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Nutrition and Healthy Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276796/clinical-trials-corner
#1
Leonie K Heilbronn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276795/effect-of-alternate-day-fasting-on-markers-of-bone-metabolism-an-exploratory-analysis-of-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Adrienne Barnosky, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Monica C Klempel, Surabhi Bhutani, Kristin K Hoddy, Kelsey Gabel, Sue A Shapses, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a novel diet therapy that reduces body weight, but its effect on bone health remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF versus traditional daily calorie restriction (CR) on markers of bone metabolism in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Overweight and obese subjects ( n  = 100) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 6 months: 1) ADF (25% energy intake fast day, alternated with 125% intake feast day; 2) CR (75% intake every day); or 3) control (usual intake every day)...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276794/the-role-of-dietary-patterns-and-exceptional-parental-longevity-in-healthy-aging
#3
Sriram Gubbi, Nir Barzilai, Jill Crandall, Joe Verghese, Sofiya Milman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with exceptional longevity and their offspring manifest a lower prevalence of age-related diseases than families without longevity. However, the contribution of dietary habits to protection from disease has not been systematically assessed in families with exceptional longevity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare dietary patterns between individuals with parental longevity and individals without parental longevity. METHODS: Dietary intake was evaluated using the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire in 234 community dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 years and older who were participants of the LonGenity study, which enrolls the offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS)...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276793/short-term-consumption-of-a-plant-protein-diet-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-of-young-c57bl-6j-mice
#4
Dudley W Lamming, Emma L Baar, Sebastian I Arriola Apelo, Valeria Tosti, Luigi Fontana
Recently, it has become apparent that dietary macronutrient composition has a profound impact on metabolism, health and even lifespan. Work from many laboratories now suggest that dietary protein quality - the precise amino acid composition of the diet, as well as possibly the source of dietary protein - may also be critical in regulating the impact of diet on health. Perhaps in part due to the naturally low methionine content of plants, vegan diets are associated with a decreased risk of diabetes and improved insulin sensitivity, but this association is confounded by the lower overall protein intake of vegans...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276792/hydration-health-literacy-in-the-elderly
#5
Dominic Picetti, Stephen Foster, Amanda K Pangle, Amy Schrader, Masil George, Jeanne Y Wei, Gohar Azhar
BACKGROUND: Inadequate hydration in the elderly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the knowledge of elderly individuals regarding hydration in health and disease. Gaps in health literacy have been identified as a critical component in health maintenance, and promoting health literacy should improve outcomes related to hydration associated illnesses in the elderly. METHODS: We administered an anonymous survey to community-dwelling elderly ( n  = 170) to gauge their hydration knowledge...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276791/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-as-a-tool-in-precision-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David E James, Jacob George, Jenny E Gunton, Samantha M Solon-Biet, David Raubenheimer
Fundamental questions in nutrition include, "What constitutes a nutritionally balanced diet?", "What are the consequences of failing to achieve diet balance?", and "How does diet balance change across the lifecourse and with individual circumstances?". Answering these questions requires coming to grips with the multidimensionality and dynamic nature of nutritional requirements, foods and diets, and the complex relationships between nutrition and health, while at the same time avoiding becoming overwhelmed by complexity...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276790/a-central-role-for-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-2%C3%AE-in-hepatic-glucose-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Yatrik M Shah
Hepatic glucose production is regulated by hormonal and dietary factors. At fasting, 80% of glucose released into the circulation is derived from the liver, among which gluconeogenesis accounts for 55% and the rest by glycogenolysis. Studies suggest a complex mechanism involved in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism during fasting and post-absorptive phase. Oxygen plays a key role in numerous metabolic pathways such as TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Oxygenation of the gastrointestinal tract including liver and intestine is dynamically regulated by changes in the blood flow and metabolic activity...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276789/ras-signaling-in-aging-and-metabolic-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Cathy Slack
Aberrant signal transduction downstream of the Ras GTPase has a well-established role in tumorigenesis. Mutations that result in hyperactivation of Ras are responsible for a third of all human cancers. Hence, small molecule inhibitors of the Ras signal transduction cascade have been under intense focus as potential cancer treatments. In both invertebrate and mammalian models, emerging evidence has also implicated components of the Ras signaling pathway in aging and metabolic regulation. Here, I review the current evidence for Ras signaling in these newly discovered roles highlighting the interactions between the Ras pathway and other longevity assurance mechanisms...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447072/a-randomized-trial-of-the-effects-of-the-no-carrageenan-diet-on-ulcerative-colitis-disease-activity
#9
Sumit Bhattacharyya, Theresa Shumard, Hui Xie, Amar Dodda, Krista A Varady, Leo Feferman, Allan G Halline, Jay L Goldstein, Stephen B Hanauer, Joanne K Tobacman
BACKGROUND: Carrageenan is a very common food additive in Western diets, but predictably causes inflammation in thousands of cell-based and animal experiments. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of carrageenan exposure on the interval to relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial was conducted to assess if patients with ulcerative colitis in remission would have a longer interval to relapse if they followed a diet with no carrageenan...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447071/the-effects-of-reduced-rpd3-levels-on-fly-physiology
#10
Jared K Woods, Tahereh Ziafazeli, Blanka Rogina
BACKGROUND: Rpd3 is a conserved histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones and other proteins. Reduction or inhibition of Rpd3 extends longevity in yeast, worms, and flies. Previous studies in flies suggest an overlap with the mechanism of lifespan extension by dietary restriction. However, the mechanism of rpd3's effects on longevity remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated how rpd3 reduction affects fly spontaneous physical activity, fecundity, and stress resistance...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447070/ratios-of-soluble-and-insoluble-dietary-fibers-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#11
