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Physiology International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282486/prenatal-hypoxia-ischemia-decreases-spatial-memory-and-increases-aggression-during-adolescence
#1
R Indriawati, S Aswin, R Susilowati, G Partadiredja
Prenatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of mortality and chronic neurological diseases in newborns. HI contributes to the emergence of several neurological disorders such as cognitive and behavioral deficits due to the atypical brain development. This study aimed at assessing the effects of prenatal HI on the spatial memory and aggression of rats during adolescence. Pregnant rats were divided into treatment and control groups. The rats of the treatment groups underwent unilateral ligation of the uterine artery on pregnancy day 7, 12, or 17...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282485/protective-effects-of-quercetin-from-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-under-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-exposure-in-the-rat-s-heart
#2
I C Chiş, D Baltaru, A Dumitrovici, A Coseriu, B C Radu, R Moldovan, A Mureşan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to high altitude in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is considered to be a physiological oxidative/nitrosative stress. Quercetin (Que) is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger against oxidative/nitrosative stress. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Que in animals exposed to intermittent HH (IHH) and therefore exposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino male rats were exposed to short-term (2 days) or long-term (4 weeks; 5 days/week) IHH in a hypobaric chamber (5,500 m, 8 h/day, 380 mmHg, 12% O2 , and 88% N2 )...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269563/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-autophagic-and-heat-shock-response-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#3
J J McCormick, T A VanDusseldorp, C G Ulrich, R L Lanphere, K Dokladny, P L Mosely, C M Mermier
Autophagy is a lysosome degradation pathway through which damaged organelles and macromolecules are degraded within the cell. A decrease in activity of the autophagic process has been linked to several age-associated pathologies, including triglyceride accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, muscle degeneration, and cardiac malfunction. Here, we examined the differences in the autophagic response using autophagy-inducer rapamycin (Rapa) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from young (21.8 ± 1...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269562/lower-occlusion-pressure-during-resistance-exercise-with-blood-flow-restriction-promotes-lower-pain-and-perception-of-exercise-compared-to-higher-occlusion-pressure-when-the-total-training-volume-is-equalized
#4
S D Soligon, M E Lixandrão, Tmpc Biazon, V Angleri, H Roschel, C A Libardi
Low-intensity resistance exercise with blood-flow restriction (BFR) promotes similar adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise (HI-RE). Interestingly, BFR has been demonstrated to be effective for a wide range of occlusion pressures. However, the occlusion pressure magnitude may alter the psychophysiological stress related to BFR as measured by rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) and rating of pain. We aimed to compare the RPE and pain levels across different magnitudes of occlusion pressures, promoting new knowledge regarding occlusion pressure on stress related to BFR...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269561/the-modulation-of-ureteral-smooth-muscle-contractile-responses-by-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-activation
#5
D R Monks, S J Bund
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the influence of α-adrenoceptor subtypes upon ureteral smooth muscle contractile responses. METHODS: Rat ureters were challenged in vitro with noradrenaline (NA), the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE), and the α2 -adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (CLON). The influences of the agonists on the magnitude and frequency of acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated phasic contractile responses were recorded. RESULTS: The magnitude of the phasic contractile responses effected by ACh was not significantly influenced by the adrenoceptor agonists, but the frequency of the response was significantly enhanced by all three agonists (p < 0...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269560/effects-of-side-dominance-on-knee-joint-proprioceptive-target-matching-asymmetries
#6
K Galamb, B Szilágyi, O M Magyar, T Hortobágyi, R Nagatomi, M Váczi, J Négyesi
AIMS: Right- and left-side-dominant individuals reveal target-matching asymmetries between joints of the dominant and non-dominant upper limbs. However, it is unclear if such asymmetries are also present in lower limb's joints. We hypothesized that right-side-dominant participants perform knee joint target-matching tasks more accurately with their non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants. METHODS: Participants performed position sense tasks using each leg by moving each limb separately and passively on an isokinetic dynamometer...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022680/physiological-adaptations-to-specific-endurance-training-in-professional-female-handball-players
