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Zoological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348934/an-annotated-checklist-of-mammals-of-kenya
#1
Simon Musila, Ara Monadjem, Paul W Webala, Bruce D Patterson, Rainer Hutterer, Yvonne A De Jong, Thomas M Butynski, Geoffrey Mwangi, Zhong-Zheng Chen, Xue-Long Jiang
Kenya has a rich mammalian fauna. We reviewed recently published books and papers including the six volumes of Mammals of Africa to develop an up-to-date annotated checklist of all mammals recorded from Kenya. A total of 390 species have been identified in the country, including 106 species of rodents, 104 species of bats, 63 species of even-toed ungulates (including whales and dolphins), 36 species of insectivores and carnivores, 19 species of primates, five species of elephant shrews, four species of hyraxes and odd-toed ungulates, three species of afrosoricids, pangolins, and hares, and one species of aardvark, elephant, sirenian and hedgehog...
October 17, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348933/small-mammal-diversity-of-mt-kenya-based-on-carnivore-fecal-and-surface-bone-remains
#2
Ogeto Mwebi, Esther Nguta, Veronica Onduso, Ben Nyakundi, Xue-Long Jiang, Esther Kioko
Ecological dynamics and faunal diversity documentation is normally conducted by direct observation and trapping of live animals. However, surveys of carnivore scat prey and surface bone remains, which are relatively inexpensive, can provide complementary data that expand carnivore diet breadth and may improve accuracy regarding inferences of the ecological dynamics of a given ecosystem. We used this inexpensive method to document species diversity variation with elevation on the leeward (Sirimon) and windward (Chogoria) areas of Mt...
October 16, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213922/marker-assisted-selection-of-yy-supermales-from-a-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-derived-strain
#3
Chao-Hao Chen, Bi-Jun Li, Xiao-Hui Gu, Hao-Ran Lin, Jun-Hong Xia
Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) and GIFT-derived strains account for the majority of farmed tilapia worldwide. As male tilapias grow much faster than females, they are often considered more desirable in the aquacultural industry. Sex reversal of females to males using the male sex hormone 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) is generally used to induce phenotypic males during large-scale production of all male fingerlings. However, the widespread use of large quantities of sex reversal hormone in hatcheries may pose a health risk to workers and ecological threats to surrounding environments...
September 6, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127333/developmental-expression-of-three-prmt-genes-in-xenopus
#4
Cheng-Dong Wang, Xiao-Fang Guo, Thomas Chi Bun Wong, Hui Wang, Xu-Feng Qi, Dong-Qing Cai, Yi Deng, Hui Zhao
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are involved in many cellular processes via the arginine methylation of histone or non-histone proteins. We examined the expression patterns of prmt4, prmt7, and prmt9 during embryogenesis in Xenopus using whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Xenopus prmt4 and prmt7 were expressed in the neural crest, brain, and spinal cord, and also detected in the eye, branchial arches, and heart at the tailbud stage...
August 20, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127332/duplication-and-diversification-of-insulin-genes-in-ray-finned-fish
#5
David M Irwin
Insulin is a key hormone for the regulation of metabolism in vertebrates. Insulin is produced by pancreatic islet cells in response to elevated glucose levels and leads to the uptake of glucose by tissues such as liver and adipose tissue to store energy. Insulin also has additional functions in regulating development. Previous work has shown that the proglucagon gene, which encodes hormones counter regulating insulin, is duplicated in teleost fish, and that the peptide hormones encoded by these genes have diversified in function...
