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Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications

Thao B Nguyen, Erica Abed, Kathy Pezdek
If testing conditions are uncontaminated, confidence at test reliably predicts eyewitness memory accuracy. Unfortunately, information about eyewitness postdictive confidence (at the time of the identification test) is frequently unavailable or not well documented. In cases where postdictive confidence is unavailable, a useful indicator of eyewitness accuracy might be an eyewitness's predictive confidence made shortly after the event. How do the accuracy of predictive and postdictive confidence judgments compare; and do variables reported to affect memory (e...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Lace M Padilla, Sarah H Creem-Regehr, Mary Hegarty, Jeanine K Stefanucci
Visualizations-visual representations of information, depicted in graphics-are studied by researchers in numerous ways, ranging from the study of the basic principles of creating visualizations, to the cognitive processes underlying their use, as well as how visualizations communicate complex information (such as in medical risk or spatial patterns). However, findings from different domains are rarely shared across domains though there may be domain-general principles underlying visualizations and their use...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Melina A Kunar, Louise Cole, Angeline Cox, Jessica Ocampo
It is well-documented that telephone conversations lead to impaired driving performance. Kunar et al. (Psychon Bull Rev 15:1135-1140, 2008) showed that this deficit was, in part, due to a dual-task cost of conversation on sustained visual attention. Using a multiple object tracking (MOT) task they found that the act of conversing on a hands-free telephone resulted in slower response times and increased errors compared to when participants performed the MOT task alone. The current study investigates whether the dual-task impairment of conversation on sustained attention is affected by conversation difficulty or task difficulty, and whether there was a dual-task deficit on attention when participants overheard half a conversation...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Michael D Chin, Karla K Evans, Jeremy M Wolfe, Jonathan Bowen, James W Tanaka
A hallmark of a perceptual expert is the ability to detect and categorize stimuli in their domain of expertise after brief exposure. For example, expert radiologists can differentiate between "abnormal" and "normal" mammograms after a 250 ms exposure. It has been speculated that rapid detection depends on a global analysis referred to as holistic perception. Holistic processing in radiology seems similar to holistic perception in which a stimulus like a face is perceived as an integrated whole, not in terms of its individual features...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Andrew J Russ, Melanie Sauerland, Charlotte E Lee, Markus Bindemann
Theories of face recognition in cognitive psychology stipulate that the hallmark of accurate identification is the ability to recognize a person consistently, across different encounters. In this study, we apply this reasoning to eyewitness identification by assessing the recognition of the same target person repeatedly, over six successive lineups. Such repeat identifications are challenging and can be performed only by a proportion of individuals, both when a target exhibits limited and more substantial variability in appearance across lineups (Experiments 1 and 2)...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
David J Robertson, Andrew Mungall, Derrick G Watson, Kimberley A Wade, Sophie J Nightingale, Stephen Butler
Our reliance on face photos for identity verification is at odds with extensive research which shows that matching pairs of unfamiliar faces is highly prone to error. This process can therefore be exploited by identity fraudsters seeking to deceive ID checkers (e.g., using a stolen passport which contains an image of a similar looking individual to deceive border control officials). In this study we build on previous work which sought to quantify the threat posed by a relatively new type of fraud: morphed passport photos...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Jet G Sanders, Rob Jenkins
Hyper-realistic masks present a new challenge to security and crime prevention. We have recently shown that people's ability to differentiate these masks from real faces is extremely limited. Here we consider individual differences as a means to improve mask detection. Participants categorized single images as masks or real faces in a computer-based task. Experiment 1 revealed poor accuracy (40%) and large individual differences (5-100%) for high-realism masks among low-realism masks and real faces. Individual differences in mask categorization accuracy remained large when the Low-realism condition was eliminated (Experiment 2)...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Eilidh Noyes, Matthew Q Hill, Alice J O'Toole
There are large individual differences in people's face recognition ability. These individual differences provide an opportunity to recruit the best face-recognisers into jobs that require accurate person identification, through the implementation of ability-screening tasks. To date, screening has focused exclusively on face recognition ability; however real-world identifications can involve the use of other person-recognition cues. Here we incorporate body and biological motion recognition as relevant skills for person identification...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Sarah Bate, Charlie Frowd, Rachel Bennetts, Nabil Hasshim, Ebony Murray, Anna K Bobak, Harriet Wills, Sarah Richards
In recent years there has been growing interest in the identification of people with superior face recognition skills, for both theoretical and applied investigations. These individuals have mostly been identified via their performance on a single attempt at a tightly controlled test of face memory-the long form of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT+). The consistency of their skills over a range of tests, particularly those replicating more applied policing scenarios, has yet to be examined systematically...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Jennifer M McCaffery, David J Robertson, Andrew W Young, A Mike Burton
