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Rand Health Quarterly

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August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Andrew Morrall
The RAND Corporation's Gun Policy in America initiative is a unique attempt to systematically and transparently assess available scientific evidence on the real effects of firearm laws and policies. Good gun policies require consideration of many factors, including the law and constitutional rights, the interests of various stakeholder groups, and information about the likely effects of different laws or policies on a range of outcomes. This study seeks to provide the third-objective information about what the scientific literature examining gun policy can tell us about the likely effects of laws...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Gulrez Shah Azhar, Michele Abbott, Robert J Lempert
Participatory modeling aims to incorporate stakeholders into the process of developing models for the purpose of eliciting information, appropriately reflecting stakeholder interests and concerns, and improving stakeholder understanding, and acceptance of the analysis. Participatory modeling, using causal loop diagramming (CLD), was used to explore the impact of climate change on public health in Long Beach, California. CLD, commonly used in participatory modeling, provided useful information to serve as the basis for a quantitative system dynamics model to protect the citizens of Long Beach, and potentially other cities or regions affected by climate change...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Regina A Shih, Joie D Acosta, Emily K Chen, Eric G Carbone, Lea Xenakis, David M Adamson, Anita Chandra
This study uses interview data collected from public health departments and aging-in-place efforts-specifically, from coordinators of age-friendly communities and village executive directors-to explore how current aging-in-place efforts can be harnessed to strengthen the disaster resilience of older adults and which existing programs or new collaborations among public health departments and these organizations show promise for improving disaster resilience for older populations. Interviews with stakeholders revealed that most age-friendly communities and senior villages did not place a high priority on promoting disaster preparedness...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
J Scott Ashwood, Sheryl H Kataoka, Nicole K Eberhart, Elizabeth Bromley, Bonnie T Zima, Lesley Baseman, F Alethea Marti, Aaron Kofner, Lingqi Tang, Gulrez Shah Azhar, Margaret Chamberlin, Blake Erickson, Kristen Choi, Lily Zhang, Jeanne Miranda, M Audrey Burnam
Los Angeles County used Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) funds to greatly expand access to Full-Service Partnership (FSP) services and offer new prevention and early intervention (PEI) services. This study examines the reach of key MHSA-funded activities and what the impact of those activities has been, with a focus on PEI programs for children and transition-age youth (TAY) and FSP programs for children, TAY, and adults. The evaluation found evidence that the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health (LAC DMH) is reaching the highly vulnerable population it seeks to reach with its FSP and youth PEI programs...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Benjamin M Miller, David Metz, Troy D Smith, Jesse Lastunen, Eric Landree, Christopher Nelson
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) asked the RAND Corporation to develop an approach, reported here, for estimating the economic benefit of NIOSH research, using three case studies. The cases provide concrete illustrations of the ways in which NIOSH research could affect worker health and safety practices and outcomes, as well as some initial estimates of the economic benefit associated with those impacts. The authors selected the case studies to illustrate variation in types of NIOSH research and in intended users...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Michael Dworsky, Carrie M Farmer, Mimi Shen
This article describes the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) effects on nonelderly veterans' insurance coverage and demand for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care and assesses the coverage and VA utilization changes that could result from repealing the ACA. Although prior research has shown that the number of uninsured veterans fell after the ACA took effect, the implications of ACA repeal for veterans and, especially, for VA have received less attention. Besides providing a new coverage option to veterans who are not enrolled in VA, the ACA also had the potential to affect health care use among VA patients...
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Kimberly A Hepner, Carol P Roth, Elizabeth M Sloss, Susan M Paddock, Praise O Iyiewuare, Martha J Timmer, Harold Alan Pincus
The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) strives to maintain a physically and psychologically healthy, mission-ready force, and the care provided by the Military Health System (MHS) is critical to meeting this goal. Attention has been directed to ensuring the quality and availability of programs and services for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study is a comprehensive assessment of the quality of care delivered by the MHS in 2013-2014 for over 38,000 active-component service members with PTSD or depression...
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Kimberly A Hepner, Coreen Farris, Carrie M Farmer, Praise O Iyiewuare, Terri Tanielian, Asa Wilks, Michael Robbins, Susan M Paddock, Harold Alan Pincus
Providing accessible, high-quality care for psychological health (PH) conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), is important to maintaining a healthy, mission-ready force. It is unclear whether the current system of care meets the needs of service members with PTSD or MDD, and little is known about the barriers to delivering guideline-concordant care. RAND used existing provider workforce data, a provider survey, and key informant interviews to (1) provide an overview of the PH workforce at military treatment facilities (MTFs), (2) examine the extent to which care for PTSD and MDD in military treatment facilities is consistent with Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense clinical practice guidelines, and (3) identify facilitators and barriers to providing this care...
