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Zoological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976844/tail-regeneration-reduction-in-lizards-after-repetitive-amputation-or-cauterization-reflects-an-increase-of-immune-cells-in-blastemas
#1
Lorenzo Alibardi
Lizards are key amniote models for studying organ regeneration. During tail regeneration in lizards, blastemas contain sparse granulocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes among the prevalent mesenchymal cells. Using transmission electron microscopy to examine scarring blastemas after third and fourth sequential tail amputations, the number of granulocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes increased at 3-4 weeks in comparison to the first regeneration. An increase in granulocytes and agranulocytes also occurred within a week after blastema cauterization during the process of scarring...
July 6, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976843/current-understanding-on-the-roles-of-gut-microbiota-in-fish-disease-and-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Jin-Bo Xiong, Li Nie, Jiong Chen
Intensive aquaculture has increased the severity and frequency of fish diseases. Given the functional importance of gut microbiota in various facets of host physiology, modulation of this microbiota is a feasible strategy to mitigate emerging diseases in aquaculture. To achieve this, a fundamental understanding of the interplay among fish health, microbiota, and invading pathogens is required. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge regarding the associations between fish diseases, dysbiosis of gut microbiota, and immune responses...
July 3, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976842/a-new-genus-of-asiatic-short-tailed-shrew-soricidae-eulipotyphla-based-on-molecular-and-morphological-comparisons
#3
Kai He, Xing Chen, Peng Chen, Shui-Wang He, Feng Cheng, Xue-Long Jiang, Kevin Campbell
Blarinellini is a tribe of soricine shrews comprised of nine fossil genera and one extant genus. Blarinelline shrews were once widely distributed throughout Eurasia and North America, though only members of the Asiatic short-tailed shrew genus Blarinella currently persist (mostly in southwestern China and adjacent areas). Only three forms of Blarinella have been recognized as either species or subspecies. However, recent molecular studies indicated a strikingly deep divergence within the genus, implying the existence of a distinct genus-level lineage...
June 28, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955030/home-range-variation-of-two-different-sized-groups-of-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana-in-shennongjia-china-implications-for-feeding-competition
#4
Peng-Lai Fan, Yi-Ming Li, Craig B Stanford, Fang Li, Ze-Tian Liu, Kai-Hua Yang, Xue-Cong Liu
Knowledge on the home range size of a species or population is important for understanding its behavioral and social ecology and improving the effectiveness of conservation strategies. We studied the home range size of two different-sized groups of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia, China. The larger group (236 individuals) had a home range of 22.5 km2 from September 2007 to July 2008, whereas the smaller group (62 individuals) occupied a home range of 12.4 km2 from November 2008 to July 2009...
June 28, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955029/interchange-between-grooming-and-infant-handling-in-female-tibetan-macaques-macaca-thibetana
#5
Qi Jiang, Dong-Po Xia, Xi Wang, Dao Zhang, Bing-Hua Sun, Jin-Hua Li
In some nonhuman primates, infants function as a social tool that can bridge relationships among group members. Infants are a desired commodity for group members, and mothers control access to them. The biological market theory suggests that grooming is widespread and represents a commodity that can be exchanged for infant handling. As a limited resource, however, the extent to which infants are interchanged between mothers (females with an infant) and non-mothers (potential handlers, females without an infant) remains unclear...
June 28, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955028/rhinogobius-immaculatus-a-new-species-of-freshwater-goby-teleostei-gobiidae-from-the-qiantang-river-china
#6
Fan Li, Shan Li, Jia-Kuan Chen
A new freshwater goby, Rhinogobius immaculatus sp. nov., is described here from the Qiantang River in China. It is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: second dorsal-fin rays I, 7-9; anal-fin rays I, 6-8; pectoral-fin rays 14-15; longitudinal scales 29-31; transverse scales 7-9; predorsal scales 2-5; vertebrae 27 (rarely 28); preopercular canal absent or with two pores; a red oblique stripe below eye in males; branchiostegal membrane mostly reddish-orange, with 3-6 irregular discrete or connected red blotches on posterior branchiostegal membrane and lower operculum in males; caudal-fin base with a median black spot; and no black blotch on anterior part of first dorsal fin in males...
June 25, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955027/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-selection-of-genes-for-puberty-in-bama-xiang-pigs
#7
Yang Yang, Adeniyi C Adeola, Hai-Bing Xie, Ya-Ping Zhang
The Bama Xiang pig (BMX) is a famous early-maturing Chinese indigenous breed with a two-end black coat. To uncover the genetic basis of the BMX phenotype, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between BMX and East Asian wild boars and Laiwu pigs, respectively. Genes under positive selection were enriched in pathways associated with gonadal hormone and melanin synthesis, consistent with the phenotypic changes observed during development in BMX pigs. We also performed differentially expressed gene analysis based on RNA-seq data from pituitary tissues of BMX and Large White pigs...
