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Wellcome Open Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191184/reaching-a-consensus-on-research-priorities-for-supporting-women-with-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases-during-pre-conception-pregnancy-and-early-parenting-a-nominal-group-technique-exercise-with-lay-and-professional-stakeholders
#1
Rhiannon Phillips, Denitza Williams, Daniel Bowen, Delyth Morris, Aimee Grant, Bethan Pell, Julia Sanders, Ann Taylor, Ernest Choy, Adrian Edwards
Background: Women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) find it difficult to get information and support with family planning, pregnancy, and early parenting. A systematic approach to prioritising research is required to accelerate development and evaluation of interventions to meet the complex needs of this population.  Methods: A Nominal Group Technique (NGT) exercise was carried out with lay and professional stakeholders (n=29). Stakeholders were prepared for debate through presentation of available evidence...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191183/pulmonary-epithelial-barrier-and-immunological-functions-at-birth-and-in-early-life-key-determinants-of-the-development-of-asthma-a-description-of-the-protocol-for-the-breathing-together-study
#2
Steve Turner, Adnan Custovic, Peter Ghazal, Jonathan Grigg, Mindy Gore, John Henderson, Clare M Lloyd, Ben Marsland, Ultan F Power, Graham Roberts, Sejal Saglani, Jurgen Schwarze, Michael Shields, Andrew Bush
Background.   Childhood asthma is a common complex condition whose aetiology is thought to involve gene-environment interactions in early life occurring at the airway epithelium, associated with immune dysmaturation.  It is not clear if abnormal airway epithelium cell (AEC) and cellular immune system functions associated with asthma are primary or secondary.  To explore this, we will (i) recruit a birth cohort and observe the evolution of respiratory symptoms; (ii) recruit children with and without asthma symptoms; and (iii) use existing data from children in established STELAR birth cohorts...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191182/balancing-science-and-political-economy-tobacco-control-and-global-health
#3
Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Janelle Winters, Genevie Fernandes, Devi Sridhar
Background : Global tobacco control is a major public health issue, as smoking-related disease burden remains high worldwide. The World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO) are the driving forces in global tobacco control. However, little research has focused on their development, financing, decision-making, and accountability structures. Methods : We used two strategies to identify the development and structure of global tobacco control initiatives. First, we reviewed the published literature through electronic databases...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175249/daytime-variation-in-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-kinetics-following-liver-transplant
#4
Xiaodong Zhuang, Alvina G Lai, Jane A McKeating, Ian Rowe, Peter Balfe
Background: There is a growing interest in the role of circadian regulated pathways in disease pathogenesis. Methods: In a cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients undergoing liver transplantation, we observed differences in early viral infection kinetics of the allograft that associated with the time of liver transplant. Results: A higher frequency of subjects transplanted in the morning showed a rebound in viral RNA levels (n=4/6) during the first week post-surgery. In contrast, no viral rebound was observed in seven subjects transplanted in the afternoon...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175248/spekcheck-fluorescence-microscopy-spectral-visualisation-and-optimisation-a-web-application-javascript-library-and-data-resource
#5
Mick A Phillips, David M Susano Pinto, Ian M Dobbie
Advanced fluorescence imaging methods require careful matching of excitation sources, dichroics, emission filters, detectors, and dyes to operate at their best. This complex task is often left to guesswork, preventing optimal dye:filter combinations, particularly for multicolour applications. To overcome this challenge we developed SPEKcheck, a web application to visualise the efficiency of the light path in a fluorescence microscope. The software reports values for the excitation efficiency of a dye, the collection efficiency of the emitted fluorescence, and a "brightness" score, allowing easy comparison between different fluorescent labels...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175247/surveillance-of-respiratory-viruses-in-the-outpatient-setting-in-rural-coastal-kenya-baseline-epidemiological-observations
#6
Joyce Uchi Nyiro, Patrick Munywoki, Everlyn Kamau, Charles Agoti, Alex Gichuki, Timothy Etyang, Grieven Otieno, D James Nokes
