoplasmic transport, so we ask whether similar defects accompany motoneuron death in normal ageing. We used immunohistochemistry on mouse tissues to explore potential links between neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration, motoneuron death and nucleocytoplasmic transport regulatory proteins...
May 7, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717417/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-aging-associated-changes-in-the-kidney
#2
Hak Joo Lee, Denis Feliers, Jeffrey L Barnes, Sae Oh, Goutam Ghosh Choudhury, Vivian Diaz, Veronica Galvan, Randy Strong, James Nelson, Adam Salmon, Christopher G Kevil, Balakuntalam S Kasinath
Aging is associated with replacement of normal kidney parenchyma by fibrosis. Because hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) ameliorates kidney fibrosis in disease models, we examined its status in the aging kidney. In the first study, we examined kidney cortical H2 S metabolism and signaling pathways related to synthesis of proteins including matrix proteins in young and old male C57BL/6 mice. In old mice, increase in renal cortical content of matrix protein involved in fibrosis was associated with decreased H2 S generation and AMPK activity, and activation of insulin receptor (IR)/IRS-2-Akt-mTORC1-mRNA translation signaling axis that can lead to increase in protein synthesis...
May 1, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717416/lowbush-cranberry-acts-through-daf-16-foxo-signaling-to-promote-increased-lifespan-and-axon-branching-in-aging-posterior-touch-receptor-neurons
#3
Courtney Scerbak, Elena Vayndorf, Alicia Hernandez, Colin McGill, Barbara Taylor
Medicinal berries are appreciated for their health benefits, in traditional ecological knowledge and nutrition science. Determining the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of berry supplementation may contribute to our understanding of aging. Here, we report that lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) treatment causes marked nuclear localization of the central aging-related transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged Caenorhabditis elegans. Further, functional DAF-16 is required for the lifespan extension, improved mechanosensation, and posterior touch receptor neuron morphological changes induced by lowbush cranberry treatments...
May 1, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687240/simultaneous-assessment-of-cognitive-function-circadian-rhythm-and-spontaneous-activity-in-aging-mice
#4
Sreemathi Logan, Daniel Owen, Sixia Chen, Wei-Jen Chen, Zoltan Ungvari, Julie Farley, Anna Csiszar, Amanda Sharpe, Maarten Loos, Bastijn Koopmans, Arlan Richardson, William E Sonntag
Cognitive function declines substantially with age in both humans and animal models. In humans, this decline is associated with decreases in independence and quality of life. Although the methodology for analysis of cognitive function in human models is relatively well established, similar analyses in animal models have many technical issues (e.g., unintended experimenter bias, motivational issues, stress, and testing during the light phase of the light dark cycle) that limit interpretation of the results. These caveats, and others, potentially bias the interpretation of studies in rodents and prevent the application of current tests of learning and memory as part of an overall healthspan assessment in rodent models of aging...
April 24, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679204/efficacy-of-curcumin-for-age-associated-cognitive-decline-a-narrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#5
REVIEW
Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan F Franks
Processes such as aberrant redox signaling and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation have been reported to modulate age-associated pathologies such as cognitive impairment. Curcumin, the primary therapeutic component of the Indian spice, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), has long been known for its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity attributable to its unique molecular structure. Recently, an interest in this polyphenol as a cognitive therapeutic for the elderly has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to critically review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin in ameliorating and preventing age-associated cognitive decline and address the translational progress of preclinical to clinical efficacy...
April 21, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679203/a-window-into-extreme-longevity-the-circulating-metabolomic-signature-of-the-naked-mole-rat-a-mammal-that-shows-negligible-senescence
#6
Kaitlyn N Lewis, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Rochelle Buffenstein
Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity...
April 20, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651745/correlations-between-age-functional-status-and-the-senescence-associated-proteins-hmgb2-and-p16-ink4a
#7
Ibiyonu Lawrence, Michael Bene, Timothy Nacarelli, Ashley Azar, Justin Z Cohen, Claudio Torres, Gregg Johannes, Christian Sell
Cellular senescence is a central component of the aging process. This cellular response has been found to be induced by multiple forms of molecular damage and senescent cells increase in number with age in all tissues examined to date. We have examined the correlation with age of two key proteins involved in the senescence program, p16INK4a and HMGB2. These proteins are involved in cell cycle arrest and chromatin remodeling during senescence. Circulating levels of these markers increases with age and correlates with functional status...