June 19, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955026/how-many-species-of-apodemus-and-rattus-occur-in-china-a-survey-based-on-mitochondrial-cyt-b-and-morphological-analyses
#8
Shao-Ying Liu, Kai He, Shun-De Chen, Wei Jin, Robert W Murphy, Ming-Kun Tang, Rui Liao, Feng-Jun Li
Apodemus (mice) and Rattus (rats) are the top rodent reservoirs for zoonoses in China, yet little is known about their diversity. We reexamined the alpha diversity of these two genera based on a new collection of specimens from China and their cyt b sequences in GenBank. We also tested whether species could be identified using external and craniodental measurements exclusively. Measurements from 147 specimens of Apodemus and 236 specimens of Rattus were used for morphological comparisons. We analysed 74 cyt b sequences of Apodemus and 100 cyt b sequences of Rattus to facilitate phylogenetic estimations...
June 19, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955025/maternal-gene-ooep-may-participate-in-homologous-recombination-mediated-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-mouse-oocytes
#9
Da-Jian He, Lin Wang, Zhi-Bi Zhang, Kun Guo, Jing-Zheng Li, Xie-Chao He, Qing-Hua Cui, Ping Zheng
DNA damage in oocytes can cause infertility and birth defects. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly deleterious and can substantially impair genome integrity. Homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA DSB repair plays dominant roles in safeguarding oocyte quantity and quality. However, little is known regarding the key players of the HR repair pathway in oocytes. Here, we identified oocyte-specific gene Ooep as a novel key component of the HR repair pathway in mouse oocytes. OOEP was required for efficient ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activation and Rad51 recombinase(RAD51)focal accumulation at DNA DSBs...
June 15, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872032/patterns-of-human-wildlife-conflict-and-compensation-practices-around-daxueshan-nature-reserve-china
#10
Cheng Huang, Xue-You Li, Liu-Jun Shi, Xue-Long Jiang
Understanding the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is essential to inform management decisions to encourage coexistence, but it is constrained by the lack of spatially-explicit data. We collected spatially-implicit data of human-wildlife conflicts from 2009-2015 around Daxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China, and investigated the patterns and drivers of these conflicts. A questionnaire was also designed to capture local resident attitudes toward insurance-based compensation for the losses caused by targeted wildlife...
May 31, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872031/karyotypes-of-field-mice-of-the-genus-apodemus-mammalia-rodentia-from-china
#11
Masaharu Motokawa, Yi Wu, Masashi Harada, Yuta Shintaku, Xue-Long Jiang, Yu-Chun Li
Karyotypes of four Chinese species of field mice of the genus Apodemus were examined, including Apodemus chevrieri (diploid chromosome number, 2n=48, fundamental number of autosomal arms, FNa=56), A. draco (2n=48, FNa=48), A. ilex (2n=48, FNa=48), and A. latronum (2n=48, FNa=48). Karyotypes of A. chevrieri, A. draco, and A. ilex are reported here for the first time, providing useful information for their species taxonomy. Determining the karyotypes of all species of Apodemus in Asia, both in this and previous studies, provides a solid overview of the chromosome evolution and species differentiation of the genus in East Asia...
May 28, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872030/involvement-of-ayu-nod2-in-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-insights-into-functional-conservation-of-nod2-in-antibacterial-innate-immunity
#12
Yi Ren, Shui-Fang Liu, Li Nie, Shi-Yu Cai, Jiong Chen
Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is a major cytoplasmic sensor for pathogens and is critical for the clearance of cytosolic bacteria in mammals. However, studies regarding NOD2, especially the initiated signaling pathways, are scarce in teleost species. In this study, we identified a NOD2 molecule (PaNOD2) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis). Bioinformatics analysis showed the structure of NOD2 to be highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Dual-luciferase reporter assays examined the activation of NF-κB signaling and Western blotting analysis detected the phosphorylation of three MAP kinases (p-38, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2)...
May 25, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872029/assessment-of-habitat-suitability-of-the-snow-leopard-panthera-uncia-in-qomolangma-national-nature-reserve-based-on-maxent-modeling
#13
De-Feng Bai, Peng-Ju Chen, Luciano Atzeni, Lhaba Cering, Qian Li, Kun Shi
Habitat evaluation constitutes an important and fundamental step in the management of wildlife populations and conservation policy planning. Geographic information system (GIS) and species presence data provide the means by which such evaluation can be done. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is widely used in habitat suitability modeling due to its power of accuracy and additional descriptive properties. To survey snow leopard populations in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest, QNNR) National Nature Reserve, Tibet, China, we pooled 127 pugmarks, 415 scrape marks, and 127 non-invasive identifications of the animal along line transects and recorded 87 occurrences through camera traps from 2014-2017...