Background: Endemic and seasonally recurring respiratory viruses are a major cause of disease and death globally. The burden is particularly severe in developing countries. Improved understanding of the source of infection, pathways of spread and persistence in communities would be of benefit in devising intervention strategies. Methods: We report epidemiological data obtained through surveillance of respiratory viruses at nine outpatient health facilities within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Kilifi County, coastal Kenya, between January and December 2016...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175246/tranexamic-acid-for-significant-traumatic-brain-injury-the-crash-3-trial-statistical-analysis-plan-for-an-international-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Ian Roberts, Antonio Belli, Amy Brenner, Rizwana Chaudhri, Bukola Fawole, Tim Harris, Rashid Jooma, Abda Mahmood, Temitayo Shokunbi, Haleema Shakur
Background: Worldwide, traumatic brain injury (TBI) kills or hospitalises over 10 million people each year. Early intracranial bleeding is common after TBI, increasing the risk of death and disability. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in surgery and death due to bleeding in trauma patients with extra-cranial injury. Early administration of tranexamic acid in TBI patients might limit intracranial bleeding, reducing death and disability. The CRASH-3 trial aims to provide reliable evidence on the effect of tranexamic acid on death and disability in TBI patients...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175245/high-dose-oral-and-intravenous-rifampicin-for-improved-survival-from-adult-tuberculous-meningitis-a-phase-ii-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial-the-rift-study
#8
Fiona V Cresswell, Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Daniel Grint, Lindsey Te Brake, Abdul Musabire, Rachel R Atherton, Lillian Tugume, Conrad Muzoora, Robert Lukande, Mohammed Lamorde, Rob Aarnoutse, David Meya, David R Boulware, Alison M Elliott
Background : Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has 44% (95%CI 35-52%) in-hospital mortality with standard therapy in Uganda. Rifampicin, the cornerstone of TB therapy, has 70% oral bioavailability and ~10-20% cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration.  With current WHO-recommended TB treatment containing 8-12mg/kg rifampicin, CSF rifampicin exposures frequently fall below the minimal inhibitory concentration for M. tuberculosis . Two Indonesian phase II studies, the first investigating intravenous rifampicin 600mg and the second oral rifampicin ~30mg/kg, found the interventions were safe and resulted in significantly increased CSF rifampicin exposures and a reduction in 6-month mortality in the investigational arms...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175244/geographical-distribution-of-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-and-genetic-diversity-of-invading-population-of-ae-albopictus-in-the-republic-of-the-congo
#9
Basile Kamgang, Theodel A Wilson-Bahun, Helen Irving, Michael O Kusimo, Arsene Lenga, Charles S Wondji
Background: The arbovirus vector, Aedes albopictus, originating from Asia, has recently invaded African countries, including the Republic of the Congo, where it was associated with a chikungunya outbreak. Up until now, little was known about its distribution in relation to the native Aedes aegypti and how the invasion will modify the epidemiology of arboviral diseases. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the Republic of the Congo and explored the genetic diversity of the invading species, Ae...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175243/a-systematic-review-comparing-the-evidence-for-kidney-function-outcomes-between-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-for-type-2-diabetes
#10
Samantha V Wilkinson, Laurie A Tomlinson, Masao Iwagami, Heide A Stirnadel-Farrant, Liam Smeeth, Ian Douglas
Background : The development of kidney disease is a serious complication among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with substantially increased morbidity and mortality.  We aimed to summarise the current evidence for the relationship between treatments for type 2 diabetes and long-term kidney outcomes, by conducting a systematic search and review of relevant studies. Methods : We searched Medline, Embase and Web of Science, between 1st January 1980 and 15th May 2018 for published clinical trials and observational studies comparing two or more classes of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175242/experimental-huts-trial-of-the-efficacy-of-pyrethroids-piperonyl-butoxide-pbo-net-treatments-for-controlling-multi-resistant-populations-of-anopheles-funestus-s-s-in-kpom%C3%A3-southern-benin
#11
Romaric Akoton, Genevieve M Tchigossou, Innocent Djègbè, Akadiri Yessoufou, Michael Seun Atoyebi, Eric Tossou, Francis Zeukeng, Pelagie Boko, Helen Irving, Razack Adéoti, Jacob Riveron, Charles S Wondji, Kabirou Moutairou, Rousseau Djouaka
