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Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications

Karen Lander, Vicki Bruce, Markus Bindemann
This journal is dedicated to "use-inspired basic research" where a problem in the world shapes the hypotheses for study in the laboratory. This review considers the role of individual variation in face identification and the challenges and opportunities this presents in security and criminal investigations. We show how theoretical work conducted on individual variation in face identification has, in part, been stimulated by situations presented in the real world. In turn, we review the contribution of theoretical work on individual variation in face processing and how this may help shape the practical identification of faces in applied situations...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Tarryn Balsdon, Stephanie Summersby, Richard I Kemp, David White
People vary in their ability to identify faces, and this variability is relatively stable across repeated testing. This suggests that recruiting high performers can improve identity verification accuracy in applied settings. Here, we report the first systematic study to evaluate real-world benefits of selecting high performers based on performance in standardized face identification tests. We simulated a recruitment process for a specialist team tasked with detecting fraudulent passport applications. University students ( n  = 114) completed a battery of screening tests followed by a real-world face identification task that is performed routinely when issuing identity documents...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Stephen H Adamo, Justin M Ericson, Joseph C Nah, Rachel Brem, Stephen R Mitroff
Background: Radiological techniques for breast cancer detection are undergoing a massive technological shift-moving from mammography, a process that takes a two-dimensional (2D) image of breast tissue, to tomosynthesis, a technique that creates a segmented-three-dimensional (3D) image. There are distinct benefits of tomosynthesis over mammography with radiologists having fewer false positives and more accurate detections; yet there is a significant and meaningful disadvantage with tomosynthesis in that it takes longer to evaluate each patient...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Jochim Spitz, Pieter Moors, Johan Wagemans, Werner F Helsen
There is an increasing trend in association football (soccer) to assist referees in their decision-making with video technology. For decisions such as whether a goal has been scored or which player actually committed a foul, video technology can provide more objective information and be valuable to increase decisional accuracy. It is unclear, however, to what extent video replays can aid referee decisions in the case of foul-play situations in which the decision is typically more ambiguous. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of slow-motion replays on decision-making by referees...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Hiroshi Nitta, Haruto Tomita, Yi Zhang, Xinxin Zhou, Yuki Yamada
Heightened experience of disgust is a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). Previous studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) reported that the sense of body ownership is related to the interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception. One recent study demonstrated a link between the RHI and disgust, suggesting that there is an interaction between these three perceptual modalities and disgust (Jalal et al., PLOS ONE 10:e0139159, 2015). However, there have been no direct replications of this initial study...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Ali Jahanian, Shaiyan Keshvari, Ruth Rosenholtz
Research in human vision suggests that in a single fixation, humans can extract a significant amount of information from a natural scene, e.g. the semantic category, spatial layout, and object identities. This ability is useful, for example, for quickly determining location, navigating around obstacles, detecting threats, and guiding eye movements to gather more information. In this paper, we ask a new question: What can we see at a glance at a web page - an artificial yet complex "real world" stimulus? Is it possible to notice the type of website, or where the relevant elements are, with only a glimpse? We find that observers, fixating at the center of a web page shown for only 120 milliseconds, are well above chance at classifying the page into one of ten categories...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Emily M Crowe, Iain D Gilchrist, Christopher Kent
Brain tumour detection and diagnosis requires clinicians to inspect and analyse brain magnetic resonance images. Eye-tracking is commonly used to examine observers' gaze behaviour during such medical image interpretation tasks, but analysis of eye movement sequences is limited. We therefore used ScanMatch, a novel technique that compares saccadic eye movement sequences, to examine the effect of expertise and diagnosis on the similarity of scanning patterns. Diagnostic accuracy was also recorded. Thirty-five participants were classified as Novices, Medics and Experts based on their level of expertise...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Ann J Carrigan, Susan G Wardle, Anina N Rich
Humans can extract considerable information from scenes, even when these are presented extremely quickly. The ability of an experienced radiologist to rapidly detect an abnormality on a mammogram may build upon this general capacity. Although radiologists have been shown to be able to detect an abnormality 'above chance' at short durations, the extent to which abnormalities can be localised at brief presentations is less clear. Extending previous work, we presented radiologists with unilateral mammograms, 50% containing a mass, for 250 or 1000 ms...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Annalise A D'Souza, Linda Moradzadeh, Melody Wiseheart
The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Ronald Andringa, Walter R Boot, Nelson A Roque, Sadhana Ponnaluri
Placing one's hands near an object has been reported to enhance visual processing in a number of ways. We explored whether hand proximity confers an advantage when applied to complex visual search. In one experiment, participants indicated the presence or absence of a target item in a baggage x-ray image by pressing response boxes located at the edge of a tablet computer screen, requiring them to grip the display between their hands. Alternatively, they responded using a mouse held within their lap. Contrary to expectations, hand position did not influence search performance...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
John T Wixted, Laura Mickes
