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Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780877/disgust-and-the-rubber-hand-illusion-a-registered-replication-report-of-jalal-krishnakumar-and-ramachandran-2015
#1
Hiroshi Nitta, Haruto Tomita, Yi Zhang, Xinxin Zhou, Yuki Yamada
Heightened experience of disgust is a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). Previous studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) reported that the sense of body ownership is related to the interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception. One recent study demonstrated a link between the RHI and disgust, suggesting that there is an interaction between these three perceptual modalities and disgust (Jalal et al., PLOS ONE 10:e0139159, 2015). However, there have been no direct replications of this initial study...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774229/web-pages-what-can-you-see-in-a-single-fixation
#2
Ali Jahanian, Shaiyan Keshvari, Ruth Rosenholtz
Research in human vision suggests that in a single fixation, humans can extract a significant amount of information from a natural scene, e.g. the semantic category, spatial layout, and object identities. This ability is useful, for example, for quickly determining location, navigating around obstacles, detecting threats, and guiding eye movements to gather more information. In this paper, we ask a new question: What can we see at a glance at a web page - an artificial yet complex "real world" stimulus? Is it possible to notice the type of website, or where the relevant elements are, with only a glimpse? We find that observers, fixating at the center of a web page shown for only 120 milliseconds, are well above chance at classifying the page into one of ten categories...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721518/new-approaches-to-the-analysis-of-eye-movement-behaviour-across-expertise-while-viewing-brain-mris
#3
Emily M Crowe, Iain D Gilchrist, Christopher Kent
Brain tumour detection and diagnosis requires clinicians to inspect and analyse brain magnetic resonance images. Eye-tracking is commonly used to examine observers' gaze behaviour during such medical image interpretation tasks, but analysis of eye movement sequences is limited. We therefore used ScanMatch, a novel technique that compares saccadic eye movement sequences, to examine the effect of expertise and diagnosis on the similarity of scanning patterns. Diagnostic accuracy was also recorded. Thirty-five participants were classified as Novices, Medics and Experts based on their level of expertise...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707615/finding-cancer-in-mammograms-if-you-know-it-s-there-do-you-know-where
#4
Ann J Carrigan, Susan G Wardle, Anina N Rich
Humans can extract considerable information from scenes, even when these are presented extremely quickly. The ability of an experienced radiologist to rapidly detect an abnormality on a mammogram may build upon this general capacity. Although radiologists have been shown to be able to detect an abnormality 'above chance' at short durations, the extent to which abnormalities can be localised at brief presentations is less clear. Extending previous work, we presented radiologists with unilateral mammograms, 50% containing a mass, for 250 or 1000 ms...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670934/musical-training-bilingualism-and-executive-function-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control
#5
Annalise A D'Souza, Linda Moradzadeh, Melody Wiseheart
The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607404/hand-proximity-effects-are-fragile-a-useful-null-result
#6
Ronald Andringa, Walter R Boot, Nelson A Roque, Sadhana Ponnaluri
Placing one's hands near an object has been reported to enhance visual processing in a number of ways. We explored whether hand proximity confers an advantage when applied to complex visual search. In one experiment, participants indicated the presence or absence of a target item in a baggage x-ray image by pressing response boxes located at the edge of a tablet computer screen, requiring them to grip the display between their hands. Alternatively, they responded using a mouse held within their lap. Contrary to expectations, hand position did not influence search performance...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577072/theoretical-vs-empirical-discriminability-the-application-of-roc-methods-to-eyewitness-identification
#7
REVIEW
John T Wixted, Laura Mickes
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was introduced to the field of eyewitness identification 5 years ago. Since that time, it has been both influential and controversial, and the debate has raised an issue about measuring discriminability that is rarely considered. The issue concerns the distinction between empirical discriminability (measured by area under the ROC curve) vs. underlying/theoretical discriminability (measured by d' or variants of it). Under most circumstances, the two measures will agree about a difference between two conditions in terms of discriminability...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577071/temporal-fractals-in-movies-and-mind
#8
James E Cutting, Jordan E DeLong, Kaitlin L Brunick