August 20, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084433/receptor-variability-driven-evolution-of-snake-toxins
#6
Xian-Hong Ji, Shang-Fei Zhang, Bin Gao, Shun-Yi Zhu
Three-finger toxins (TFTs) are well-recognized non-enzymatic venom proteins found in snakes. However, although TFTs exhibit accelerated evolution, the drivers of this evolution remain poorly understood. The structural complexes between long-chain α-neurotoxins, a subfamily of TFTs, and their nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targets have been determined in previous research, providing an opportunity to address such questions. In the current study, we observed several previously identified positively selected sites (PSSs) and the highly variable C-terminal loop of these toxins at the toxin/receptor interface...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976844/tail-regeneration-reduction-in-lizards-after-repetitive-amputation-or-cauterization-reflects-an-increase-of-immune-cells-in-blastemas
#7
Lorenzo Alibardi
Lizards are key amniote models for studying organ regeneration. During tail regeneration in lizards, blastemas contain sparse granulocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes among the prevalent mesenchymal cells. Using transmission electron microscopy to examine scarring blastemas after third and fourth sequential tail amputations, the number of granulocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes increased at 3-4 weeks in comparison to the first regeneration. An increase in granulocytes and agranulocytes also occurred within a week after blastema cauterization during the process of scarring...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955028/-rhinogobius-immaculatus-a-new-species-of-freshwater-goby-teleostei-gobiidae-from-the-qiantang-river-china
#8
Fan Li, Shan Li, Jia-Kuan Chen
A new freshwater goby, Rhinogobius immaculatus sp. nov., is described here from the Qiantang River in China. It is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: second dorsal-fin rays I, 7-9; anal-fin rays I, 6-8; pectoral-fin rays 14-15; longitudinal scales 29-31; transverse scales 7-9; predorsal scales 2-5; vertebrae 27 (rarely 28); preopercular canal absent or with two pores; a red oblique stripe below eye in males; branchiostegal membrane mostly reddish-orange, with 3-6 irregular discrete or connected red blotches on posterior branchiostegal membrane and lower operculum in males; caudal-fin base with a median black spot; and no black blotch on anterior part of first dorsal fin in males...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955027/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-selection-of-genes-for-puberty-in-bama-xiang-pigs
#9
Yang Yang, Adeniyi C Adeola, Hai-Bing Xie, Ya-Ping Zhang
The Bama Xiang pig (BMX) is a famous early-maturing Chinese indigenous breed with a two-end black coat. To uncover the genetic basis of the BMX phenotype, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between BMX and East Asian wild boars and Laiwu pigs, respectively. Genes under positive selection were enriched in pathways associated with gonadal hormone and melanin synthesis, consistent with the phenotypic changes observed during development in BMX pigs. We also performed differentially expressed gene analysis based on RNA-seq data from pituitary tissues of BMX and Large White pigs...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955025/maternal-gene-ooep-may-participate-in-homologous-recombination-mediated-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-mouse-oocytes
#10
Da-Jian He, Lin Wang, Zhi-Bi Zhang, Kun Guo, Jing-Zheng Li, Xie-Chao He, Qing-Hua Cui, Ping Zheng
DNA damage in oocytes can cause infertility and birth defects. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly deleterious and can substantially impair genome integrity. Homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA DSB repair plays dominant roles in safeguarding oocyte quantity and quality. However, little is known regarding the key players of the HR repair pathway in oocytes. Here, we identified oocyte-specific gene Ooep as a novel key component of the HR repair pathway in mouse oocytes. OOEP was required for efficient ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activation and Rad51 recombinase(RAD51)focal accumulation at DNA DSBs...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872032/patterns-of-human-wildlife-conflict-and-compensation-practices-around-daxueshan-nature-reserve-china
#11
Cheng Huang, Xue-You Li, Liu-Jun Shi, Xue-Long Jiang
Understanding the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is essential to inform management decisions to encourage coexistence, but it is constrained by the lack of spatially-explicit data. We collected spatially-implicit data of human-wildlife conflicts from 2009-2015 around Daxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, and investigated the patterns and drivers of these conflicts. A questionnaire was also designed to capture local resident attitudes toward insurance-based compensation for the losses caused by targeted wildlife...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872029/assessment-of-habitat-suitability-of-the-snow-leopard-panthera-uncia-in-qomolangma-national-nature-reserve-based-on-maxent-modeling
#12
De-Feng Bai, Peng-Ju Chen, Luciano Atzeni, Lhaba Cering, Qian Li, Kun Shi
Habitat evaluation constitutes an important and fundamental step in the management of wildlife populations and conservation policy planning. Geographic information system (GIS) and species presence data provide the means by which such evaluation can be done. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is widely used in habitat suitability modeling due to its power of accuracy and additional descriptive properties. To survey snow leopard populations in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest, QNNR) National Nature Reserve, Tibet, China, we pooled 127 pugmarks, 415 scrape marks, and 127 non-invasive identifications of the animal along line transects and recorded 87 occurrences through camera traps from 2014-2017...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976842/a-new-genus-of-asiatic-short-tailed-shrew-soricidae-eulipotyphla-based-on-molecular-and-morphological-comparisons
