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Elena Kuchma, Stanislav Kubrin, Alexander Soldatov
The paper contains an overview of modern spectroscopic methods for studying the local atomic structure of superparamagnetic nanoparticles based on iron oxide (SPIONs), which are an important class of materials promising for theranostics in oncology. Practically important properties of small and ultra small nanoparticles are determined primarily by their shape, size, and features of the local atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures, for the study of which the standard characterization methods developed for macroscopic materials are not optimal...
July 18, 2018: Biomedicines
Judy S Crabtree, Lucio Miele
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) have been implicated in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and resistance to therapy. The origins of BCSCs remain controversial due to tumor heterogeneity and the presence of such small side populations for study, but nonetheless, cell surface markers and their correlation with BCSC functionality continue to be identified. BCSCs are driven by persistent activation of developmental pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, Hippo, and Hedgehog and new treatment strategies that are aimed at these pathways are in preclinical and clinical development...
July 17, 2018: Biomedicines
Lorenzo Pilla, Cristina Maccalli
The recent advances in immunotherapy and the availability of novel drugs to target the tumor microenvironment have dramatically changed the paradigm of cancer treatment. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of cancer patients are unresponsive or develop resistance to these treatments. With the aim to increase the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy, combinations of agents and standard therapies with complementary actions have been developed mostly on an empirical base, since their mechanisms of actions are not yet fully dissected...
July 2, 2018: Biomedicines
Laura Bechtold, Marta Ghio, Christian Bellebaum
The concreteness effect (CE) describes a processing advantage for concrete over abstract words. Electrophysiologically, the CE manifests in higher N400 and N700 amplitudes for concrete words. The contribution of the stimulus-inherent imageability to the electrophysiological correlates of the CE is not yet fully unraveled. This EEG study focused on the role of imageability irrespective of concreteness by examining the effects of training-induced visual imageability on the processing of novel words. In two training sessions, 21 healthy participants learned to associate novel words with pictures of novel objects as well as electron-microscopical structures and were additionally familiarized with novel words without any picture association...
July 1, 2018: Biomedicines
James T March, Golnoush Golshirazi, Viktorija Cernisova, Heidi Carr, Yee Leong, Ngoc Lu-Nguyen, Linda J Popplewell
Fibrosis results from the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in chronically injured tissue. The fibrotic process is governed by crosstalk between many signaling pathways. The search for an effective treatment is further complicated by the fact that there is a degree of tissue-specificity in the pathways involved, although the process is not completely understood for all tissues. A plethora of drugs have shown promise in pre-clinical models, which is not always borne out translationally in clinical trial...
June 25, 2018: Biomedicines
Nur Izyani Kamaruzman, Snigdha Tiash, Maeirah Ashaie, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
Breast cancer, the second leading cause of female deaths worldwide, is usually treated with cytotoxic drugs, accompanied by adverse side-effects, development of chemoresistance and relapse of disease condition. Survival and proliferation of the cancer cells are greatly empowered by over-expression or over-activation of growth factor receptors and anti-apoptotic factors. Identification of these key players that cross-talk to each other, and subsequently, knockdown with their respective siRNAs in a synchronous manner could be a promising approach to precisely treat the cancer...
June 22, 2018: Biomedicines
Precious Hlongwane, Neelakshi Mungra, Suresh Madheswaran, Olusiji A Akinrinmade, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Cancer immunotherapy aims to selectively target and kill tumor cells whilst limiting the damage to healthy tissues. Controlled delivery of plant, bacterial and human toxins or enzymes has been shown to promote the induction of apoptosis in cancerous cells. The 4th generation of targeted effectors are being designed to be as humanized as possible—a solution to the problem of immunogenicity encountered with existing generations. Granzymes are serine proteases which naturally function in humans as integral cytolytic effectors during the programmed cell death of cancerous and pathogen-infected cells...
June 20, 2018: Biomedicines
Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Larissa Heidemeyer, Carlos Trenado, Diane Ruge
Depotentiation (DP) is a crucial mechanism for the tuning of memory traces once LTP (Long Term Potentiation) has been induced via learning, artificial procedures, or other activities. Putative unuseful LTP might be abolished via this process. Its deficiency is thought to play a role in pathologies, such as drug induced dyskinesia. However, since it is thought that it represents a mechanism that is linked to the susceptibility to interference during consolidation of a memory trace, it is an important process to consider when therapeutic interventions, such as psychotherapy, are administered...
June 18, 2018: Biomedicines
Leonardo Caputo, Laura Quintieri, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Giovanni Lentini, Solomon Habtemariam
Citrus pomace is a huge agro-food industrial waste mostly composed of peels and traditionally used as compost or animal feed. Owing to its high content of compounds beneficial to humans (e.g., flavonoids, phenol-like acids, and terpenoids), citrus waste is increasingly used to produce valuable supplements, fragrance, or antimicrobials. However, such processes require sustainable and efficient extraction strategies by solvent-free techniques for environmentally-friendly good practices. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of water extracts of three citrus peels (orange, lemon, and citron) against ten different sanitary relevant bacteria...
June 17, 2018: Biomedicines
Yue Zhang, Kevin Zarrabi, Wei Hou, Stefan Madajewicz, Minsig Choi, Stanley Zucker, Wen-Tien Chen
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The goals of this study are to evaluate the association between levels of invasive circulating tumor cells (iCTCs) with CRC outcomes and to explore the molecular characteristics of iCTCs. Peripheral blood from 93 patients with Stage I⁻IV CRC was obtained and assessed for the detection and characterization of iCTCs using a functional collagen-based adhesion matrix (CAM) invasion assay. Patients were followed and assessed for overall survival...