Fractal patterns are seemingly everywhere. They can be analyzed through Fourier and power analyses, and other methods. Cutting, DeLong, and Nothelfer (2010) analyzed as time-series data the fluctuations of shot durations in 150 popular movies released over 70 years. They found that these patterns had become increasingly fractal-like and concluded that they might be linked to those found in the results of psychological tasks involving attention. To explore this possibility further, we began by analyzing the shot patterns of almost twice as many movies released over a century...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541685/embodied-learning-introducing-a-taxonomy-based-on-bodily-engagement-and-task-integration
#9
Alexander Skulmowski, Günter Daniel Rey
Research on learning and education is increasingly influenced by theories of embodied cognition. Several embodiment-based interventions have been empirically investigated, including gesturing, interactive digital media, and bodily activity in general. This review aims to present the most important theoretical foundations of embodied cognition and their application to educational research. Furthermore, we critically review recent research concerning the effectiveness of embodiment interventions and develop a taxonomy to more properly characterize research on embodied cognition...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497689/color-inference-in-visual-communication-the-meaning-of-colors-in-recycling
#10
Karen B Schloss, Laurent Lessard, Charlotte S Walmsley, Kathleen Foley
People interpret abstract meanings from colors, which makes color a useful perceptual feature for visual communication. This process is complicated, however, because there is seldom a one-to-one correspondence between colors and meanings. One color can be associated with many different concepts (one-to-many mapping) and many colors can be associated with the same concept (many-to-one mapping). We propose that to interpret color-coding systems, people perform assignment inference to determine how colors map onto concepts...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497688/redundant-target-processing-is-robust-against-changes-to-task-load
#11
Stephanie A Morey, Nicole A Thomas, Jason S McCarley
Monitoring visual displays while performing other tasks is commonplace in many operational environments. Although dividing attention between tasks can impair monitoring accuracy and response times, it is unclear whether it also reduces processing efficiency for visual targets. Thus, the current three experiments examined the effects of dual-tasking on target processing in the visual periphery. A total of 120 undergraduate students performed a redundant-target task either by itself (Experiment 1a) or in conjunction with a manual tracking task (Experiments 1b-3)...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399622/visual-adaptation-and-the-amplitude-spectra-of-radiological-images
#12
Elysse Kompaniez-Dunigan, Craig K Abbey, John M Boone, Michael A Webster
We examined how visual sensitivity and perception are affected by adaptation to the characteristic amplitude spectra of X-ray mammography images. Because of the transmissive nature of X-ray photons, these images have relatively more low-frequency variability than natural images, a difference that is captured by a steeper slope of the amplitude spectrum (~ - 1.5) compared to the ~ 1/f (slope of - 1) spectra common to natural scenes. Radiologists inspecting these images are therefore exposed to a different balance of spectral components, and we measured how this exposure might alter spatial vision...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399621/teaching-the-science-of-learning
#13
REVIEW
Yana Weinstein, Christopher R Madan, Megan A Sumeracki
The science of learning has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of effective teaching and learning strategies. However, few instructors outside of the field are privy to this research. In this tutorial review, we focus on six specific cognitive strategies that have received robust support from decades of research: spaced practice, interleaving, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding. We describe the basic research behind each strategy and relevant applied research, present examples of existing and suggested implementation, and make recommendations for further research that would broaden the reach of these strategies...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399620/exploring-the-practicing-connections-hypothesis-using-gesture-to-support-coordination-of-ideas-in-understanding-a-complex-statistical-concept
#14
Ji Y Son, Priscilla Ramos, Melissa DeWolf, William Loftus, James W Stigler
In this article, we begin to lay out a framework and approach for studying how students come to understand complex concepts in rich domains. Grounded in theories of embodied cognition, we advance the view that understanding of complex concepts requires students to practice, over time, the coordination of multiple concepts, and the connection of this system of concepts to situations in the world. Specifically, we explore the role that a teacher's gesture might play in supporting students' coordination of two concepts central to understanding in the domain of statistics: mean and standard deviation...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285520/the-range-of-confidence-scales-does-not-affect-the-relationship-between-confidence-and-accuracy-in-recognition-memory