Background: Insecticides resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes limits Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) used for malaria control in Africa, especially Benin. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-efficacy of current LLINs in an area where An. funestus s.l. and An. gambiae have developed multi-resistance to insecticides, and to assess in experimental huts the performance of a mixed combination of pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) treated nets on these resistant mosquitoes. Methods: The study was conducted at Kpomè, Southern Benin...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175241/the-icr639-cpg-ngs-validation-series-a-resource-to-assess-analytical-sensitivity-of-cancer-predisposition-gene-testing
#12
Shazia Mahamdallie, Elise Ruark, Esty Holt, Emma Poyastro-Pearson, Anthony Renwick, Ann Strydom, Sheila Seal, Nazneen Rahman
The analytical sensitivity of a next generation sequencing (NGS) test reflects the ability of the test to detect real sequence variation. The evaluation of analytical sensitivity relies on the availability of gold-standard, validated, benchmarking datasets. For NGS analysis the availability of suitable datasets has been limited. Most laboratories undertake small scale evaluations using in-house data, and/or rely on in silico generated datasets to evaluate the performance of NGS variant detection pipelines. Cancer predisposition genes (CPGs), such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 , are amongst the most widely tested genes in clinical practice today...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175240/establishment-of-a-method-for-lutzomyia-longipalpis-sand-fly-embryo-microinjection-the-first-step-towards-potential-novel-control-strategies-for-leishmaniasis
#13
Claire L Jeffries, Matthew E Rogers, Thomas Walker
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies that affects 1.3 million people across 98 countries, with limited control strategies due to the lack of an available vaccine and the emergence of insecticide resistance.  Novel control strategies that are being explored for mosquito-borne diseases, such as Wolbachia bacterial inhibition of pathogens and genetically modified insects (e.g. using CRISPR-Cas9 editing), rely on the ability to consistently inject embryos of the target species...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175239/mainstreaming-as-rhetoric-or-reality-gender-and-global-health-at-the-world-bank
#14
Janelle Winters, Genevie Fernandes, Lauren McGivern, Devi Sridhar
Background: Over the past decade gender mainstreaming has gained visibility at global health organisations. The World Bank, one of the largest funders of global health activities, released two World Development Reports showcasing its gender policies, and recently announced a $1 billion initiative for women's entrepreneurship. However, the development of the Bank's gender policies and its financing for gender programmes have never been systematically analysed by external researchers in the context of global health...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175238/meta-analysis-of-exome-array-data-identifies-six-novel-genetic-loci-for-lung-function
#15
Victoria E Jackson, Jeanne C Latourelle, Louise V Wain, Albert V Smith, Megan L Grove, Traci M Bartz, Ma'en Obeidat, Michael A Province, Wei Gao, Beenish Qaiser, David J Porteous, Patricia A Cassano, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Niels Grarup, Jin Li, Elisabeth Altmaier, Jonathan Marten, Sarah E Harris, Ani Manichaikul, Tess D Pottinger, Ruifang Li-Gao, Allan Lind-Thomsen, Anubha Mahajan, Lies Lahousse, Medea Imboden, Alexander Teumer, Bram Prins, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Nora Franceschini, Colleen M Sitlani, Jennifer A Brody, Yohan Bossé, Wim Timens, Aldi Kraja, Anu Loukola, Wenbo Tang, Yongmei Liu, Jette Bork-Jensen, Johanne M Justesen, Allan Linneberg, Leslie A Lange, Rajesh Rawal, Stefan Karrasch, Jennifer E Huffman, Blair H Smith, Gail Davies, Kristin M Burkart, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Tobias N Bonten, Stefan Enroth, Lars Lind, Guy G Brusselle, Ashish Kumar, Beate Stubbe, Mika Kähönen, Annah B Wyss, Bruce M Psaty, Susan R Heckbert, Ke Hao, Taina Rantanen, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Kurt Lohman, Tea Skaaby, Charlotta Pisinger, Torben Hansen, Holger Schulz, Ozren Polasek, Archie Campbell, John M Starr, Stephen S Rich, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Åsa Johansson, Erik Ingelsson, André G Uitterlinden, Stefan Weiss, Olli T Raitakari, Vilmundur Gudnason, Kari E North, Sina A Gharib, Don D Sin, Kent D Taylor, George T O'Connor, Jaakko Kaprio, Tamara B Harris, Oluf Pederson, Henrik Vestergaard, James G Wilson, Konstantin Strauch, Caroline Hayward, Shona Kerr, Ian J Deary, R Graham Barr, Renée de Mutsert, Ulf Gyllensten, Andrew P Morris, M Arfan Ikram, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Sven Gläser, Eleftheria Zeggini, Terho Lehtimäki, David P Strachan, Josée Dupuis, Alanna C Morrison, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin, Stephanie J London
Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1 /FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167467/complete-assembly-of-a-dengue-virus-type-3-genome-from-a-recent-genotype-iii-clade-by-metagenomic-sequencing-of-serum
#16
