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Abdeljabar El Andaloussi, Prosper Igboeli, Amero Amer, Ayman Al-Hendy
Cancer treatment with specific chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented to have an adverse impact on female fertility leading to premature ovarian failure (POF). The objective of this study is to investigate if chemotherapeutic induced POF can be reversed by the infusion of autologous nucleated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). To reach our goal, mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injections of busulfan and cyclophosphamide to induce POF. This was followed by transfusion of PBMC. The ovarian morphology and functional parameters were monitored by radioimmunoassay, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis...
September 15, 2018: Biomedicines
Shannon J Kelly, Anjali Hirani, Vishal Shahidadpury, Aum Solanki, Kathleen Halasz, Sheeba Varghese Gupta, Brian Madow, Vijaykumar Sutariya
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States, affecting approximately 11 million patients. AMD is caused primarily by an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In recent years, aflibercept injections have been used to combat VEGF. However, this treatment requires frequent intravitreal injections, leading to low patient compliance and several adverse side effects including scarring, increased intraocular pressure, and retinal detachment...
September 11, 2018: Biomedicines
Bahare Salehi, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Manisha Nigam, Bilge Sener, Mehtap Kilic, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Natália Martins, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) belongs to polyphenols' stilbenoids group, possessing two phenol rings linked to each other by an ethylene bridge. This natural polyphenol has been detected in more than 70 plant species, especially in grapes' skin and seeds, and was found in discrete amounts in red wines and various human foods. It is a phytoalexin that acts against pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. As a natural food ingredient, numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol possesses a very high antioxidant potential...
September 9, 2018: Biomedicines
Volker Herzig, Aline Dantas de Araujo, Kathryn P Greenwood, Yanni K-Y Chin, Monique J Windley, Youmie Chong, Markus Muttenthaler, Mehdi Mobli, Neil Audsley, Graham M Nicholson, Paul F Alewood, Glenn F King
Spider venoms are a rich source of insecticidal peptide toxins. Their development as bioinsecticides has, however, been hampered due to concerns about potential lack of stability and oral bioactivity. We therefore systematically evaluated several synthetic strategies to increase the stability and oral potency of the potent insecticidal spider-venom peptide ω-HXTX-Hv1a (Hv1a). Selective chemical replacement of disulfide bridges with diselenide bonds and N- to C-terminal cyclization were anticipated to improve Hv1a resistance to proteolytic digestion, and thereby its activity when delivered orally...
August 28, 2018: Biomedicines
Shaker A Mousa, Gennadi V Glinsky, Hung-Yun Lin, Osnat Ashur-Fabian, Aleck Hercbergs, Kelly A Keating, Paul J Davis
Acting at a cell surface receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin αvβ3, thyroid hormone analogues regulate downstream the expression of a large panel of genes relevant to cancer cell proliferation, to cancer cell survival pathways, and to tumor-linked angiogenesis. Because αvβ3 is involved in the cancer cell metastatic process, we examine here the possibility that thyroid hormone as l-thyroxine (T4) and the thyroid hormone antagonist, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), may respectively promote and inhibit metastasis...
August 22, 2018: Biomedicines
Samuel Marques, Teresa Trevisan, Carlos Maia, Andrea Breuer, Robert W Owen
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a set of molecules that contribute directly to the initiation and aggravation of diseases associated with ageing. AGEs are produced by the reaction between reducing sugars (or α-dicarbonyl compounds), proteins, and amino acid residues. Previous in vitro methods using non-enzymatic procedures described in the literature require an incubation period of 1⁻3 weeks to generate AGEs. In this study, the reaction time for the formation of AGEs (48 and 3 h) was significantly reduced by adaptation of methods previously described in the literature and coupling them to the free radical generation system termed hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay...
August 15, 2018: Biomedicines
Jiajia Zhang, Shafat Quadri, Christopher L Wolfgang, Lei Zheng
Biomarkers refer to a plethora of biological characteristics that can be quantified to facilitate cancer diagnosis, forecast the prognosis of disease, and predict a response to treatment. The identification of objective biomarkers is among the most crucial steps in the realization of individualized cancer care. Several tumor biomarkers for gastrointestinal malignancies have been applied in the clinical setting to help differentiate between cancer and other conditions, facilitate patient selection for targeted therapies, and to monitor treatment response and recurrence...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicines
Fares Nigim, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Ekkehard M Kasper, Linda Ackermans, Yasin Temel
Meningiomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system tumors. Approximately, 80% of meningiomas are classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as grade I, and 20% of these tumors are grade II and III, considered high-grade meningiomas (HGMs). Clinical control of HGMs, as well as meningiomas that relapse after surgery, and radiation therapy is difficult, and novel therapeutic approaches are necessary. However, traditional chemotherapies, interferons, hormonal therapies, and other targeted therapies have so far failed to provide clinical benefit...
August 6, 2018: Biomedicines
Joaquim Bellmunt
The rapid development of the cancer stem cells (CSC) field, together with powerful genome-wide screening techniques, have provided the basis for the development of future alternative and reliable therapies aimed at targeting tumor-initiating cell populations. Urothelial bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) that were identified for the first time in 2009 are heterogenous and originate from multiple cell types; including urothelial stem cells and differentiated cell types-basal, intermediate stratum and umbrella cells Some studies hypothesize that BCSCs do not necessarily arise from normal stem cells but might derive from differentiated progenies following mutational insults and acquisition of tumorigenic properties...
August 2, 2018: Biomedicines
Francesco Borgia, Roberta Giuffrida, Fabrizio Guarneri, Serafinella P Cannavò
Relapsing polychondritis is an immune-mediated systemic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of cartilaginous and proteoglycan-rich tissues, resulting in progressive anatomical deformation and functional impairment of the involved structures. Auricular and nasal chondritis and/or polyarthritis represent the most common clinical features, but potentially all types of cartilage may be involved. Because of the pleomorphic nature of the disease, with non-specific symptoms at the onset, the diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis is often delayed...