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was introduced to the field of eyewitness identification 5 years ago. Since that time, it has been both influential and controversial, and the debate has raised an issue about measuring discriminability that is rarely considered. The issue concerns the distinction between empirical discriminability (measured by area under the ROC curve) vs. underlying/theoretical discriminability (measured by d' or variants of it). Under most circumstances, the two measures will agree about a difference between two conditions in terms of discriminability...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
James E Cutting, Jordan E DeLong, Kaitlin L Brunick
Fractal patterns are seemingly everywhere. They can be analyzed through Fourier and power analyses, and other methods. Cutting, DeLong, and Nothelfer (2010) analyzed as time-series data the fluctuations of shot durations in 150 popular movies released over 70 years. They found that these patterns had become increasingly fractal-like and concluded that they might be linked to those found in the results of psychological tasks involving attention. To explore this possibility further, we began by analyzing the shot patterns of almost twice as many movies released over a century...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Alexander Skulmowski, Günter Daniel Rey
Research on learning and education is increasingly influenced by theories of embodied cognition. Several embodiment-based interventions have been empirically investigated, including gesturing, interactive digital media, and bodily activity in general. This review aims to present the most important theoretical foundations of embodied cognition and their application to educational research. Furthermore, we critically review recent research concerning the effectiveness of embodiment interventions and develop a taxonomy to more properly characterize research on embodied cognition...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Karen B Schloss, Laurent Lessard, Charlotte S Walmsley, Kathleen Foley
People interpret abstract meanings from colors, which makes color a useful perceptual feature for visual communication. This process is complicated, however, because there is seldom a one-to-one correspondence between colors and meanings. One color can be associated with many different concepts (one-to-many mapping) and many colors can be associated with the same concept (many-to-one mapping). We propose that to interpret color-coding systems, people perform assignment inference to determine how colors map onto concepts...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Stephanie A Morey, Nicole A Thomas, Jason S McCarley
Monitoring visual displays while performing other tasks is commonplace in many operational environments. Although dividing attention between tasks can impair monitoring accuracy and response times, it is unclear whether it also reduces processing efficiency for visual targets. Thus, the current three experiments examined the effects of dual-tasking on target processing in the visual periphery. A total of 120 undergraduate students performed a redundant-target task either by itself (Experiment 1a) or in conjunction with a manual tracking task (Experiments 1b-3)...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Elysse Kompaniez-Dunigan, Craig K Abbey, John M Boone, Michael A Webster
We examined how visual sensitivity and perception are affected by adaptation to the characteristic amplitude spectra of X-ray mammography images. Because of the transmissive nature of X-ray photons, these images have relatively more low-frequency variability than natural images, a difference that is captured by a steeper slope of the amplitude spectrum (~ - 1.5) compared to the ~ 1/f (slope of - 1) spectra common to natural scenes. Radiologists inspecting these images are therefore exposed to a different balance of spectral components, and we measured how this exposure might alter spatial vision...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Yana Weinstein, Christopher R Madan, Megan A Sumeracki
The science of learning has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of effective teaching and learning strategies. However, few instructors outside of the field are privy to this research. In this tutorial review, we focus on six specific cognitive strategies that have received robust support from decades of research: spaced practice, interleaving, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding. We describe the basic research behind each strategy and relevant applied research, present examples of existing and suggested implementation, and make recommendations for further research that would broaden the reach of these strategies...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Ji Y Son, Priscilla Ramos, Melissa DeWolf, William Loftus, James W Stigler
In this article, we begin to lay out a framework and approach for studying how students come to understand complex concepts in rich domains. Grounded in theories of embodied cognition, we advance the view that understanding of complex concepts requires students to practice, over time, the coordination of multiple concepts, and the connection of this system of concepts to situations in the world. Specifically, we explore the role that a teacher's gesture might play in supporting students' coordination of two concepts central to understanding in the domain of statistics: mean and standard deviation...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Eylul Tekin, Henry L Roediger
Researchers use a wide range of confidence scales when measuring the relationship between confidence and accuracy in reports from memory, with the highest number usually representing the greatest confidence (e.g., 4-point, 20-point, and 100-point scales). The assumption seems to be that the range of the scale has little bearing on the confidence-accuracy relationship. In two old/new recognition experiments, we directly investigated this assumption using word lists (Experiment 1) and faces (Experiment 2) by employing 4-, 5-, 20-, and 100-point scales...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Stacy A Wetmore, Ryan M McAdoo, Scott D Gronlund, Jeffrey S Neuschatz
Filler siphoning theory posits that the presence of fillers (known innocents) in a lineup protects an innocent suspect from being chosen by siphoning choices away from that innocent suspect. This mechanism has been proposed as an explanation for why simultaneous lineups (viewing all lineup members at once) induces better performance than showups (one-person identification procedures). We implemented filler siphoning in a computational model (WITNESS, Clark, Applied Cognitive Psychology 17:629-654, 2003), and explored the impact of the number of fillers (lineup size) and filler quality on simultaneous and sequential lineups (viewing lineups members in sequence), and compared both to showups...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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