Mary Dias, Chitra Pattabiraman, Shilpa Siddappa, Malali Gowda, Anita Shet, Derek Smith, Barbara Muehlemann, Krishnapriya Tamma, Tom Solomon, Terry Jones, Sudhir Krishna
Background: Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), cause life-threatening diseases, particularly in the tropics. Methods: Here we performed unbiased metagenomic sequencing of RNA extracted from the serum of four patients and the plasma of one patient, all hospitalized at a tertiary care centre in South India with severe or prolonged febrile illness, together with the serum from one healthy control, in 2014. Results: We identified and assembled a complete dengue virus type 3 sequence from a case of severe dengue fever...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123849/know-your-heart-rationale-design-and-conduct-of-a-cross-sectional-study-of-cardiovascular-structure-function-and-risk-factors-in-4500-men-and-women-aged-35-69-years-from-two-russian-cities-2015-18
#17
Sarah Cook, Sofia Malyutina, Alexander V Kudryavtsev, Maria Averina, Natalia Bobrova, Sergey Boytsov, Soren Brage, Taane G Clark, Ernest Diez Benavente, Anne Elise Eggen, Laila A Hopstock, Alun Hughes, Heidi Johansen, Kamila Kholmatova, Anastasiya Kichigina, Anna Kontsevaya, Michael Kornev, Darryl Leong, Per Magnus, Ellisiv Mathiesen, Martin McKee, Katy Morgan, Odd Nilssen, Ilya Plakhov, Jennifer K Quint, Alicja Rapala, Andrey Ryabikov, Lyudmila Saburova, Henrik Schirmer, Marina Shapkina, Suhail Shiekh, Vladimir M Shkolnikov, Michael Stylidis, Michael Voevoda, Kate Westgate, David A Leon
Russia has one of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease in the world. The International Project on Cardiovascular Disease in Russia (IPCDR) was set up to understand the reasons for this. A substantial component of this study was the Know Your Heart Study devoted to characterising the nature and causes of cardiovascular disease in Russia by conducting large cross-sectional surveys in two Russian cities Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The study population was 4542 men and women aged 35-69 years recruited from the general population...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116791/smartphones-for-community-health-in-rural-cambodia-a-feasibility-study
#18
Pengby Ngor, Lisa J White, Jeremy Chalk, Yoel Lubell, Cecelia Favede, Phaik-Yeong Cheah, Chea Nguon, Po Ly, Richard J Maude, Siv Sovannaroth, Nicholas P Day, Susanna Dunachie
Background: Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) are lay people trained to provide a valuable role in frontline testing and treatment of malaria in rural villages in Cambodia. Emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria highlights the essential role of such VMWs in surveillance and early treatment of malaria. Smartphone technology offers huge potential to support VMWs in isolated and resource-poor settings.  Methods: We investigated the feasibility of issuing established VMWs with a smartphone, bespoke Android application and solar charger to support their role...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116790/translation-of-a-community-palliative-care-intervention-experience-from-west-bengal-india
#19
Devi Vijay, Shahaduz Zaman, David Clark
Background : The community form of palliative care first constructed in Kerala, India has gained recognition worldwide. Although it is the subject of important claims about its replicability elsewhere, little effort has gone into studying how this might occur. Drawing on translation studies, we attend to under-examined aspects of the transfer of a community palliative care intervention into a new geographic and institutional context. Methods : Over a period of 29 months, we conducted an in-depth case study of Sanjeevani, a community-based palliative care organization in Nadia district, West Bengal (India), that is modelled on the Kerala approach...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079380/distinct-transcriptional-responses-of-mouse-sensory-neurons-in-models-of-human-chronic-pain-conditions
#20
M A Bangash, Sascha R A Alles, Sonia Santana-Varela, Queensta Millet, Shafaq Sikandar, Larissa de Clauser, Freija Ter Heegde, Abdella M Habib, Vanessa Pereira, Jane E Sexton, Edward C Emery, Shengnan Li, Ana P Luiz, Janka Erdos, Samuel J Gossage, Jing Zhao, James J Cox, John N Wood
Background: Sensory neurons play an essential role in almost all pain conditions, and have recently been classified into distinct subsets on the basis of their transcriptomes. Here we have analysed alterations in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) gene expression using microarrays in mouse models related to human chronic pain. Methods: Six different pain models were studied in male C57BL/6J mice: (1) bone cancer pain using cancer cell injection in the intramedullary space of the femur; (2) neuropathic pain using partial sciatic nerve ligation; (3) osteoarthritis pain using mechanical joint loading; (4) chemotherapy-induced pain with oxaliplatin; (5) chronic muscle pain using hyperalgesic priming; and (6) inflammatory pain using intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
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