April 12, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488059/age-modifies-the-risk-factor-profiles-for-acute-kidney-injury-among-recently-diagnosed-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-population-based-study
#8
Chia-Ter Chao, Jui Wang, Hon-Yen Wu, Jenq-Wen Huang, Kuo-Liong Chien
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) rises with age and is associated with multiple risk factors. Here, we compared the risk factors for AKI between younger and older incident diabetic patients to examine the trends in risk alteration for individual factors across different age groups. Between 2007 and 2013, we selected all incident type 2 diabetic adults from the Taiwan National Health Insurance registry, stratified based on age: young (< 65 years), old (≥ 65 but < 75 years), and older-old (≥ 75 years)...
February 27, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478190/the-geropathology-grading-platform-demonstrates-that-mice-null-for-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-show-accelerated-biological-aging
#9
Timothy A Snider, Arlan Richardson, Julie A Stoner, Sathyaseelan S Deepa
The Geropathology Grading Platform (GGP) that is being developed by the Geropathology Research Network provides a grading system that allows investigators to assess biological aging in mice by measuring the pathological status of a wide range of tissues in a standardized scoring system. The GGP is a grading system that generates a numerical score for the total lesions in each tissue, which when averaged over the mice in the cohort provides a composite lesion score (CLS) for each tissue and mouse. In this study, we tested ability of the GGP to predict accelerated aging in mice null for Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1KO mice), which have been shown to have reduced lifespan and healthspan...
February 24, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468558/correction-to-pharmacologically-induced-impairment-of-neurovascular-coupling-responses-alters-gait-coordination-in-mice
#10
Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Gábor A Fülöp, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Tamas Kiss, Jonathan M Bagwell, Daniel O'Connor, Eszter Farkas, Farzaneh Sorond, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error.
February 21, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455275/the-effect-of-different-levels-of-dietary-restriction-on-glucose-homeostasis-and-metabolic-memory
#11
Stephanie Matyi, Jordan Jackson, Karla Garrett, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Archana Unnikrishnan
Over the past 50 years, dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life span of a wide variety of organisms. A hallmark feature of DR is improved glucose homeostasis resulting in increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of animals ranging from rodents to humans. In this study, we demonstrate the early effects of varying levels of DR on glucose tolerance. Within 10 days of 40% DR, glucose tolerance was significantly improved and by 120 days; 10 and 20% DR also showed enhanced glucose tolerance...
February 17, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428983/low-grade-systemic-inflammation-is-associated-with-functional-disability-in-elderly-people-affected-by-dementia
#12
Carlo Cervellati, Alessandro Trentini, Cristina Bosi, Giuseppe Valacchi, Mario Luca Morieri, Amedeo Zurlo, Gloria Brombo, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Zuliani
The decline in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADLs and IADLs, respectively) is a well-established clinical hallmark of dementia. Growing evidence has shown that systemic subclinical inflammation may be related to functional impairment. We evaluated the possible association between low-grade systemic inflammation and functional disability in older individuals affected by dementia. We explored the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and BADLs/IADLs in older individuals affected by late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD; n 110), "mixed" dementia (n 135), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n 258), and compared them with 75 normal Controls...
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417380/assessing-long-term-neuroinflammatory-responses-to-encephalopathy-using-mri-approaches-in-a-rat-endotoxemia-model
#13
Rheal A Towner, D Saunders, N Smith, W Towler, M Cruz, S Do, J E Maher, K Whitaker, M Lerner, K A Morton
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) induces neuroinflammation, which is associated with cognitive impairment (CI). CI is also correlated with aging. We used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion MRI, and MR spectroscopy to assess long-term alterations in BBB permeability, microvascularity, and metabolism, respectively, in a rat lipopolysaccharide-induced SAE model. Free radical-targeted molecular MRI was used to detect brain radical levels at 24 h and 1 week post-LPS injection. CE-MRI showed increased Gd-DTPA uptake in LPS rat brains at 24 h in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and perirhinal cortex regions...
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383570/correction-to-age-at-menarche-and-age-at-natural-menopause-in-east-asian-women-a-genome-wide-association-study
#14
Jiajun Shi, Ben Zhang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Yu-Tang Gao, Huaixing Li, Wei Lu, Jirong Long, Daehee Kang, Yong-Bing Xiang, Wanqing Wen, Sue K Park, Xingwang Ye, Dong-Young Noh, Ying Zheng, Yiqin Wang, Seokang Chung, Xu Lin, Qiuyin Cai, Xiao-Ou Shu
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357021/candidate-molecular-pathways-of-white-matter-vulnerability-in-the-brain-of-normal-aging-rhesus-monkeys
#15
Amy A Robinson, Carmela R Abraham, Douglas L Rosene
Mammalian aging is associated with decline in cognitive functions. Studies searching for a cause of cognitive aging initially focused on neuronal loss but quantitative investigations of rat, monkey, and human brain using stereology demonstrated that in normal aging, unlike in neurodegenerative disease, neurons are not lost. Instead, electron microscopic and MRI studies in normal aging monkeys revealed age-related damage to myelin sheaths, loss of axons, and reduction in white matter volume which correlates with cognitive impairments...