#7
S G Gabnai, L Kósa, E Tóth, N Schulteisz, J Gangl, M Othman, F Ihász
Several Hungarian and foreign researchers have already studied the cardiorespiratory parameters of elite handball players. There are only a few studies though, which would separately review the changes in the functions of different organ systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of an intervention (physical activity) on the cardiorespiratory system. In this study, 16 elite female handball players participated, whose body compositions were measured and took two vita maxima tests. During the analysis, each cardiorespiratory parameter was monitored for every 20 s...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855187/impact-of-loganin-on-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-male-diabetic-rats
#8
M Rajabi, G Mohaddes, F Farajdokht, S Nayebi Rad, M Mesgari, S Babri
Behavioral disturbances are observed in most patients suffering from diabetes. According to some evidence, pro-inflammatory cytokines have a key role both in diabetes and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of loganin, as a bioflavonoid, was investigated on pro-inflammatory cytokines and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975128/arterial-stiffness-may-predict-renal-and-cardiovascular-prognosis-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#9
B Sági, I Késői, B Késői, T Vas, B Csiky, T Kovács, J Nagy
Background and aims Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The most important cause of death among ADPKD patients is cardiovascular (CV). The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of arterial stiffness on CV and renal outcomes in ADPKD. Methods A total of 55 patients with ADPKD were examined. Pulse wave velocity was determined and stiffness index (SIDVP ) was calculated. Combined primary endpoints (CV and renal) were major CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and CV intervention) as CV endpoints, and attaining of ESRD or start of renal replacement therapy as renal endpoints...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975127/sitting-to-standing-postural-changes-energy-expenditure-and-a-possible-mechanism-to-alleviate-sedentary-behavior
#10
M Wang, Y Song, J S Baker, G Fekete, Y Gu
Background and aims Sedentary lifestyles have recently been identified as potential mechanism for obesity and associated metabolic diseases linked to ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of standing and sitting-standing positional changes on energy cost and consequently interrupting sedentary sitting time while working. Methods A total of 26 healthy male volunteers performed normal typing and editing work for 100 min under three conditions. The conditions included sustained sitting, sustained standing, and sitting-standing alternation every 20 min using a sit-stand desk...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975126/effects-of-submaximal-cycling-at-different-exercise-intensities-on-maximal-isometric-force-output-of-the-non-exercised-elbow-flexor-muscles
#11
R Matsuura, K Hirakoba, K Takahashi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of submaximal cycling at different exercise intensities on maximal isometric force output of the non-exercised elbow flexor muscles after the cycling. A total of 8 healthy young men performed multiple maximal voluntary contractions by the right elbow flexion before, immediately after, 5 min after, and 10 min after a 6-min submaximal cycling at ventilatory threshold (LI), 70% [Formula: see text] (MI), and 80% [Formula: see text] (HI) with both arms relaxed in the air...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975125/effect-of-one-bout-of-local-vibration-exercise-with-blood-flow-restriction-on-neuromuscular-and-hormonal-responses
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
W-C Chen, C-M Wu, Z-Y Cai
This study aimed to investigate the effects of single local vibration (LV) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle activity and hormonal responses. A total of 12 physically inactive males were exposed to 10 sets of intermittent LV (35-40 Hz) on unilateral mid-quadriceps in the supine lying position and LV + BFR (inflated to 140 mmHg) sessions in a repeated-measures randomized crossover design, with a 1-week interval separating the sessions. The results indicated that the electromyography values from the rectus femoris during LV + BFR were greater than those during LV (p < 0...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975124/the-immune-system-cell-populations-were-increased-in-salt-induced-hypertensive-rats-without-an-increase-in-the-serum-testosterone-level-short-communication
#13
F O Awobajo, A E Okafor, H O Adebayo
The consumption of dietary salt has significantly increased globally, especially in the developed countries. High dietary salt intake has been linked to onset and complications in hypertension with a dimorphism tendency. There is scanty information about the influence of high salt diet on the immune cell population and androgen level in circulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of 8 weeks old were used for this study. They were divided into control (fed 0.1% salted feed) and salt-loaded groups (fed 8% salted feed) for 8 weeks...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975123/impact-of-loganin-on-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-male-diabetic-rats