June 6, 2018: Biomedicines
Andrés A Urrutia, Julián Aragonés
Cellular responses to oxygen fluctuations are largely mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Upon inhalation, the first organ inspired oxygen comes into contact with is the lungs, but the understanding of the pulmonary HIF oxygen-sensing pathway is still limited. In this review we will focus on the role of HIF1α and HIF2α isoforms in lung responses to oxygen insufficiency. In particular, we will discuss novel findings regarding their role in the biology of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in the context of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction...
June 6, 2018: Biomedicines
Larissa Cordier, Martin Diers
This review provides an overview of learning mechanisms and memory aspects for the development of chronic pain. Pain can be influenced in important ways by an individual's personality, by family, and by the sociocultural environment in which they live. Therefore, learning mechanisms can explain why pain experience and pain behavior can increase or decrease. Linking pain with positive consequences or removing negative consequences can contribute significantly to the chronification of pain. We will provide an overview of treatment options that use the characteristics of extinction...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicines
Matthew Tegowski, Albert Baldwin
The NF-κB pathway is a critical regulator of immune responses and is often dysregulated in cancer. Two NF-κB pathways have been described to mediate these responses, the canonical and the noncanonical. While understudied compared to the canonical NF-κB pathway, noncanonical NF-κB and its components have been shown to have effects, usually protumorigenic, in many different cancer types. Here, we review noncanonical NF-κB pathways and discuss its important roles in promoting cancer. We also discuss alternative NF-κB-independent functions of some the components of noncanonical NF-κB signaling...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicines
Gail L Matters, John F Harms
It is estimated that early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) could increase long-term patient survival by as much as 30% to 40% (Seufferlein, T. et al., Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2016 , 13 , 74⁻75). There is an unmet need for reagents that can reliably identify early cancerous or precancerous lesions through various imaging modalities or could be employed to deliver anticancer treatments specifically to tumor cells. However, to date, many PDAC tumor-targeting strategies lack selectivity and are unable to discriminate between tumor and nontumor cells, causing off-target effects or unclear diagnoses...
June 2, 2018: Biomedicines
Nelson S Yee, Eugene J Lengerich, Kathryn H Schmitz, Jennifer L Maranki, Niraj J Gusani, Leila Tchelebi, Heath B Mackley, Karen L Krok, Maria J Baker, Claire de Boer, Julian D Yee
Cancers of the digestive system remain highly lethal; therefore, the care of patients with malignant diseases of the digestive tract requires the expertise of providers from multiple health disciplines. Progress has been made to advance the understanding of epidemiology and genetics, diagnostic and screening evaluation, treatment modalities, and supportive care for patients with gastrointestinal cancers. At the Multi-Disciplinary Patient Care in Gastrointestinal Oncology conference at the Hershey Country Club in Hershey, Pennsylvania on 29 September 2017, the faculty members of the Penn State Health Milton S...
June 1, 2018: Biomedicines
Ahmed F Ghanem, Mona H Abdel Rehim
Graphene (G) is a newcomer material that holds promising properties for many applications. The production of high quality G with a good yield is a long-standing goal for many researchers. This work emphasizes synthesis of dispersed graphene nanoplatelets (DGP) through aqueous dispersion technique in surfactant/water solution with the aid of tip sonication. A chemical method was also used to prepare graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for comparison. Elemental analysis revealed the C:O ratio to be 12:1 for DGP but much lower for other graphene structures...
May 28, 2018: Biomedicines
Lara Naghavi, Martin Schwalbe, Ahmed Ghanem, Michael Naumann
Every year, gastric cancer causes around 819,000 deaths worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer in the western world is slowly declining, but the prognosis is unpromising. In Germany, the 5-year-survival rate is around 32%, and the average life span after diagnosis is 6 to 9 months. Therapy of gastric cancer patients comprises a gastrectomy and perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy. However, resistance of gastric cancer cells to these agents is widespread; thus, improved chemotherapeutic approaches are required...
May 22, 2018: Biomedicines
Jessika Bertacchini, Maria Sara Magarò, Francesco Potì, Carla Palumbo
Osteocytes, the most important regulators of bone processes, are producers of molecules (usually proteins) that act as signals in order to communicate with nearby cells. These factors control cell division (proliferation), differentiation, and survival. Substantial evidence showed different signaling pathways activated by osteocytes and involved in osteoblast differentiation, in particular in the last decade, when the Wingless-related integration site (WNT) pathway assumed a critical large importance. WNT activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism, making GSK3 a potential therapeutic target for bone diseases...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicines
Peter S J Bailey, James A Nathan
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) facilitate cellular adaptations to low-oxygen environments. However, it is increasingly recognised that HIFs may be activated in response to metabolic stimuli, even when oxygen is present. Understanding the mechanisms for the crosstalk that exists between HIF signalling and metabolic pathways is therefore important. This review focuses on the metabolic regulation of HIFs by small molecule metabolites and iron, highlighting the latest studies that explore how tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and intracellular iron levels influence the HIF response through modulating the activity of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs)...
May 17, 2018: Biomedicines
Payel Roy, Uday Aditya Sarkar, Soumen Basak
Multiple myeloma(MM), an incurable plasma cell cancer, represents the second most prevalent hematological malignancy. Deregulated activity of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Tumor microenvironment-derived cytokines and cancer-associated genetic mutations signal through the canonical as well as the non-canonical arms to activate the NF-κB system in myeloma cells. In fact, frequent engagement of both the NF-κB pathways constitutes a distinguishing characteristic of myeloma...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicines
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