August 2, 2018: Biomedicines
Vlasios Goulas, Demetra Nicolaou, George Botsaris, Alexandra Barbouti
Numerous studies provide robust evidence for a protective effect of red wine against many diseases. This bioactivity has been mainly associated with phenolic fractions of wines. However, the health effects of melanoidins in red sweet wines has been ignored. The goal of the present work was to unravel the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of straw sweet wine melanoidins. Results demonstrated that melanoidins have a potential antioxidant activity, determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays...
August 2, 2018: Biomedicines
Yu Rou Puar, Muthu K Shanmugam, Lu Fan, Frank Arfuso, Gautam Sethi, Vinay Tergaonkar
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is responsible for the regulation of a large number of genes that are involved in important physiological processes, including survival, inflammation, and immune responses. At the same time, this transcription factor can control the expression of a plethora of genes that promote tumor cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, inflammation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The aberrant activation of this transcription factor has been observed in several types of cancer and is known to contribute to aggressive tumor growth and resistance to therapeutic treatment...
July 27, 2018: Biomedicines
Marija Vujadinovic, Jort Vellinga
Adenoviral vectored vaccines against infectious diseases are currently in clinical trials due to their capacity to induce potent antigen-specific B- and T-cell immune responses. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with adenoviral vector and, for example, adjuvanted protein-based vaccines can further enhance antigen-specific immune responses. Although leading to potent immune responses, these heterologous prime-boost regimens may be complex and impact manufacturing costs limiting efficient implementation. Typically, adenoviral vectors are engineered to genetically encode a transgene in the E1 region and utilize the host cell machinery to express the encoded antigen and thereby induce immune responses...
July 26, 2018: Biomedicines
Nicolaas A J Puts, Stefanie Heba, Ashley D Harris, Christopher John Evans, David J McGonigle, Martin Tegenthoff, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Richard A E Edden
Differences in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels measured with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy have been shown to correlate with behavioral performance over a number of tasks and cortical regions. These correlations appear to be regionally and functionally specific. In this study, we test the hypothesis that GABA levels will be correlated within individuals for functionally related regions-the left and right sensorimotor cortex. In addition, we investigate whether this is driven by bulk tissue composition...
July 24, 2018: Biomedicines
Leandra B Jones, Courtnee' R Bell, Kartz E Bibb, Linlin Gu, Mamie T Coats, Qiana L Matthews
Exosomes are nanosized membrane microvesicles (30⁻100 nm) that have the capability to communicate intercellularly and transport cell components (i.e., miRNA, mRNA, proteins and DNA). Exosomes are found in nearly every cell type (i.e., mast cells, dendritic, tumor, and macrophages). There have been many studies that have shown the importance of exosome function as well as their unique packaging and targeting abilities. These characteristics make exosomes ideal candidates to act as biomarkers and therapeutics for disease...
July 23, 2018: Biomedicines
Elena Kuchma, Stanislav Kubrin, Alexander Soldatov
The paper contains an overview of modern spectroscopic methods for studying the local atomic structure of superparamagnetic nanoparticles based on iron oxide (SPIONs), which are an important class of materials promising for theranostics in oncology. Practically important properties of small and ultra small nanoparticles are determined primarily by their shape, size, and features of the local atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures, for the study of which the standard characterization methods developed for macroscopic materials are not optimal...
July 18, 2018: Biomedicines
Judy S Crabtree, Lucio Miele
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) have been implicated in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and resistance to therapy. The origins of BCSCs remain controversial due to tumor heterogeneity and the presence of such small side populations for study, but nonetheless, cell surface markers and their correlation with BCSC functionality continue to be identified. BCSCs are driven by persistent activation of developmental pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, Hippo, and Hedgehog and new treatment strategies that are aimed at these pathways are in preclinical and clinical development...
July 17, 2018: Biomedicines
Lorenzo Pilla, Cristina Maccalli
The recent advances in immunotherapy and the availability of novel drugs to target the tumor microenvironment have dramatically changed the paradigm of cancer treatment. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of cancer patients are unresponsive or develop resistance to these treatments. With the aim to increase the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy, combinations of agents and standard therapies with complementary actions have been developed mostly on an empirical base, since their mechanisms of actions are not yet fully dissected...
July 2, 2018: Biomedicines
Laura Bechtold, Marta Ghio, Christian Bellebaum
The concreteness effect (CE) describes a processing advantage for concrete over abstract words. Electrophysiologically, the CE manifests in higher N400 and N700 amplitudes for concrete words. The contribution of the stimulus-inherent imageability to the electrophysiological correlates of the CE is not yet fully unraveled. This EEG study focused on the role of imageability irrespective of concreteness by examining the effects of training-induced visual imageability on the processing of novel words. In two training sessions, 21 healthy participants learned to associate novel words with pictures of novel objects as well as electron-microscopical structures and were additionally familiarized with novel words without any picture association...
July 1, 2018: Biomedicines
James T March, Golnoush Golshirazi, Viktorija Cernisova, Heidi Carr, Yee Leong, Ngoc Lu-Nguyen, Linda J Popplewell
Fibrosis results from the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in chronically injured tissue. The fibrotic process is governed by crosstalk between many signaling pathways. The search for an effective treatment is further complicated by the fact that there is a degree of tissue-specificity in the pathways involved, although the process is not completely understood for all tissues. A plethora of drugs have shown promise in pre-clinical models, which is not always borne out translationally in clinical trial...
June 25, 2018: Biomedicines
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