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Bioengineering & Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376134/engineering-of-a-miniaturized-robotic-clinical-laboratory
#1
Marilyn B Nourse, Kate Engel, Samartha G Anekal, Jocelyn A Bailey, Pradeep Bhatta, Devayani P Bhave, Shekar Chandrasekaran, Yutao Chen, Steven Chow, Ushati Das, Erez Galil, Xinwei Gong, Steven F Gessert, Kevin D Ha, Ran Hu, Laura Hyland, Arvind Jammalamadaka, Karthik Jayasurya, Timothy M Kemp, Andrew N Kim, Lucie S Lee, Yang Lily Liu, Alphonso Nguyen, Jared O'Leary, Chinmay H Pangarkar, Paul J Patel, Ken Quon, Pradeep L Ramachandran, Amy R Rappaport, Joy Roy, Jerald F Sapida, Nikolay V Sergeev, Chandan Shee, Renuka Shenoy, Sharada Sivaraman, Bernardo Sosa-Padilla, Lorraine Tran, Amanda Trent, Thomas C Waggoner, Dariusz Wodziak, Amy Yuan, Peter Zhao, Daniel L Young, Channing R Robertson, Elizabeth A Holmes
The ability to perform laboratory testing near the patient and with smaller blood volumes would benefit patients and physicians alike. We describe our design of a miniaturized clinical laboratory system with three components: a hardware platform (ie, the miniLab) that performs preanalytical and analytical processing steps using miniaturized sample manipulation and detection modules, an assay-configurable cartridge that provides consumable materials and assay reagents, and a server that communicates bidirectionally with the miniLab to manage assay-specific protocols and analyze, store, and report results (i...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376133/schedule-dependent-synergy-of-gemcitabine-and-doxorubicin-improvement-of-in-vitro-efficacy-and-lack-of-in-vitro-in-vivo-correlation
#2
Douglas R Vogus, Anusha Pusuluri, Renwei Chen, Samir Mitragotri
Combination chemotherapy is commonly used to treat late stage cancer; however, treatment is often limited by systemic toxicity. Optimizing drug ratio and schedule can improve drug combination activity and reduce dose to lower toxicity. Here, we identify gemcitabine (GEM) and doxorubicin (DOX) as a synergistic drug pair in vitro for the triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Drug synergy and caspase activity were increased the most by exposing cells to GEM prior to DOX in vitro. While the combination was more effective than the single drugs at inhibiting MDA-MB-231 growth in vivo, the clear schedule dependence observed in vitro was not observed in vivo...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376132/visible-light-crosslinkable-human-hair-keratin-hydrogels
#3
Kan Yue, Yanhui Liu, Batzaya Byambaa, Vaishali Singh, Wanjun Liu, Xiuyu Li, Yunxia Sun, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Tamayol, Peihua Zhang, Kee Woei Ng, Nasim Annabi, Ali Khademhosseini
Keratins extracted from human hair have emerged as a promising biomaterial for various biomedical applications, partly due to their wide availability, low cost, minimal immune response, and the potential to engineer autologous tissue constructs. However, the fabrication of keratin-based scaffolds typically relies on limited crosslinking mechanisms, such as via physical interactions or disulfide bond formation, which are time-consuming and result in relatively poor mechanical strength and stability. Here, we report the preparation of photocrosslinkable keratin-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels via the thiol-norbornene "click" reaction, which can be formed within one minute upon irradiation of visible light...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376131/rna-peptide-nanoplexes-drug-dna-damage-pathways-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-tumors
#4
Erik C Dreaden, Yi Wen Kong, Mohiuddin A Quadir, Santiago Correa, Lucia Suárez-López, Antonio E Barberio, Mun Kyung Hwang, Aria C Shi, Benjamin Oberlton, Paige N Gallagher, Kevin E Shopsowitz, Kevin M Elias, Michael B Yaffe, Paula T Hammond
DNA damaging chemotherapy is a cornerstone of current front-line treatments for advanced ovarian cancer (OC). Despite the fact that a majority of these patients initially respond to therapy, most will relapse with chemo-resistant disease; therefore, adjuvant treatments that synergize with DNA-damaging chemotherapy could improve treatment outcomes and survival in patients with this deadly disease. Here, we report the development of a nanoscale peptide-nucleic acid complex that facilitates tumor-specific RNA interference therapy to chemosensitize advanced ovarian tumors to frontline platinum/taxane therapy...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376130/ionic-liquids-for-addressing-unmet-needs-in-healthcare
#5
REVIEW
Christian Agatemor, Kelly N Ibsen, Eden E L Tanner, Samir Mitragotri
Advances in the field of ionic liquids have opened new applications beyond their traditional use as solvents into other fields especially healthcare. The broad chemical space, rich with structurally diverse ions, and coupled with the flexibility to form complementary ion pairs enables task-specific optimization at the molecular level to design ionic liquids for envisioned functions. Consequently, ionic liquids now are tailored as innovative solutions to address many problems in medicine. To date, ionic liquids have been designed to promote dissolution of poorly soluble drugs and disrupt physiological barriers to transport drugs to targeted sites...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376129/biotm-buzz-volume-3-issue-1
