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Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology

Nicholas J Emery, Sagardip Majumder, Allen P Liu
Point-of-care molecular diagnostic tests show great promise for providing accurate, timely results in low-infrastructure healthcare settings and at home. The design space for these tests is limited by a variety of possible background reactions, which often originate from relatively weak promiscuous activities of the enzymes used for nucleic acid amplification. When this background signal is amplified alongside the signal of the intended biomarker, the dynamic range of the test can be severely compromised. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of potential side reactions arising from enzyme promiscuity can improve rational design of point-of-care molecular diagnostic tests...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Qiuzhen Wang, Huike Ye, Biswarup Sen, Yunxuan Xie, Yaodong He, Sunghoon Park, Guangyi Wang
Thraustochytrids, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6ω3), represent a potential source of dietary fatty acids. Yet, the effect of culture conditions on growth and fatty acid composition vary widely among different thraustochytrid strains. Two different thraustochytrid strains, Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were studied for their growth and DHA production characteristics under various culture conditions. Although they exhibited similar fatty acid profiles, PKU#Mn4 seemed a good candidate for industrial DHA fermentation while PKU#Mn16 displayed growth tolerance to a wide range of process conditions...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Hong Zhang, Chiajung Yeh, Zonglian Jin, Liwei Ding, Bryan Y Liu, Li Zhang, H Kathleen Dannelly
The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Rosalind A Le Feuvre, Nigel S Scrutton
Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Ryohei Narumi, Keiko Masuda, Takeshi Tomonaga, Jun Adachi, Hiroki R Ueda, Yoshihiro Shimizu
High-sensitivity mass spectrometry approaches using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods are powerful tools for targeted quantitative proteomics-based investigation of dynamics in specific biological systems. Both high-sensitivity detection of low-abundance proteins and their quantification using this technique employ stable isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. Currently, there are various ways for preparing standards, including chemical peptide synthesis, cellular protein expression, and cell-free protein or peptide synthesis...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Lihong Jiang, Jiarun Zhao, Jiazhang Lian, Zhinan Xu
Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have facilitated the manufacturing of many valuable-added compounds and commodity chemicals using microbial cell factories in the past decade. However, due to complexity of cellular metabolism, the optimization of metabolic pathways for maximal production represents a grand challenge and an unavoidable barrier for metabolic engineering. Recently, cell-free protein synthesis system (CFPS) has been emerging as an enabling alternative to address challenges in biomanufacturing...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Jian Li, Lingkai Zhang, Wanqiu Liu
Natural products with significant biological activities continuously act as rich sources for drug discovery and development. To harness the potential of these valuable compounds, robust methods need to be developed for their rapid and sustainable production. Cell-free biosynthesis of pharmaceutical natural products by in vitro reconstruction of the entire biosynthetic pathways represents one such solution. In this review, we focus on in vitro biosynthesis of two important classes of natural products, polyketides (PKs) and nonribosomal peptides (NRPs)...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Aman S Imani, Michael F Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Xiaoli Yan, Benyin Zhang, Wenya Tian, Qi Dai, Xiaoqin Zheng, Ke Hu, Xinxin Liu, Zixin Deng, Xudong Qu
Natural product discovery is pivot for drug development, however, this endeavor is often challenged by the wide inactivation or silence of natural products biosynthetic pathways. We recently developed a highly efficient approach to activate cryptic/silenced biosynthetic pathways through augmentation of the phosphopantetheinylation of carrier proteins. By applying this approach in the Streptomyces alboniger NRRL B-1832, we herein identified three cryptic nucleosides products, including one known puromycin A and two new derivatives (puromycin B and C)...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Felix R H Jonas, Kate E Royle, Rochelle Aw, Guy-Bart V Stan, Karen M Polizzi
Adaptation allows organisms to maintain a constant internal environment, which is optimised for growth. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an example of a feedback loop that maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, and is characteristic of how adaptation is often mediated by transcriptional networks. The more recent discovery of asymmetric division in maintaining ER homeostasis, however, is an example of how alternative non-transcriptional pathways can exist, but are overlooked by gold standard transcriptomic or proteomic population-based assays...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Paul N Schwarz, Luisa Roller, Andreas Kulik, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Evi Stegmann