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Susan Guthrie, Catherine A Lichten, Janna Van Belle, Sarah Ball, Anna Knack, Joanna Hofman
This study aimed to establish what is known about the mental health of researchers based on the existing literature. There is limited published evidence on the prevalence of specific mental health conditions among researchers. The majority of the identified literature on prevalence relates to work-related stress among academic staff and postgraduate students in university settings. Survey data indicate that the majority of university staff find their job stressful. Levels of burnout appear higher among university staff than in general working populations and are comparable to "high-risk" groups such as healthcare workers...
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Jennie Corbett, Camilla d'Angelo, Lorenzo Gangitano, Jon Freeman
This article presents findings from a survey conducted by RAND Europe at the request of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to gather and synthesise stakeholder views on the future of health and healthcare in England in 20 to 30 years' time. The aim of the research was to generate an evidenced-based picture of the future health and healthcare needs, and how it might differ from today, in order to inform strategic discussions about the future priorities of the NIHR and the health and social care research communities more broadly...
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Terri Tanielian, Caroline Batka, Lisa S Meredith
Over the past decade, there have been a growing number of efforts designed to support service members, veterans, and their families as they cope with deployments. Addressing the mental health consequences associated with these deployments has been a priority focus area across the government and nongovernment sectors. The Welcome Back Veterans (WBV) initiative was launched in 2008 by Major League Baseball and the Robert R. McCormick Foundation to support organizations that, in turn, provided programs and services to support veterans and their families...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Michael Stephen Dunbar, Vivian L Towe, Lynsay Ayer, Monique Martineau
The mental health system often does not reach all individuals who need mental health services. The Connections to Care (C2C) program, a $30 million public-private partnership under the federal Social Innovation Fund, with oversight from the C2C Collaborative, aims to address this problem by reaching up to 40,000 New Yorkers over five years by encouraging formal collaborations between community-based organizations (CBOs) and mental health providers (MHPs). In the C2C task-shifting model, mental health specialists equip non-specialist direct service staff at CBOs with the skills to deliver nonmedical mental health services while also facilitating referrals for more intensive care, if needed...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Jill S Cannon, M Rebecca Kilburn, Lynn A Karoly, Teryn Mattox, Ashley N Muchow, Maya Buenaventura
The past two decades have been characterized by a growing body of research from diverse disciplines-child development, psychology, neuroscience, and economics, among others-demonstrating the importance of establishing a strong foundation in the early years of life. The research evidence has served to document the range of early childhood services that can successfully put children and families on the path toward lifelong health and well-being, especially those at greatest risk of poor outcomes. As early childhood interventions have proliferated, researchers have evaluated whether the programs improve children's outcomes and, when they do, whether the improved outcomes generate benefits that can outweigh the program costs...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Denise D Quigley, Madeline B Doyle, Barbara O Wynn
California's workers' compensation (WC) program provides medical care and wage-replacement benefits to workers who suffer on-the-job injuries and illnesses. Individuals who are injured on the job are entitled to receive the medical care they need to relieve the effects of their injury with no deductibles or copayments. Physicians who treat and provide care to injured workers are required to file reports with the WC payer that address the worker's treatment, medical progress, and work-related issues. California's Division of Workers' Compensation (DWC) asked the RAND Corporation to review the reporting process and pricing structure of the WC-required reports to ensure that the policies are consistent with efficient program administration...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Jeanne S Ringel, Dana Schultz, Joshua Mendelsohn, Stephanie Brooks Holliday, Katharine Sieck, Ifeanyi Edochie, Lauren Davis
To provide objective analyses about the effects of prevention and treatment programs on child welfare outcomes, RAND researchers built a quantitative model that simulated how children enter and flow through the nation's child welfare system. They then used the model to project how different policy options (preventive services, family preservation treatment efforts, kinship care treatment efforts, and a policy package that combined preventive services and kinship care) would affect a child's pathway through the system, costs, and outcomes in early adulthood...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Andrew W Mulcahy, Jakub P Hlavka, Spencer R Case
The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (BPCIA), enacted as part of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to create a new regulatory approval pathway for biosimilars, which are biologic drugs that are very similar to already approved "reference" biologics in terms of potency, safety, and efficacy, but are manufactured by different companies. In the seven years since the ACA, many drug manufacturers worked to push new biosimilars through development and FDA review...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Sonja Marjanovic, Bryn Garrod, Talitha Dubow, Emma Pitchforth, Catherine A Lichten, Julian Elston, Emma Harte, Jon Sussex, Miaoqing Yang, Fahd Malik, Richard Lewis, Tom Ling
Urgent and Emergency Care (UEC) vanguards aim to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of UEC services so that patients receive the most appropriate care at the right time and in the right place, and so that unnecessary admissions to accident and emergency (A&E) and hospitals are reduced. The Southern Cluster comprises three such UEC vanguards. RAND Europe's evaluation examined the impacts of the vanguards, the processes underpinning delivery (and associated enablers and challenges), and implications for future policy and practice...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
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