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Nutrition and Healthy Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951595/clinical-trials-corner
#1
Leonie K Heilbronn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951594/effects-of-8-hour-time-restricted-feeding-on-body-weight-and-metabolic-disease-risk-factors-in-obese-adults-a-pilot-study
#2
Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Nicole Haggerty, Jeehee Song, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Satchidananda Panda, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Time restricted feeding decreases energy intake without calorie counting and may be a viable option for weight loss. However, the effect of this diet on body weight in obese subjects has never been examined. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of 8-h time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults. DESIGN: Obese subjects ( n  = 23) participated in an 8-h time restricted feeding intervention (ad libitum feeding between 10:00 to 18:00 h, water fasting between 18:00 to 10:00 h) for 12 weeks...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951593/relationships-between-the-inflammatory-potential-of-the-diet-aging-and-anthropometric-measurements-in-a-cross-sectional-study-in-pakistan
#3
Iftikhar Alam, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Graham Pawelec, Anis Larbi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about associations between dietary inflammation, age and anthropometric measurements. OBJECTIVE: In this regard, we examine how DII is related to age, anthropometrics [weight, Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR)] and other parameters of nutrition (energy, protein, fats and cholesterol intake, Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) and Phytochemical Index (PI)) in a cross-sectional study in Pakistan. DESIGN: Only men ( n  = 651, age 54-95 years) participated in the study...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951592/curcumin-supplementation-and-motor-cognitive-function-in-healthy-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#4
Jessica R Santos-Parker, Kara L Lubieniecki, Matthew J Rossman, Hannah J Van Ark, Candace J Bassett, Talia R Strahler, Michel B Chonchol, Jamie N Justice, Douglas R Seals
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest curcumin is a promising nutraceutical for improving important clinical and physiological markers of healthy aging, including motor and cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if curcumin supplementation improves motor and cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: 39 healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of placebo ( n  = 19) or curcumin supplementation (2000 mg/day Longvida® ; n  = 20) with motor and cognitive function assessed at week 0 and 12...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951591/practice-effects-in-nutrition-intervention-studies-with-repeated-cognitive-testing
#5
Lynne Bell, Daniel J Lamport, David T Field, Laurie T Butler, Claire M Williams
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of nutrition interventions to improve cognitive function. To determine intervention efficacy, repeated cognitive testing is often required. However, performance on tasks can improve through practice, irrespective of any intervention. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated practice effects for commonly used cognitive tasks (immediate and delayed recall, serial subtractions, Stroop and the Sternberg task) to identify appropriate methodology for minimising their impact on nutrition intervention outcomes...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951590/skin-aging-as-a-mechanical-phenomenon-the-main-weak-links
#6
Ilja L Kruglikov, Philipp E Scherer
From a mechanical point of view, human skin appears as a layered composite containing the stiff thin cover layer presented by the stratum corneum, below which are the more compliant layers of viable epidermis and dermis and further below the much more compliant adjacent layer of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). Upon exposure to a strain, such a multi-layer system demonstrates structural instabilities in its stiffer layers, which in its simplest form is the wrinkling. These instabilities appear hierarchically when the mechanical strain in the skin exceeds some critical values...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951589/future-directions-of-resveratrol-research
#7
REVIEW
Devin Wahl, Michel Bernier, Stephen J Simpson, Rafael de Cabo, David G Le Couteur
Resveratrol improves healthspan and lifespan in many organisms. Several different targets and mechanisms of action have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of resveratrol on healthspan and longevity, including the activation of a family of proteins known as sirtuins and its action as a calorie restriction mimetic. In this mini-review, we discuss some of the most recent findings to date in the resveratrol field and suggest three areas of future research based on those results.
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951588/gut-microbiome-and-aging-physiological-and-mechanistic-insights
#8
REVIEW
Ravinder Nagpal, Rabina Mainali, Shokouh Ahmadi, Shaohua Wang, Ria Singh, Kylie Kavanagh, Dalane W Kitzman, Almagul Kushugulova, Francesco Marotta, Hariom Yadav
The development of human gut microbiota begins as soon as the neonate leaves the protective environment of the uterus (or maybe in-utero ) and is exposed to innumerable microorganisms from the mother as well as the surrounding environment. Concurrently, the host responses to these microbes during early life manifest during the development of an otherwise hitherto immature immune system. The human gut microbiome, which comprises an extremely diverse and complex community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestinal tract, keeps on fluctuating during different stages of life...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276796/clinical-trials-corner
#9
Leonie K Heilbronn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276795/effect-of-alternate-day-fasting-on-markers-of-bone-metabolism-an-exploratory-analysis-of-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Adrienne Barnosky, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Monica C Klempel, Surabhi Bhutani, Kristin K Hoddy, Kelsey Gabel, Sue A Shapses, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a novel diet therapy that reduces body weight, but its effect on bone health remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF versus traditional daily calorie restriction (CR) on markers of bone metabolism in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Overweight and obese subjects ( n  = 100) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 6 months: 1) ADF (25% energy intake fast day, alternated with 125% intake feast day; 2) CR (75% intake every day); or 3) control (usual intake every day)...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276794/the-role-of-dietary-patterns-and-exceptional-parental-longevity-in-healthy-aging
#11
