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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772792/metabolic-regulation-of-hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factors-the-role-of-small-molecule-metabolites-and-iron
#1
REVIEW
Peter S J Bailey, James A Nathan
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) facilitate cellular adaptations to low-oxygen environments. However, it is increasingly recognised that HIFs may be activated in response to metabolic stimuli, even when oxygen is present. Understanding the mechanisms for the crosstalk that exists between HIF signalling and metabolic pathways is therefore important. This review focuses on the metabolic regulation of HIFs by small molecule metabolites and iron, highlighting the latest studies that explore how tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and intracellular iron levels influence the HIF response through modulating the activity of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs)...
May 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772694/the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activating-pathways-in-multiple-myeloma
#2
REVIEW
Payel Roy, Uday Aditya Sarkar, Soumen Basak
Multiple myeloma(MM), an incurable plasma cell cancer, represents the second most prevalent hematological malignancy. Deregulated activity of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Tumor microenvironment-derived cytokines and cancer-associated genetic mutations signal through the canonical as well as the non-canonical arms to activate the NF-κB system in myeloma cells. In fact, frequent engagement of both the NF-κB pathways constitutes a distinguishing characteristic of myeloma...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772680/the-crosstalk-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathways-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-complex-mechanisms-relevant-for-cancer-inflammation-and-infection
#3
REVIEW
M Lienhard Schmitz, M Samer Shaban, B Vincent Albert, Anke Gökçen, Michael Kracht
Stressful conditions occuring during cancer, inflammation or infection activate adaptive responses that are controlled by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These systems can be triggered by chemical compounds but also by cytokines, toll-like receptor ligands, nucleic acids, lipids, bacteria and viruses. Despite representing unique signaling cascades, new data indicate that the UPR and NF-κB pathways converge within the nucleus through ten major transcription factors (TFs), namely activating transcription factor (ATF)4, ATF3, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) homologous protein (CHOP), X-box-binding protein (XBP)1, ATF6α and the five NF-κB subunits...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772656/correction-riedlinger-t-et-al-the-direct-and-indirect-roles-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-cancer-lessons-from-oncogenic-fusion-proteins-and-knock-in-mice-biomedicines-2018-6-36
#4
Tabea Riedlinger, Jana Haas, Julia Busch, Bart van de Sluis, Michael Kracht, M Lienhard Schmitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762526/hypoxia-metabolism-and-immune-cell-function
#5
REVIEW
Ewelina Krzywinska, Christian Stockmann
Hypoxia is a hallmark of inflamed, infected or damaged tissue, and the adaptation to inadequate tissue oxygenation is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia, but they are also associated with pathological stress such as inflammation, bacteriological infection or cancer. In addition, HIFs are central regulators of many innate and adaptive immunological functions, including migration, antigen presentation, production of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides, phagocytosis as well as cellular metabolic reprogramming...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757972/short-term-soy-protein-isolate-feeding-prevents-liver-steatosis-and-reduces-serum-alt-and-ast-levels-in-obese-female-zucker-rats
#6
Reza Hakkak, Clinton Heath Gauss, Andrea Bell, Soheila Korourian
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common liver disorder worldwide and is associated with obesity. We investigated effects of obesity and short-term intake of soy protein with isoflavones (SPI) on body weight change, energy intake, liver steatosis, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and leptin levels. Seventeen lean and seventeen obese ( fa / fa ) female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either casein or SPI diet for 8 weeks. Body weight was recorded twice weekly; feed intake was measured weekly...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757934/comparison-of-synthetic-media-designed-for-expansion-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#7
Michelle Lensch, Angela Muise, Lisa White, Michael Badowski, David Harris
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types, such as osteoblasts, myocytes, and adipocytes. This characteristic makes the cells a useful tool in developing new therapies for a number of common maladies and diseases. The utilization of animal-derived growth serum, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), for the expansion of MSCs has traditionally been used for cell culture. However, in clinical applications, animal-derived products present limitations and safety concerns for the recipient, as exposure to animal (xeno-) antigens and infectious agents is possible...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747381/artificially-expanded-genetic-information-systems-for-new-aptamer-technologies
#8
REVIEW
Elisa Biondi, Steven A Benner
Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”...
May 9, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735928/adiponectin-signaling-pathways-in-liver-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Tania Gamberi, Francesca Magherini, Alessandra Modesti, Tania Fiaschi
In the liver, adiponectin regulates both glucose and lipid metabolism and exerts an insulin-sensitizing effect. The binding of adiponectin with its specific receptors induces the activation of a proper signaling cascade that becomes altered in liver pathologies. This review describes the different signaling pathways in healthy and diseased hepatocytes, also highlighting the beneficial role of adiponectin in autophagy activation and hepatic regeneration.
May 7, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734750/cell-penetrating-peptides-to-enhance-delivery-of-oligonucleotide-based-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Graham McClorey, Subhashis Banerjee
The promise of nucleic acid based oligonucleotides as effective genetic therapies has been held back by their low bioavailability and poor cellular uptake to target tissues upon systemic administration. One such strategy to improve upon delivery is the use of short cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) that can be either directly attached to their cargo through covalent linkages or through the formation of noncovalent nanoparticle complexes that can facilitate cellular uptake. In this review, we will highlight recent proof-of-principle studies that have utilized both of these strategies to improve nucleic acid delivery and discuss the prospects for translation of this approach for clinical application...
May 5, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734696/mammary-stem-cells-and-breast-cancer-stem-cells-molecular-connections-and-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Toni Celià-Terrassa
Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy...
