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Bioengineering & Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377665/encapsulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-glycosaminoglycans-chitosan-polyelectrolyte-microcapsules-using-electrospraying-technique-investigating-capsule-morphology-and-cell-viability
#1
Amin Vossoughi, Howard W T Matthew
Polyelectrolyte microcapsules are modular constructs which facilitate cell handling and assembly of cell-based tissue constructs. In this study, an electrospray (ES) encapsulation apparatus was developed for the encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Ionic complexation between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and chitosan formed a polyelectrolyte complex membrane at the interface. To optimize the capsules, the effect of voltage, needle size and GAG formulation on capsule size were investigated. It was observed that by increasing the voltage and decreasing the needle size, the capsule size would decrease but at voltages above 12 kV, capsule size distribution broadened significantly which yields lower circularity...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377664/derivation-of-neural-crest-stem-cells-from-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-requires-fgf-2-igf-1-and-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#2
Georgios Tseropoulos, Samaneh Moghadasi Boroujeni, Vivek K Bajpai, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis
Neural crest (NC) cells play a central role in forming the peripheral nervous system, the craniofacial skeleton, and the pigmentation of the skin during development due to their broad multilineage differentiation potential into neurons, Schwann cells, melanocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, we identified an easily accessible source of pluripotent NC stem cells from human inter-follicular keratinocyte (KC) cultures (KC-NC). In this work, we examined specific conditions for the derivation of NC from KC cultures...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377663/engineering-molecular-imaging-strategies-for-regenerative-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Matthew Willadsen, Marc Chaise, Iven Yarovoy, An Qi Zhang, Natesh Parashurama
The reshaping of the world's aging population has created an urgent need for therapies for chronic diseases. Regenerative medicine offers a ray of hope, and its complex solutions include material, cellular, or tissue systems. We review basics of regenerative medicine/stem cells and describe how the field of molecular imaging, which is based on quantitative, noninvasive, imaging of biological events in living subjects, can be applied to regenerative medicine in order to interrogate tissues in innovative, informative, and personalized ways...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377662/in-silico-analytico-mathematical-interpretation-of-biopolymeric-assemblies-quantification-of-energy-surfaces-and-molecular-attributes-via-atomistic-simulations
#4
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Static-lattice atomistic simulations, in vacuum and solvent phase, have been recently employed to quantify the "in vitro-in vivo-in silico" performance-correlation profile of various drug delivery systems and biomaterial scaffolds. The reactional profile of biopolymers was elucidated by exploring the spatial disposition of the molecular components with respect to the formulation conditions and the final release medium. This manuscript provides a brief overview of recently completed and published studies related to molecular tectonics of: (a) the nanoformation and solvation properties of the surfactant-emulsified polymeric systems; (b) the formation and chemistry of polyelectrolyte complexes; (c) the effect of a plasticizer and/or drug on the physicomechanical properties of biomedical archetypes; (d) the molecular modeling templates to predict stimuli- and environmentally esponsive systems; and (e) the polymer-mucopeptide complexes and intermacromolecular networks...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377661/a-platform-of-genetically-engineered-bacteria-as-vehicles-for-localized-delivery-of-therapeutics-toward-applications-for-crohn-s-disease
#5
Ryan McKay, Monil Ghodasra, John Schardt, David Quan, Alex Eli Pottash, Wu Shang, Steven M Jay, Gregory F Payne, Matthew Wook Chang, John C March, William E Bentley
For therapies targeting diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, we and others envision probiotic bacteria that synthesize and excrete biotherapeutics at disease sites. Toward this goal, we have engineered commensal E. coli that selectively synthesize and secrete a model biotherapeutic in the presence of nitric oxide (NO), an intestinal biomarker for Crohn's disease (CD). This is accomplished by co-expressing the pore forming protein TolAIII with the biologic, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377660/engineered-e-coli-nissle-1917-for-the-reduction-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-in-the-intestinal-tract
#6
Kathryn G Geldart, Sushma Kommineni, Madeline Forbes, Michael Hayward, Gary M Dunny, Nita H Salzman, Yiannis N Kaznessis
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) poses a serious threat in hospitals where they densely colonize the intestinal tracts of patients. In vulnerable hosts, these pathogens may translocate to the bloodstream and become lethal. The ability to selectively reduce VRE in the intestinal tracts of patients could potentially prevent many of these translocation events and reduce the spread of the pathogen. Herein, we have engineered Escherichia. coli Nissle 1917 to produce and secrete three antimicrobial peptides, Enterocin A, Enterocin B, and Hiracin JM79, to specifically target and kill Enterococcus...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377659/hepatitis-b-vaccination-using-a-dissolvable-microneedle-patch-is-immunogenic-in-mice-and-rhesus-macaques
#7
Monica B Perez Cuevas, Maja Kodani, Youkyung Choi, Jessica Joyce, Siobhan M O'Connor, Saleem Kamili, Mark R Prausnitz
Chronic Hepatitis B virus infection remains a major global public health problem, accounting for about 887,000 deaths in 2015. Perinatal and early childhood infections are strongly associated with developing chronic hepatitis B. Adding a birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine (HepB BD) to routine childhood vaccination can prevent over 85% of these infections. However, HepB BD coverage remains low in many global regions, with shortages of birth attendants trained to vaccinate and limited HepB BD supply at birth...