#14
M Rajabi, G Mohaddes, F Farajdokht, S Nayebi Rad, M Mesgari, S Babri
Behavioral disturbances are observed in most patients suffering from diabetes. According to some evidence, pro-inflammatory cytokines have a key role both in diabetes and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of loganin, as a bioflavonoid, was investigated on pro-inflammatory cytokines and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975122/the-affective-and-behavioral-responses-to-repeated-strength-snacks
#15
S L Buckner, S J Dankel, K T Mattocks, M B Jessee, J G Mouser, J P Loenneke
Background A training program consisting of only one-repetition maximum (1RM) training results in similar strength adaptations as traditional resistance exercise. However, little is known regarding the affective or behavioral responses to this type of training. Aim To examine the affective and behavioral response to either a traditional resistance exercise program or a biweekly 1RM-training program. Methods Participants were trained for 8 weeks (2× per week). The HYPER group completed four sets of 8-12 repetitions; the 1RM group (TEST) worked up to a single maximal repetition...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975121/should-we-really-stop-treating-patients-with-iga-nephropathy-with-steroids
#16
REVIEW
F Locatelli, L Del Vecchio, C Ponticelli
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis all over the world. Once considered as a benign disease, today the scientific community is aware that a significant percentage of patients eventually progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The rate of progression is often very slow. Since 1980s, several therapeutic attempts have been made with steroids. Despite different molecules, doses, and lengths of treatment, the majority of uncontrolled and controlled studies found benefits in terms of proteinuria reduction and reduction of the risk of ESKD...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975120/effects-of-low-dose-of-aliskiren-on-isoproterenol-induced-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#17
I Bin-Jaliah, A M Hussein, H F Sakr, E A Eid
This study examined the effects of aliskiren (Ali) (direct renin inhibitor) on serum cardiac enzymes (LDH and CK-MB), electrocardiography (ECG) changes, myocardial oxidative stress markers (MDA, CAT, and GSH) and the expression of Bcl2, HO-1, and Nrf2 genes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 40 male albino rats were allocated into four groups, (1) normal control (NC) group, (2) Ali group (rats received Ali at 10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 5 days), (3) ISO group (rats received ISO 150 mg/kg i...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602295/moderate-hypothermia-and-responses-to-calcium-channel-blockers-role-of-the-nitric-oxide
#18
S Canbolat, K E Nurullahoglu Atalik
Moderate hypothermia (25-31 °C) may have a significant influence on vascular tone. At present, very little is known about the role of endothelial nitric oxide on the hypothermia-induced responses. In this study, we investigated the effect of hypothermia (to 28 °C) on the vasodilatation induced by verapamil, a phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocker (10-9 -3 × 10-4  M) and dihydropyridines, amlodipine (10-9 -3 × 10-4  M), and benidipine (10-9 -10-3  M) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) precontracted calf cardiac veins...
March 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602294/melatonin-ameliorates-brain-oxidative-stress-and-upregulates-senescence-marker-protein-30-and-osteopontin-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#19
I Bin-Jaliah, H F Sakr
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) as well as osteopontin (OPN) expression in the hippocampus of rats subjected to vascular dementia (VD). A total of 72 male rats were divided into six groups (n = 12 each) as follows: (i) untreated control (CON), (ii) sham-operated group, (iii) sham-operated + melatonin, (iv) rats exposed to VD induced by permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) leading to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, (v) rats exposed to VD + melatonin, and (vi) rats exposed to VD + donepezil (DON)...
March 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602293/swimming-exercise-demonstrates-advantages-over-running-exercise-in-reducing-proteinuria-and-glomerulosclerosis-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
N L Totou, S S Moura, D B Coelho, E C Oliveira, L K Becker, W G Lima
Experimental studies in animal models have described the benefits of physical exercise (PE) to kidney diseases associated with hypertension. Land- and water-based exercises induce different responses in renal function. Our aim was to evaluate the renal alterations induced by different environments of PE in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were divided into sedentary (S), swimming exercise (SE), and running exercise (RE) groups, and were trained for 8 weeks under similar intensities (60 min/day)...
March 1, 2018: Physiology International
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