May 4, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724018/neural-oscillatory-correlates-for-conditioning-and-extinction-of-fear
#12
REVIEW
Carlos Trenado, Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Laura Cif, Michael Nitsche, Diane Ruge
The extinction of conditioned-fear represents a hallmark of current exposure therapies as it has been found to be impaired in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. A large body of knowledge focusing on psychophysiological animal and human studies suggests the involvement of key brain structures that interact via neural oscillations during the acquisition and extinction of fear. Consequently, neural oscillatory correlates of such mechanisms appear relevant regarding the development of novel therapeutic approaches to counterbalance abnormal activity in fear-related brain circuits, which, in turn, could alleviate fear and anxiety symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690612/neuroprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-rhus-coriaria-extract-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#13
Saba Khalilpour, Ghazaleh Behnammanesh, Fouad Suede, Mohammed O Ezzat, Jayadhisan Muniandy, Yasser Tabana, Mohamed Khadeer Ahamed, Ali Tamayol, Amin Malik Shah Majid, Enrico Sangiovanni, Mario Dell'Agli, Aman Shah Majid
Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria ( R. coriaria) extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) for DPPH, ABTS and β⁻carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6...
April 23, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690561/hypoxia-and-chromatin-a-focus-on-transcriptional-repression-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Michael Batie, Luis Del Peso, Sonia Rocha
Hypoxia or reduced oxygen availability has been studied extensively for its ability to activate specific genes. Hypoxia-induced gene expression is mediated by the HIF transcription factors, but not exclusively so. Despite the extensive knowledge about how hypoxia activates genes, much less is known about how hypoxia promotes gene repression. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced transcriptional repression responses. We highlight HIF-dependent and independent mechanisms as well as the potential roles of dioxygenases with functions at the nucleosome and DNA level...
April 22, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673151/tumor-molecular-profiling-for-an-individualized-approach-to-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-patient-case-study
#15
Kristine Posadas, Anita Ankola, Zhaohai Yang, Nelson S Yee
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence, and the associated mortality rate remains among the highest. For advanced HCC, sorafenib has been shown to slightly prolong survival, and regorafenib and nivolumab, both recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), may produce clinical benefits to a limited extent. Systemic chemotherapy has been shown to produce a modest response, but there is no clinically valid biomarker that can be used to predict which patients may benefit...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673148/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-the-importance-of-being-dynamic-role-and-insights-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Federica Colombo, Samuel Zambrano, Alessandra Agresti
In this review, we aim at describing the results obtained in the past years on dynamics features defining NF-κB regulatory functions, as we believe that these developments might have a transformative effect on the way in which NF-κB involvement in cancer is studied. We will also describe technical aspects of the studies performed in this context, including the use of different cellular models, culture conditions, microscopy approaches and quantification of the imaging data, balancing their strengths and limitations and pointing out to common features and to some open questions...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673141/subunit-specific-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Kaltschmidt, Johannes F W Greiner, Hussamadin M Kadhim, Christian Kaltschmidt
The transcription factor NF-κB is a key player in inflammation, cancer development, and progression. NF-κB stimulates cell proliferation, prevents apoptosis, and could promote tumor angiogenesis as well as metastasis. Extending the commonly accepted role of NF-κB in cancer formation and progression, different NF-κB subunits have been shown to be active and of particular importance in distinct types of cancer. Here, we summarize overexpression data of the NF-κB subunits RELA, RELB, and c-REL (referring to the v-REL, which is the oncogene of Reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T) as well as of their upstream kinase inhibitor, namely inhibitor of κB kinases (IKK), in different human cancers, assessed by database mining...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642643/the-many-roles-of-ubiquitin-in-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Gilles Courtois, Marie-Odile Fauvarque
The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway ubiquitously controls cell growth and survival in basic conditions as well as rapid resetting of cellular functions following environment changes or pathogenic insults. Moreover, its deregulation is frequently observed during cell transformation, chronic inflammation or autoimmunity. Understanding how it is properly regulated therefore is a prerequisite to managing these adverse situations. Over the last years evidence has accumulated showing that ubiquitination is a key process in NF-κB activation and its resolution...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642487/semaphorin-3c-and-its-receptors-in-cancer-and-cancer-stem-like-cells
#19
REVIEW
Jing Hao, Jennifer S Yu
Neurodevelopmental programs are frequently dysregulated in cancer. Semaphorins are a large family of guidance cues that direct neuronal network formation and are also implicated in cancer. Semaphorins have two kinds of receptors, neuropilins and plexins. Besides their role in development, semaphorin signaling may promote or suppress tumors depending on their context. Sema3C is a secreted semaphorin that plays an important role in the maintenance of cancer stem-like cells, promotes migration and invasion, and may facilitate angiogenesis...
April 8, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642405/transcriptome-analysis-of-acute-phase-liver-graft-injury-in-liver-transplantation
#20
Nikki P Lee, Haiyang Wu, Kevin T P Ng, Ruibang Luo, Tak-Wah Lam, Chung-Mau Lo, Kwan Man
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation remains the treatment of choice for a selected group of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the long-term benefit is greatly hampered by post-transplant HCC recurrence. Our previous studies have identified liver graft injury as an acute phase event leading to post-transplant tumor recurrence. METHODS: To re-examine this acute phase event at the molecular level and in an unbiased way, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on liver graft biopsies obtained from the transplant recipients two hours after portal vein reperfusion with an aim to capture frequently altered pathways that account for post-transplant tumor recurrence...
April 6, 2018: Biomedicines
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