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377658/engineering-clinical-translation-introduction-to-special-issue-dedicated-to-2017-bioengineering-and-translational-medicine-conference
#8
EDITORIAL
Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Samir Mitragotri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377657/biotm-buzz-volume-3-issue-3
#9
EDITORIAL
Aaron C Anselmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065971/how-will-the-field-of-gene-therapy-survive-its-success
#10
REVIEW
William F Kaemmerer
In August 2017, for the first time, a gene therapy was approved for market release in the United States. That approval was followed by two others before the end of the year. This article cites primary literature, review articles concerning particular biotechnologies, and press releases by the FDA and others in order to provide an overview of the current status of the field of gene therapy with respect to its translation into practice. Technical hurdles that have been overcome in the past decades are summarized, as are hurdles that need to be the subject of continued research...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065970/multivariate-techniques-enable-a-biochemical-classification-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-versus-typically-developing-peers-a-comparison-and-validation-study
#11
Daniel P Howsmon, Troy Vargason, Robert A Rubin, Leanna Delhey, Marie Tippett, Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, John C Slattery, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Richard E Frye, Juergen Hahn
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder which is currently only diagnosed through behavioral testing. Impaired folate-dependent one carbon metabolism (FOCM) and transsulfuration (TS) pathways have been implicated in ASD, and recently a study involving multivariate analysis based upon Fisher Discriminant Analysis returned very promising results for predicting an ASD diagnosis. This article takes another step toward the goal of developing a biochemical diagnostic for ASD by comparing five classification algorithms on existing data of FOCM/TS metabolites, and also validating the classification results with new data from an ASD cohort...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065969/detachment-of-ligands-from-nanoparticle-surface-under-flow-and-endothelial-cell-contact-assessment-using-microfluidic-devices
#12
Maria Jarvis, Michael Arnold, Jenna Ott, Vinu Krishnan, Kapil Pant, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Samir Mitragotri
Surface modification of nanoparticles is a well-established methodology to alter their properties to enhance circulation half-life. While literature studies using conventional, in vitro characterization are routinely used to evaluate the biocompatibility of such modifications, relatively little attention has been paid to assess the stability of such surface modifications in physiologically relevant conditions. Here, microfluidic devices were used to study the effect of factors that adversely impact surface modifications including vascular flow and endothelial cell interactions...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065968/lipid-nanoparticle-sirna-cocktails-for-the-treatment-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#13
Christopher M Knapp, Jia He, John Lister, Kathryn A Whitehead
Mantle cell lymphoma is an aggressive and incurable subtype of non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma. Patients typically present with advanced disease, and most patients succumb within a decade of diagnosis. There is a clear and urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches that will affect mantle cell lymphoma through a unique mechanism compared to current therapies. This study examined the use of RNA interference (RNAi) therapy to attack mantle cell lymphoma at the mRNA level, silencing genes associated with cancer cell proliferation...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065967/clinical-translation-of-microbe-based-therapies-current-clinical-landscape-and-preclinical-outlook
#14
REVIEW
Ava M Vargason, Aaron C Anselmo
Next generation microbe-based therapeutics, inspired by the success of fecal microbiota transplants, are being actively investigated in clinical trials to displace or eliminate pathogenic microbes to treat various diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and vagina. Genetically engineered microbes are also being investigated in the clinic as drug producing factories for biologic delivery, which can provide a constant local source of drugs. In either case, microbe-therapeutics have the opportunity to address unmet clinical needs and open new areas of research by reducing clinical side effects associated with current treatment modalities or by facilitating the delivery of biologics...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065966/harnessing-nanostructured-systems-for-improved-treatment-and-prevention-of-hiv-disease