Sriram Gubbi, Nir Barzilai, Jill Crandall, Joe Verghese, Sofiya Milman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with exceptional longevity and their offspring manifest a lower prevalence of age-related diseases than families without longevity. However, the contribution of dietary habits to protection from disease has not been systematically assessed in families with exceptional longevity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare dietary patterns between individuals with parental longevity and individals without parental longevity. METHODS: Dietary intake was evaluated using the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire in 234 community dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 years and older who were participants of the LonGenity study, which enrolls the offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS)...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276793/short-term-consumption-of-a-plant-protein-diet-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-of-young-c57bl-6j-mice
#12
Dudley W Lamming, Emma L Baar, Sebastian I Arriola Apelo, Valeria Tosti, Luigi Fontana
Recently, it has become apparent that dietary macronutrient composition has a profound impact on metabolism, health and even lifespan. Work from many laboratories now suggest that dietary protein quality - the precise amino acid composition of the diet, as well as possibly the source of dietary protein - may also be critical in regulating the impact of diet on health. Perhaps in part due to the naturally low methionine content of plants, vegan diets are associated with a decreased risk of diabetes and improved insulin sensitivity, but this association is confounded by the lower overall protein intake of vegans...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276792/hydration-health-literacy-in-the-elderly
#13
Dominic Picetti, Stephen Foster, Amanda K Pangle, Amy Schrader, Masil George, Jeanne Y Wei, Gohar Azhar
BACKGROUND: Inadequate hydration in the elderly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the knowledge of elderly individuals regarding hydration in health and disease. Gaps in health literacy have been identified as a critical component in health maintenance, and promoting health literacy should improve outcomes related to hydration associated illnesses in the elderly. METHODS: We administered an anonymous survey to community-dwelling elderly ( n  = 170) to gauge their hydration knowledge...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276791/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-as-a-tool-in-precision-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David E James, Jacob George, Jenny E Gunton, Samantha M Solon-Biet, David Raubenheimer
Fundamental questions in nutrition include, "What constitutes a nutritionally balanced diet?", "What are the consequences of failing to achieve diet balance?", and "How does diet balance change across the lifecourse and with individual circumstances?". Answering these questions requires coming to grips with the multidimensionality and dynamic nature of nutritional requirements, foods and diets, and the complex relationships between nutrition and health, while at the same time avoiding becoming overwhelmed by complexity...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276790/a-central-role-for-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-2%C3%AE-in-hepatic-glucose-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Yatrik M Shah
Hepatic glucose production is regulated by hormonal and dietary factors. At fasting, 80% of glucose released into the circulation is derived from the liver, among which gluconeogenesis accounts for 55% and the rest by glycogenolysis. Studies suggest a complex mechanism involved in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism during fasting and post-absorptive phase. Oxygen plays a key role in numerous metabolic pathways such as TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Oxygenation of the gastrointestinal tract including liver and intestine is dynamically regulated by changes in the blood flow and metabolic activity...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276789/ras-signaling-in-aging-and-metabolic-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Cathy Slack
Aberrant signal transduction downstream of the Ras GTPase has a well-established role in tumorigenesis. Mutations that result in hyperactivation of Ras are responsible for a third of all human cancers. Hence, small molecule inhibitors of the Ras signal transduction cascade have been under intense focus as potential cancer treatments. In both invertebrate and mammalian models, emerging evidence has also implicated components of the Ras signaling pathway in aging and metabolic regulation. Here, I review the current evidence for Ras signaling in these newly discovered roles highlighting the interactions between the Ras pathway and other longevity assurance mechanisms...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447072/a-randomized-trial-of-the-effects-of-the-no-carrageenan-diet-on-ulcerative-colitis-disease-activity
#17
Sumit Bhattacharyya, Theresa Shumard, Hui Xie, Amar Dodda, Krista A Varady, Leo Feferman, Allan G Halline, Jay L Goldstein, Stephen B Hanauer, Joanne K Tobacman
BACKGROUND: Carrageenan is a very common food additive in Western diets, but predictably causes inflammation in thousands of cell-based and animal experiments. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of carrageenan exposure on the interval to relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial was conducted to assess if patients with ulcerative colitis in remission would have a longer interval to relapse if they followed a diet with no carrageenan...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447071/the-effects-of-reduced-rpd3-levels-on-fly-physiology
#18
Jared K Woods, Tahereh Ziafazeli, Blanka Rogina
BACKGROUND: Rpd3 is a conserved histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones and other proteins. Reduction or inhibition of Rpd3 extends longevity in yeast, worms, and flies. Previous studies in flies suggest an overlap with the mechanism of lifespan extension by dietary restriction. However, the mechanism of rpd3's effects on longevity remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated how rpd3 reduction affects fly spontaneous physical activity, fecundity, and stress resistance...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447070/ratios-of-soluble-and-insoluble-dietary-fibers-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#19
Britt Burton-Freeman, Dhanesh Liyanage, Sajida Rahman, Indika Edirisinghe
BACKGROUND: Fibers' properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC)...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447069/long-term-calorie-restriction-in-humans-is-not-associated-with-indices-of-delayed-immunologic-aging-a-descriptive-study
#20
A Janet Tomiyama, Jeffrey M Milush, Jue Lin, James M Flynn, Pankaj Kapahi, Eric Verdin, Elizabeth Sinclair, Simon Melov, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Delayed immunologic aging is purported to be a major mechanism through which calorie restriction (CR) exerts its anti-aging effects in non-human species. However, in non-obese humans, the effect of CR on the immune system has been understudied relative to its effects on the cardiometabolic system. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether CR is associated with delayed immunologic aging in non-obese humans. METHODS: We tested whether long-term CR practitioners (average 10.03 years of CR) evidenced decreased expression of T cell immunosenescence markers and longer immune cell telomeres compared to gender-, race/ethnicity-, age-, and education-matched "healthy" Body Mass Index (BMI) and "overweight"/"obese" BMI groups...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
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