Britt Burton-Freeman, Dhanesh Liyanage, Sajida Rahman, Indika Edirisinghe
BACKGROUND: Fibers' properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC)...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447069/long-term-calorie-restriction-in-humans-is-not-associated-with-indices-of-delayed-immunologic-aging-a-descriptive-study
#12
A Janet Tomiyama, Jeffrey M Milush, Jue Lin, James M Flynn, Pankaj Kapahi, Eric Verdin, Elizabeth Sinclair, Simon Melov, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Delayed immunologic aging is purported to be a major mechanism through which calorie restriction (CR) exerts its anti-aging effects in non-human species. However, in non-obese humans, the effect of CR on the immune system has been understudied relative to its effects on the cardiometabolic system. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether CR is associated with delayed immunologic aging in non-obese humans. METHODS: We tested whether long-term CR practitioners (average 10.03 years of CR) evidenced decreased expression of T cell immunosenescence markers and longer immune cell telomeres compared to gender-, race/ethnicity-, age-, and education-matched "healthy" Body Mass Index (BMI) and "overweight"/"obese" BMI groups...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447068/microrna-21-is-up-regulated-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-diabetic-subjects
#13
Valeria Guglielmi, Monica D'Adamo, Rossella Menghini, Marina Cardellini, Paolo Gentileschi, Massimo Federici, Paolo Sbraccia
We investigated miR21 expression in omental (OAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from 16 obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients were divided into two age- and BMI-matched groups according to the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). miR21 was not differently expressed in OAT and SAT. However, miR21 expression was two folds greater in adipose tissue in patients with T2D. Accordingly, in primary cultures of adipocytes from non diabetic overweight subjects, miR21 expression increased after 24-h exposure to high glucose and insulin...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447067/dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-metabolites-implications-for-diabetes-pathophysiology-prevention-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Joshua C Neuman, Rachel J Fenske, Michelle E Kimple
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447066/neuronal-functions-of-foxo-daf-16
#15
REVIEW
Sun Y Kim, Ashley E Webb
The FOXO family of transcription factors plays a conserved role in longevity and tissue homeostasis across species. In the mammalian nervous system, emerging evidence has implicated FOXOs in cognitive performance, stem cell maintenance, regeneration, and protection against stress. Much of what we know about neuronal functions of FOXO emerged from recent studies in C. elegans. Similar to mammalian FOXO, the worm FOXO ortholog, called DAF-16, regulates learning and memory, regeneration, and stress resistance in neurons...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447065/circadian-clocks-diets-and-aging
#16
REVIEW
Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Kuldeep Makwana, Roman Kondratov
Diets and feeding regimens affect many physiological systems in the organism and may contribute to the development or prevention of various pathologies including cardiovascular diseases or metabolic syndromes. Some of the dietary paradigms, such as calorie restriction, have many well-documented positive metabolic effects as well as the potential to extend longevity in different organisms. Recently, the circadian clocks were put forward as integral components of the calorie restriction mechanisms. The circadian clocks generate the circadian rhythms in behavior, physiology, and metabolism; circadian disruption is associated with reduced fitness and decreased longevity...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447073/clinical-trials-corner
#17
Leonie K Heilbronn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035346/diet-induced-weight-loss-is-sufficient-to-reduce-senescent-cell-number-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-weight-cycled-mice
#18
Edward O List, Elizabeth Jensen, Jesse Kowalski, Mathew Buchman, Darlene E Berryman, John J Kopchick
Previously, our laboratory reported that weight-cycled mice outlive their obese counterparts. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of these results, we evaluated cellular senescence in white adipose tissue (WAT) of lean, obese, and weight cycled mice. Our results show that at the end of a 28 day weight loss cycle cellular senescence is significantly reduced in multiple WAT depots compared to obese mice, which also corresponds to a reduction in circulating activin A (a marker of senescence). These findings suggest that a previously undescribed benefit to weight loss may be a reduction of cellular senescence in WAT...
October 27, 2016: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035345/high-flavonoid-intake-induces-cognitive-improvements-linked-to-changes-in-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-two-randomised-controlled-trials
#19
Sara Neshatdoust, Caroline Saunders, Sophie M Castle, David Vauzour, Claire Williams, Laurie Butler, Julie A Lovegrove, Jeremy P E Spencer
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have indicated the beneficial impact of dietary flavonoid intake on human cognitive performance. Although the mechanisms that mediate such improvements are currently unclear, animal and human trial data suggest that changes in neurotrophin expression, and related signalling apparatus, may be involved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and changes in human cognitive performance following flavonoid intake. METHODS: The relationship between serum levels of BDNF and age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and cognition at baseline, and following flavonoid intake, was investigated in two distinct randomised, controlled clinical trials...
October 27, 2016: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035344/dietary-olive-oil-induces-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-expression-in-adipose-tissue-of%C3%A2-apc-min-transgenic-mice
#20
Maria Notarnicola, Valeria Tutino, Angela Tafaro, Giusy Bianco, Emilia Guglielmi, Maria Gabriella Caruso
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid- 2 (CB2) receptor is known for its anti-obesity effects silencing the activated immune cells that are key drivers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Nutritional interventions in experimental models of carcinogenesis have been demonstrated to modulate tissue inflammation state and proliferation. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to test, in Apc(Min/+) mice, whether a diet enriched with olive oil, omega- 3 and omega-6- PUFAs affects the adipose tissue inflammation status. METHODS: Four groups of animal were studied: ST group, receiving a standard diet; OO group, receiving the standard diet in which soybean oil (source of fats) was replaced with olive oil; OM-3 group, receiving the standard diet in which soybean oil was replaced with salmon oil; OM-6 group, receiving the standard diet in which soybean oil was replaced with oenothera oil...
October 27, 2016: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
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