May 24, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695683/taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-mesechinus-mammalia-erinaceidae-with-description-of-a-new-species
#14
Huai-Sen Ai, Kai He, Zhong-Zheng Chen, Jia-Qi Li, Tao Wan, Quan Li, Wen-Huan Nie, Jin-Huan Wang, Wei-Ting Su, Xue-Long Jiang
Hedgehogs in the genus Mesechinus (Family Erinaceidae), which include two currently recognized species (M. dauuricus and M. hughi), are distributed from northeast Mongolia to the upper Amur Basin in Russia and adjacent areas in northeast and northern China. In recent years, a population of Mesechinus hedgehogs was discovered from Mt. Gaoligong, southwestern Yunnan, China, far from the known distribution range of the genus. Furthermore, these hedgehogs are the only known population to be distributed at elevations higher than 2 100 m and in sympatry with gymnures...
April 25, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766979/playing-it-cool-characterizing-social-play-bout-termination-and-candidate-play-signals-of-juvenile-and-infant-tibetan-macaques-macaca-thibetana
#15
Kaitlin R Wright, Jessica A Mayhew, Lori K Sheeran, Jake A Funkhouser, Ronald S Wagner, Li-Xing Sun, Jin-Hua Li
Play behaviors and signals during playful interactions with juvenile conspecifics are important for both the social and cognitive development of young animals. The social organization of a species can also influence juvenile social play. We examined the relationships among play behaviors, candidate play signals, and play bout termination in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) during juvenile and infant social play to characterize the species play style. As Tibetan macaques are despotic and live in groups with strict linear dominance hierarchies and infrequent reconciliation, we predicted that play would be at risk of misinterpretation by both the individuals engaged in the play bout and by those watching, possibly leading to injury of the players...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643326/identification-and-characterization-of-short-tandem-repeats-in-the-tibetan-macaque-genome-based-on-resequencing-data
#16
San-Xu Liu, Wei Hou, Xue-Yan Zhang, Chang-Jun Peng, Bi-Song Yue, Zhen-Xin Fan, Jing Li
The Tibetan macaque, which is endemic to China, is currently listed as a Near Endangered primate species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Short tandem repeats (STRs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. They are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. To clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide STRs and understand their variation among Tibetan macaques, we conducted a genome-wide survey of STRs with next-generation sequencing of five macaque samples...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616679/variations-in-diet-composition-of-sympatric-trachypithecus-francoisi-and-macaca-assamensis-in-the-limestone-habitats-of-nonggang-china
#17
Qi-Hai Zhou, Zhong-Hao Huang, Hua Wei, Cheng-Ming Huang
Comparative studies of sympatric species are essential for understanding behavioral and ecological adaptation as well as the mechanisms that can reduce resource competition to allow coexistence. François' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) are sympatric primate species found in the limestone seasonal rainforests of Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China. To explore their different adaptation strategies, we collected data on diet using scan sampling at 15-min intervals...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551762/why-china-is-important-in-advancing-the-field-of-primatology
#18
REVIEW
Paul A Garber
Over the past few decades, field studies conducted by Chinese primatologists have contributed significant new theoretical and empirical insights into the behavior, ecology, biology, genetics, and conservation of lorises, macaques, langurs, snub-nosed monkeys, and gibbons. With the recent establishment and inaugural meeting of the China Primatological Society in 2017, China has emerged as a leading nation in primate research. Several research teams have conducted long-term studies despite the difficult challenges of habituating and observing wild primates inhabiting mountainous temperate forests, and the fact that some 80% of China's 25-27 primate species are considered vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered and are distributed in small isolated subpopulations...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551761/a-road-for-a-promising-future-for-china-s-primates-the-potential-for-restoration
#19
REVIEW
Colin A Chapman
China is one of the most dynamic countries of the world and it shelters some amazing levels of biodiversity, including some very special primate species. However, primarily as a result of forest loss, most of which occurred in historical times, approximately 70% of China's primate species have less than 3 000 individuals. Here I evaluate one road for future conservation/development that could produce very positive gains for China's primates; namely forest restoration. I argue that for a large scale restoration project to be possible two conditions must be met; the right societal conditions must exist and the right knowledge must be in hand...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551760/extant-primates-and-development-of-primatology-in-china-publications-student-training-and-funding
#20
REVIEW
Peng-Fei Fan, Chi Ma
China supports the richest non-human primate diversity in the northern hemisphere, providing an excellent opportunity for Chinese primatologists to take a leading role in advancing the study of primatology. Primatology in China began to flourish after 1979. To date, Chinese primatologists have published more than 1000 papers in journals indexed by the Chinese Science Citation Database and the Web of Science Core Collection, and universities and academic institutions have trained 107 PhD students and 370 Masters students between 1984 and 2016...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
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