#6
EDITORIAL
Aaron C Anselmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313037/soluble-collagen-vi-treatment-enhances-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expansion-for-engineering-cartilage
#7
Piera Smeriglio, Jieun Lee, Nidhi Bhutani
Bone Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) are an attractive source for cell-based therapies in cartilage injury owing to their efficient differentiation into chondrocytes and their immune-suppressive abilities. However, their clinical use is hampered by a scarcity of cells leading to compromised efficacy. While expansion of human MSC ex vivo can potentially overcome the scarcity of cells, current methods lead to a rapid loss of the stem cell properties. In this study, we report soluble Collagen VI (cartilage pericellular matrix component) as a potential biologic that can expand the MSC population while maintaining the stem cell phenotype as confirmed by expression of the stem cell markers CD105 and CD90...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313036/microfluidic-co-culture-devices-to-assess-penetration-of-nanoparticles-into-cancer-cell-mass
#8
Maria Jarvis, Michael Arnold, Jenna Ott, Kapil Pant, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Samir Mitragotri
In vitro and in vivo assessment of safety and efficacy are the essential first steps in developing nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems. However, it is often challenging to use the knowledge gained from in vitro studies to predict the outcome of in vivo studies since the complexity of the in vivo environment, including the existence of flow and a multicellular environment, is often lacking in traditional in vitro models. Here, we describe a microfluidic co-culture model comprising 4T1 breast cancer cells and EA...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313035/peptide-delivery-with-poly-ethylene-glycol-diacrylate-microneedles-through-swelling-effect
#9
Shiying Liu, David C Yeo, Christian Wiraja, Hong Liang Tey, Milan Mrksich, Chenjie Xu
Transdermal delivery of therapeutic biomolecules (including peptides) can avoid enzymatic digestion that occurs in the oral route. (Polyethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-based microneedles, with good biocompatibility, are easily fabricated through photo-polymerization with a precisely controlled structure. It has successfully been used for the transdermal delivery of small molecule drugs such as 5-fluorouracil. However, the delivery of peptide-based therapeutics using this platform is seldom reported. This is because of the potential damage to the peptide during the photo-polymerization process of PEGDA...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313034/the-wyss-institute-a-new-model-for-medical-technology-innovation-and-translation-across-the-academic-industrial-interface
#10
REVIEW
Mary Tolikas, Ayis Antoniou, Donald E Ingber
The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University was formed based on the recognition that breakthrough discoveries cannot change the world if they never leave the laboratory. The Institute's mission is to discover the biological principles that Nature uses to build living things, and to harness these insights to create biologically inspired engineering innovations to advance human health and create a more sustainable world. Since its launch in 2009, the Institute has developed a new model for innovation, collaboration, and technology translation within academia, breaking "silos" to enable collaborations that cross institutional and disciplinary barriers...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313033/detection-of-ovulation-a-review-of-currently-available-methods
#11
REVIEW
Hsiu-Wei Su, Yu-Chiao Yi, Ting-Yen Wei, Ting-Chang Chang, Chao-Min Cheng
The ability to identify the precise time of ovulation is important for women who want to plan conception or practice contraception. Here, we review the current literature on various methods for detecting ovulation including a review of point-of-care device technology. We incorporate an examination of methods to detect ovulation that have been developed and practiced for decades and analyze the indications and limitations of each-transvaginal ultrasonography, urinary luteinizing hormone detection, serum progesterone and urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide detection, urinary follicular stimulating hormone detection, basal body temperature monitoring, and cervical mucus and salivary ferning analysis...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313032/biotm-buzz
#12
EDITORIAL
Aaron C Anselmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313031/direct-comparison-of-oligochaete-erythrocruorins-as-potential-blood-substitutes
#13
Devon Zimmerman, Matthew DiIusto, Jack Dienes, Osheiza Abdulmalik, Jacob J Elmer