We investigated the relationships between individual differences in different aspects of face-identity processing, using the Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT) as a measure of unfamiliar face perception, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) as a measure of new face learning, and the Before They Were Famous task (BTWF) as a measure of familiar face recognition. These measures were integrated into two separate studies examining the relationship between face processing and other tasks. For Study 1 we gathered participants' subjective ratings of their own face perception abilities...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Matthew C Fysh
Previous research has explored relationships between individual performance in the detection, matching and memory of faces, but under limiting conditions. The current study sought to extend previous findings with a different measure of face detection, and a more challenging face matching task, in combination with an established test of face memory. Experiment 1 tested face detection ability under conditions designed to maximise individual differences in accuracy but did not find evidence for relationships between measures...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Megan H Papesh
Background: Matching unfamiliar faces to photographic identification (ID) documents occurs across many domains, including financial transactions (e.g., mortgage documents), controlling the purchase of age-restricted goods (e.g., alcohol sales), and airport security. Laboratory research has repeatedly documented the fallibility of this process in novice observers, but little research has assessed individual differences based on occupational expertise (cf. White et al., PLoS One 9:e103510, 2014; White et al...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Vicki Bruce, Markus Bindemann, Karen Lander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Karen Lander, Vicki Bruce, Markus Bindemann
This journal is dedicated to "use-inspired basic research" where a problem in the world shapes the hypotheses for study in the laboratory. This review considers the role of individual variation in face identification and the challenges and opportunities this presents in security and criminal investigations. We show how theoretical work conducted on individual variation in face identification has, in part, been stimulated by situations presented in the real world. In turn, we review the contribution of theoretical work on individual variation in face processing and how this may help shape the practical identification of faces in applied situations...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Tarryn Balsdon, Stephanie Summersby, Richard I Kemp, David White
People vary in their ability to identify faces, and this variability is relatively stable across repeated testing. This suggests that recruiting high performers can improve identity verification accuracy in applied settings. Here, we report the first systematic study to evaluate real-world benefits of selecting high performers based on performance in standardized face identification tests. We simulated a recruitment process for a specialist team tasked with detecting fraudulent passport applications. University students ( n  = 114) completed a battery of screening tests followed by a real-world face identification task that is performed routinely when issuing identity documents...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Stephen H Adamo, Justin M Ericson, Joseph C Nah, Rachel Brem, Stephen R Mitroff
Background: Radiological techniques for breast cancer detection are undergoing a massive technological shift-moving from mammography, a process that takes a two-dimensional (2D) image of breast tissue, to tomosynthesis, a technique that creates a segmented-three-dimensional (3D) image. There are distinct benefits of tomosynthesis over mammography with radiologists having fewer false positives and more accurate detections; yet there is a significant and meaningful disadvantage with tomosynthesis in that it takes longer to evaluate each patient...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Jochim Spitz, Pieter Moors, Johan Wagemans, Werner F Helsen
There is an increasing trend in association football (soccer) to assist referees in their decision-making with video technology. For decisions such as whether a goal has been scored or which player actually committed a foul, video technology can provide more objective information and be valuable to increase decisional accuracy. It is unclear, however, to what extent video replays can aid referee decisions in the case of foul-play situations in which the decision is typically more ambiguous. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of slow-motion replays on decision-making by referees...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Amy Loughman, Nick Haslam
Genetic and other biological explanations appear to have mixed blessings for the stigma of mental disorder. Meta-analytic evidence shows that these "biogenetic" explanations reduce the blame attached to sufferers, but they also increase aversion, perceptions of dangerousness, and pessimism about recovery. These relationships may arise because biogenetic explanations recruit essentialist intuitions, which have known associations with prejudice and the endorsement of stereotypes. However, the adverse implications of biogenetic explanations as a set may not hold true for the subset of those explanations that invoke neurobiological causes...
November 14, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Eylul Tekin, Wenbo Lin, Henry L Roediger
Police departments often use verbal confidence measures (highly confident, somewhat confident) with a small number of values, whereas psychologists measuring the confidence-accuracy relationship typically use numeric scales with a large range of values (20-point or 100-point scales). We compared verbal and verbal + numeric confidence scales for two different lineups, using either two or four levels of confidence. We found strong confidence-accuracy relationships that were unaffected by the nature of the scale at the highest level of confidence...
November 7, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Anna K Trapp, Carolin Wienrich
Users of mobile touch devices are often confronted with a great number of apps, challenging an efficient access to single applications. Especially when looking for infrequently used apps, users have to perform a visual search. We address this problem in two studies by applying knowledge about visual search efficiency to app icons on mobile touch devices. We aimed to transfer findings of similarity grouping for complex stimuli to a more applied setting and to investigate the effect of search efficiency on user experience...
October 17, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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