#15
Eylul Tekin, Henry L Roediger
Researchers use a wide range of confidence scales when measuring the relationship between confidence and accuracy in reports from memory, with the highest number usually representing the greatest confidence (e.g., 4-point, 20-point, and 100-point scales). The assumption seems to be that the range of the scale has little bearing on the confidence-accuracy relationship. In two old/new recognition experiments, we directly investigated this assumption using word lists (Experiment 1) and faces (Experiment 2) by employing 4-, 5-, 20-, and 100-point scales...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214209/the-impact-of-fillers-on-lineup-performance
#16
Stacy A Wetmore, Ryan M McAdoo, Scott D Gronlund, Jeffrey S Neuschatz
Filler siphoning theory posits that the presence of fillers (known innocents) in a lineup protects an innocent suspect from being chosen by siphoning choices away from that innocent suspect. This mechanism has been proposed as an explanation for why simultaneous lineups (viewing all lineup members at once) induces better performance than showups (one-person identification procedures). We implemented filler siphoning in a computational model (WITNESS, Clark, Applied Cognitive Psychology 17:629-654, 2003), and explored the impact of the number of fillers (lineup size) and filler quality on simultaneous and sequential lineups (viewing lineups members in sequence), and compared both to showups...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214208/eye-movement-feedback-fails-to-improve-visual-search-performance
#17
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Many real-world searches (e.g., radiology and baggage screening) have rare targets. When targets are rare, observers perform rapid, incomplete searches, leading to higher miss rates. To improve search for rare (10% prevalence) targets, we provided eye movement feedback (EMF) to observers during their searches. Although the nature of the EMF varied across experiments, each method informed observers about the regions of the display that had not yet been inspected. We hypothesized that feedback would help guide attention to unsearched areas and increase the proportion of the display searched before making a target-absent response, thereby increasing accuracy...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214207/what-is-the-role-of-the-film-viewer-the-effects-of-narrative-comprehension-and-viewing-task-on-gaze-control-in-film
#18
John P Hutson, Tim J Smith, Joseph P Magliano, Lester C Loschky
Film is ubiquitous, but the processes that guide viewers' attention while viewing film narratives are poorly understood. In fact, many film theorists and practitioners disagree on whether the film stimulus (bottom-up) or the viewer (top-down) is more important in determining how we watch movies. Reading research has shown a strong connection between eye movements and comprehension, and scene perception studies have shown strong effects of viewing tasks on eye movements, but such idiosyncratic top-down control of gaze in film would be anathema to the universal control mainstream filmmakers typically aim for...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214206/the-effect-of-testing-can-increase-or-decrease-misinformation-susceptibility-depending-on-the-retention-interval
#19
Ayanna K Thomas, Leamarie T Gordon, Paul M Cernasov, John B Bulevich
Research has consistently demonstrated that testing prior to the presentation of misleading post-event information, within the context of a standard eyewitness misinformation paradigm, results in an increase in the misinformation effect. The present study investigated whether changes in misinformation susceptibility in the context of interim testing are affected by retention interval differences between misinformation presentation and final testing. Further, this study tested possible divergences in original and post-event learning between conditions where elaboration in processing of critical details was encouraged either indirectly, via interim testing, or directly, by visually emphasizing critical details...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214205/simple-eye-movement-feedback-during-visual-search-is-not-helpful
#20
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams
Searching for targets in the visual world, or visual search, is something we all do every day. We frequently make 'false-negative' errors, wherein we erroneously conclude a target was absent when one was, in fact, present. These sorts of errors can have tremendous costs, as when signs of cancers are missed in diagnostic radiology. Prior research has characterized the cause of many of these errors as being due to failure to completely search the area where targets may be present; indeed, roughly one-third of chest nodules missed in lung cancer screening are never fixated (Drew, Võ, Olwal, Jacobson, Seltzer and Wolfe, Journal of Vision 13:3, 2013)...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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