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327208/analysis-of-dna-modifications-in-aging-research
#16
REVIEW
Dustin R Masser, Niran Hadad, Hunter Porter, Michael B Stout, Archana Unnikrishnan, David R Stanford, Willard M Freeman
As geroscience research extends into the role of epigenetics in aging and age-related disease, researchers are being confronted with unfamiliar molecular techniques and data analysis methods that can be difficult to integrate into their work. In this review, we focus on the analysis of DNA modifications, namely cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation, through next-generation sequencing methods. While older techniques for modification analysis performed relative quantitation across regions of the genome or examined average genome levels, these analyses lack the desired specificity, rigor, and genomic coverage to firmly establish the nature of genomic methylation patterns and their response to aging...
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282653/oral-health-in-geroscience-animal-models-and-the-aging-oral-cavity
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan Y An, Richard Darveau, Matt Kaeberlein
Age is the single greatest risk factor for many diseases, including oral diseases. Despite this, a majority of preclinical oral health research has not adequately considered the importance of aging in research aimed at the mechanistic understanding of oral disease. Here, we have attempted to provide insights from animal studies in the geroscience field and apply them in the context of oral health research. In particular, we discuss the relationship between the biology of aging and mechanisms of oral disease...
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270905/the-oxygen-paradox-the-french-paradox-and-age-related-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Joanna M S Davies, Josiane Cillard, Bertrand Friguet, Enrique Cadenas, Jean Cadet, Rachael Cayce, Andrew Fishmann, David Liao, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Frédéric Derbré, Amélie Rébillard, Steven Burstein, Etienne Hirsch, Robert A Kloner, Michael Jakowec, Giselle Petzinger, Delphine Sauce, Florian Sennlaub, Isabelle Limon, Fulvio Ursini, Matilde Maiorino, Christina Economides, Christian J Pike, Pinchas Cohen, Anne Negre Salvayre, Matthew R Halliday, Adam J Lundquist, Nicolaus A Jakowec, Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou, Mathias Mericskay, Jean Mariani, Zhenlin Li, David Huang, Ellsworth Grant, Henry J Forman, Caleb E Finch, Patrick Y Sun, Laura C D Pomatto, Onnik Agbulut, David Warburton, Christian Neri, Mustapha Rouis, Pierre Cillard, Jacqueline Capeau, Jean Rosenbaum, Kelvin J A Davies
A paradox is a seemingly absurd or impossible concept, proposition, or theory that is often difficult to understand or explain, sometimes apparently self-contradictory, and yet ultimately correct or true. How is it possible, for example, that oxygen "a toxic environmental poison" could be also indispensable for life (Beckman and Ames Physiol Rev 78(2):547-81, 1998; Stadtman and Berlett Chem Res Toxicol 10(5):485-94, 1997)?: the so-called Oxygen Paradox (Davies and Ursini 1995; Davies Biochem Soc Symp 61:1-31, 1995)...
December 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243191/pharmacologically-induced-impairment-of-neurovascular-coupling-responses-alters-gait-coordination-in-mice
#19
Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanksiy, Gábor A Fülöp, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Tamas Kiss, Jonathan M Bagwell, Daniel O'Connor, Eszter Farkas, Farzaneh Sorond, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
There is correlative evidence that impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, in addition to promoting cognitive impairment, is also associated with alterations in gait and development of falls in elderly people. CBF is adjusted to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling (NVC) and this mechanism becomes progressively impaired with age. To establish a direct cause-and-effect relationship between impaired NVC and gait abnormalities, we induced neurovascular uncoupling pharmacologically in young C57BL/6 mice by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilator mediators involved in NVC...
December 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159506/a-longitudinal-study-of-dna-methylation-as-a-potential-mediator-of-age-related-diabetes-risk
#20
Crystal D Grant, Nadereh Jafari, Lifang Hou, Yun Li, James D Stewart, Guosheng Zhang, Archana Lamichhane, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Karen N Conneely
DNA methylation (DNAm) has been found to show robust and widespread age-related changes across the genome. DNAm profiles from whole blood can be used to predict human aging rates with great accuracy. We sought to test whether DNAm-based predictions of age are related to phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the goal of identifying risk factors potentially mediated by DNAm. Our participants were 43 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. We obtained methylation data via the Illumina 450K Methylation array on whole blood samples from participants at three timepoints, covering on average 16 years per participant...
December 2017: GeroScience
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