#13
Kai He, Xing Chen, Peng Chen, Shui-Wang He, Feng Cheng, Xue-Long Jiang, Kevin Campbell
Blarinellini is a tribe of soricine shrews comprised of nine fossil genera and one extant genus. Blarinelline shrews were once widely distributed throughout Eurasia and North America, though only members of the Asiatic short-tailed shrew genus Blarinella currently persist (mostly in southwestern China and adjacent areas). Only three forms of Blarinella have been recognized as either species or subspecies. However, recent molecular studies indicated a strikingly deep divergence within the genus, implying the existence of a distinct genus-level lineage...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955026/how-many-species-of-apodemus-and-rattus-occur-in-china-a-survey-based-on-mitochondrial-cyt-b-and-morphological-analyses
#14
Shao-Ying Liu, Kai He, Shun-De Chen, Wei Jin, Robert W Murphy, Ming-Kun Tang, Rui Liao, Feng-Jun Li
Apodemus (mice) and Rattus (rats) are the top rodent reservoirs for zoonoses in China, yet little is known about their diversity. We reexamined the alpha diversity of these two genera based on a new collection of specimens from China and their cyt b sequences in GenBank. We also tested whether species could be identified using external and craniodental measurements exclusively. Measurements from 147 specimens of Apodemus and 236 specimens of Rattus were used for morphological comparisons. We analysed 74 cyt b sequences of Apodemus and 100 cyt b sequences of Rattus to facilitate phylogenetic estimations...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872031/karyotypes-of-field-mice-of-the-genus-apodemus-mammalia-rodentia-from-china
#15
Masaharu Motokawa, Yi Wu, Masashi Harada, Yuta Shintaku, Xue-Long Jiang, Yu-Chun Li
Karyotypes of four Chinese species of field mice of the genus Apodemus were examined, including Apodemus chevrieri (diploid chromosome number, 2 n =48, fundamental number of autosomal arms, FNa=56), A. draco (2 n =48, FNa=48), A. ilex (2 n =48, FNa=48), and A. latronum (2 n =48, FNa=48). Karyotypes of A. chevrieri , A. draco , and A. ilex are reported here for the first time, providing useful information for their species taxonomy. Determining the karyotypes of all species of Apodemus in Asia, both in this and previous studies, provides a solid overview of the chromosome evolution and species differentiation of the genus in East Asia...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695683/taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-mesechinus-mammalia-erinaceidae-with-description-of-a-new-species
#16
Huai-Sen Ai, Kai He, Zhong-Zheng Chen, Jia-Qi Li, Tao Wan, Quan Li, Wen-Huan Nie, Jin-Huan Wang, Wei-Ting Su, Xue-Long Jiang
Hedgehogs in the genus Mesechinus (Family Erinaceidae), which include two currently recognized species ( M. dauuricus and M. hughi ), are distributed from northeast Mongolia to the upper Amur Basin in Russia and adjacent areas in northeast and northern China. In recent years, a population of Mesechinus hedgehogs was discovered from Mt. Gaoligong, southwestern Yunnan, China, far from the known distribution range of the genus. Furthermore, these hedgehogs are the only known population to be distributed at elevations higher than 2 100 m and in sympatry with gymnures...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616678/species-identification-of-crested-gibbons-nomascus-in-captivity-in-china-using-karyotyping-and-pcr-based-approaches
#17
Wen-Hui Nie, Jin-Huan Wang, Wei-Ting Su, Yu Hu, Shui-Wang He, Xue-Long Jiang, Kai He
Gibbons and siamangs (Hylobatidae) are well-known for their rapid chromosomal evolution, which has resulted in high speciation rate within the family. On the other hand, distinct karyotypes do not prevent speciation, allowing interbreeding between individuals in captivity, and the unwanted hybrids are ethically problematic as all gibbon species are endangered or critically endangered. Thus, accurate species identification is crucial for captive breeding, particularly in China where studbooks are unavailable...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551763/species-delimitation-based-on-diagnosis-and-monophyly-and-its-importance-for-advancing-mammalian-taxonomy
#18
REVIEW
Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Guilherme S T Garbino
A recently proposed taxonomic classification of extant ungulates sparked a series of publications that criticize the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) claiming it to be a particularly poor species concept. These opinions reiteratively stated that (1) the two fundamental elements of the "PSC", i.e., monophyly and diagnosability, do not offer objective criteria as to where the line between species should be drawn; and (2) that extirpation of populations can lead to artificial diagnosability and spurious recognitions of species...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551757/impacts-of-late-quaternary-environmental-change-on-the-long-tailed-ground-squirrel-urocitellus-undulatus-in-mongolia
#19
Bryan S McLean, Batsaikhan Nyamsuren, Andrey Tchabovsky, Joseph A Cook
Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel ( Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total)...
September 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127331/effects-of-c-terminal-amidation-and-heptapeptide-ring-on-the-biological-activities-and-advanced-structure-of-amurin-9ky-a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-identified-from-the-brown-frog-rana-kunyuensis
#20
Fen Zhang, Zhi-Lai Guo, Yan Chen, Li Li, Hai-Ning Yu, Yi-Peng Wang
Rana kunyuensis is a species of brown frog that lives exclusively on Kunyu Mountain, Yantai, China. In the current study, a 279-bp cDNA sequence encoding a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP), designated as amurin-9KY, was cloned from synthesized double-strand skin cDNA of R. kunyuensis. The amurin-9KY precursor was composed of 62 amino acid (aa) residues, whereas the mature peptide was composed of 14 aa and contained two cysteines forming a C-terminal heptapeptide ring (Rana box domain) and an amidated C-terminus...
August 15, 2018: Zoological Research
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