While many blood substitutes are based on mammalian hemoglobins (e.g., human hemoglobin, HbA), the naturally extracellular hemoglobins of invertebrates (a.k.a. erythrocruorins, Ecs) are intriguing alternative oxygen carriers. Specifically, the erythrocruorin of Lumbricus terrestris has been shown to effectively deliver oxygen in mice and rats without the negative side effects observed with HbA. In this study, the properties of six oligochaete Ecs ( Lumbricus terrestris , Eisenia hortensis , Eisenia fetida , Eisenia veneta , Eudrilus eugeniae , and Amynthas gracilis ) were compared in vitro to identify the most promising blood substitute candidate(s)...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313030/poly-2-propylacrylic-acid-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-blend-microparticles-as-a-targeted-antigen-delivery-system-to-direct-either-cd4-or-cd8-t-cell-activation
#14
Lirong Yang, Evelyn Bracho-Sanchez, Lawrence P Fernando, Jamal S Lewis, Matthew R Carstens, Craig L Duvall, Benjamin G Keselowsky
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based microparticles (MPs) are widely investigated for their ability to load a range of molecules with high efficiency, including antigenic proteins, and release them in a controlled manner. Micron-sized PLGA MPs are readily phagocytosed by antigen presenting cells, and localized to endosomes. Due to low pH and digestive enzymes, encapsulated protein cargo is largely degraded and processed in endosomes for MHC-II loading and presentation to CD4+ T cells, with very little antigen delivered into the cytosol, limiting MHC-I antigenic loading and presentation to CD8+ T cells...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313029/translation-in-cardiovascular-stents-and-occluders-from-biostable-to-fully-degradable
#15
REVIEW
Yingying Huang, Yee Shan Wong, Herr Cheun Anthony Ng, Freddy Y C Boey, Subbu Venkatraman
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Most academic research efforts in cardiovascular disease management focus on pharmacological interventions, or are concerned with discovering new disease markers for diagnosis and monitoring. Nonpharmacological interventions with therapeutic devices, conversely, are driven largely by novel materials and device design. Examples of such devices include coronary stents, heart valves, ventricular assist devices, and occluders for septal defects...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313028/introduction-to-special-issue-2016-translational-medicine-and-bioengineering-conference
#16
EDITORIAL
Kaushal Rege, Samir Mitragotri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313027/biotm-buzz
#17
EDITORIAL
Aaron C Anselmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170757/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-epicardial-progenitors-can-differentiate-to-endocardial-like-endothelial-cells
#18
Xiaoping Bao, Vijesh J Bhute, Tianxiao Han, Tongcheng Qian, Xiaojun Lian, Sean P Palecek
During heart development, epicardial progenitors contribute various cardiac lineages including smooth muscle cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. However, their specific contribution to the human endothelium has not yet been resolved, at least in part due to the inability to expand and maintain human primary or pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived epicardial cells. Here we first generated CDH5-2A-eGFP knock-in hPSC lines and differentiated them into self-renewing WT1+ epicardial cells, which gave rise to endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment in vitro ...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932820/reduced-arterial-elasticity-due-to-surgical-skeletonization-is-ameliorated-by-abluminal-peg-hydrogel
#19
Karyn G Robinson, Rebecca A Scott, Anne M Hesek, Edward J Woodford, Wafa Amir, Thomas A Planchon, Kristi L Kiick, Robert E Akins
Arteries for bypass grafting are harvested either with neighboring tissue attached or as skeletonized vessels that are free of surrounding tissue. There are significant benefits to skeletonization, but reports suggest that skeletonized vessels may develop structural defects and are at risk for atherosclerosis. We investigated the specific short-term effects of skeletonization on carotid artery biomechanics and microanatomy in a rabbit model. Six carotid arteries were surgically skeletonized. To support healing, three of these received polyethylene glycol hydrogel injected along their exterior surfaces...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932819/iga-and-igm-protein-primarily-drive-plasma-corona-induced-adhesion-reduction-of-plga-nanoparticles-in-human-blood-flow
#20
Daniel J Sobczynski, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
The high abundance of immunoglobulins (Igs) in the plasma protein corona on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) has previously been shown to reduce their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in human blood flow. However, the relative role of individual Ig classes (e.g., IgG, IgA, and IgM) in causing adhesion reduction remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the influence of specific Ig classes in prescribing the binding efficiency of PLGA nano-sized VTCs in blood flow...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
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