#15
REVIEW
Maya Monroe, Charles Flexner, Honggang Cui
Combination antiretroviral therapy effectively controls human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral replication, delaying the progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome and improving and extending quality of life of patients. However, the inability of antiretroviral therapeutics to target latent virus and their poor penetration of viral reserve tissues result in the need for continued treatment for the life of the patient. Side effects from long-term antiretroviral use and the development of drug resistance due to patient noncompliance are also continuing problems...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065965/scalable-synthesis-and-validation-of-pamam-dendrimer-n-acetyl-cysteine-conjugate-for-potential-translation
#16
Rishi Sharma, Anjali Sharma, Siva P Kambhampati, Rajsekar Rami Reddy, Zhi Zhang, Jeffrey L Cleland, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Dendrimer- N -acetyl cysteine (D-NAC) conjugate has shown significant promise in multiple preclinical models of brain injury and is undergoing clinical translation. D-NAC is a generation-4 hydroxyl-polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugate where N -acetyl cysteine (NAC) is covalently bound through disulfide linkages on the surface of the dendrimer. It has shown remarkable potential to selectively target and deliver NAC to activated microglia and astrocytes at the site of brain injury in several animal models, producing remarkable improvements in neurological outcomes at a fraction of the free drug dose...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065964/tgf-%C3%AE-responsive-car-t-cells-promote-anti-tumor-immune-function
#17
Andrew J Hou, ZeNan L Chang, Michael H Lorenzini, Eugenia Zah, Yvonne Y Chen
A chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that responds to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) enables the engineering of T cells that convert this immunosuppressive cytokine into a potent T-cell stimulant. However, clinical translation of TGF-β CAR-T cells for cancer therapy requires the ability to productively combine TGF-β responsiveness with tumor-targeting specificity. Furthermore, the potential concern that contaminating, TGF-β?producing regulatory T (Treg) cells may preferentially expand during TGF-β CAR-T cell manufacturing and suppress effector T (Teff) cells demands careful evaluation...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065963/biotm-buzz-volume-3-issue-2
#18
EDITORIAL
Aaron C Anselmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065962/engineering-clinical-translation-introduction-to-special-issue-dedicated-to-2017-bioengineering-and-translational-medicine-conference
#19
EDITORIAL
Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Samir Mitragotri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376134/engineering-of-a-miniaturized-robotic-clinical-laboratory
#20
Marilyn B Nourse, Kate Engel, Samartha G Anekal, Jocelyn A Bailey, Pradeep Bhatta, Devayani P Bhave, Shekar Chandrasekaran, Yutao Chen, Steven Chow, Ushati Das, Erez Galil, Xinwei Gong, Steven F Gessert, Kevin D Ha, Ran Hu, Laura Hyland, Arvind Jammalamadaka, Karthik Jayasurya, Timothy M Kemp, Andrew N Kim, Lucie S Lee, Yang Lily Liu, Alphonso Nguyen, Jared O'Leary, Chinmay H Pangarkar, Paul J Patel, Ken Quon, Pradeep L Ramachandran, Amy R Rappaport, Joy Roy, Jerald F Sapida, Nikolay V Sergeev, Chandan Shee, Renuka Shenoy, Sharada Sivaraman, Bernardo Sosa-Padilla, Lorraine Tran, Amanda Trent, Thomas C Waggoner, Dariusz Wodziak, Amy Yuan, Peter Zhao, Daniel L Young, Channing R Robertson, Elizabeth A Holmes
The ability to perform laboratory testing near the patient and with smaller blood volumes would benefit patients and physicians alike. We describe our design of a miniaturized clinical laboratory system with three components: a hardware platform (ie, the miniLab) that performs preanalytical and analytical processing steps using miniaturized sample manipulation and detection modules, an assay-configurable cartridge that provides consumable materials and assay reagents, and a server that communicates bidirectionally with the miniLab to manage assay-specific protocols and analyze, store, and report results (i...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
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