The isoprenoid brasilicardin A is a promising immunosuppressant compound with a unique mode of action, high potency and reduced toxicity compared to today's standard drugs. However, production of brasilicardin has been hampered since the producer strain Nocardia terpenica IFM0406 synthesizes brasilicardin in only low amounts and is a biosafety level 2 organism. Previously, we were able to heterologously express the brasilicardin gene cluster in the nocardioform actinomycete Amycolatopsis japonicum. Four brasilicardin congeners, intermediates of the BraA biosynthesis, were produced...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Shiwen Wu, Zhen Fan, Youli Xiao
Qian ceng Ta , the whole plant of Huperzia serrata , is an important landscape and medicinal herbs and contains abundant bioactive lycopodium alkaloids. Although the structures of more than 100 lycopodium alkaloids in Huperzia serrata have been isolated and identified, the content and distribution of these alkaloids in different tissues are still unclear. In current study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based comprehensive metabolomics strategy was developed, including the extraction, separation, identification, and statistical analysis...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Alicia Berard, Andrea Kroeker, Peter McQueen, Kevin M Coombs
All cellular functions, ranging from regular cell maintenance and homeostasis, specialized functions specific to cellular types, or generating responses due to external stimulus, are mediated by proteins within the cell. Regulation of these proteins allows the cell to alter its behavior under different circumstances. A major mechanism of protein regulation is utilizing protein kinases and phosphatases; enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphates between substrates [1]. Proteins involved in phosphate signaling are well studied and include kinases and phosphatases that catalyze opposing reactions regulating both structure and function of the cell...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Kevin B Reed, Hal S Alper
Metabolic engineering offers an exquisite capacity to produce new molecules in a renewable manner. However, most industrial applications have focused on only a small subset of elements from the periodic table, centered around carbon biochemistry. This review aims to illustrate the expanse of chemical elements that can currently (and potentially) be integrated into useful products using cellular systems. Specifically, we describe recent advances in expanding the cellular scope to include the halogens, selenium and the metalloids, and a variety of metal incorporations...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Glycosylated lipids (GLs) are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Hal S Alper, José L Avalos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Andreas Domröse, Robin Weihmann, Stephan Thies, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Thomas Drepper, Anita Loeschcke
Microbial secondary metabolites represent a rich source of valuable compounds with a variety of applications in medicine or agriculture. Effective exploitation of this wealth of chemicals requires the functional expression of the respective biosynthetic genes in amenable heterologous hosts. We have previously established the TREX system which facilitates the transfer, integration and expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in various bacterial hosts. Here, we describe the yTREX system, a new tool adapted for one-step yeast recombinational cloning of gene clusters...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Qinqin Zhao, Huixin Xie, Yao Peng, Xinran Wang, Linquan Bai
The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is commercially produced by Actinoplanes sp. and used as a potent drug in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. In order to improve the yield of acarbose, an efficient genetic manipulation system for Actinoplanes sp. was established. The conjugation system between E. coli carrying ØC31-derived integrative plasmids and the mycelia of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 was optimized by adjusting the parameters of incubation time of mixed culture (mycelia and E. coli ), quantity of recipient cells, donor-to-recipient ratio and the concentration of MgCl2 , which resulted in a high conjugation efficiency of 29...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Erqing Jin, Lynn Wong, Yun Jiao, Jake Engel, Benjamin Holdridge, Peng Xu
Engineering cell factories for producing biofuels and pharmaceuticals has spurred great interests to develop rapid and efficient synthetic biology tools customized for modular pathway engineering. Along the way, combinatorial gene expression control through modification of regulatory element offered tremendous opportunity for fine-tuning gene expression and generating digital-like genetic circuits. In this report, we present an efficient evolutionary approach to build a range of regulatory control elements...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Kanchana Rueksomtawin Kildegaard, Belén Adiego-Pérez, David Doménech Belda, Jaspreet Kaur Khangura, Carina Holkenbrink, Irina Borodina
Astaxanthin is a red-colored carotenoid, used as food and feed additive. Astaxanthin is mainly produced by chemical synthesis, however, the process is expensive and synthetic astaxanthin is not approved for human consumption. In this study, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for de novo production of astaxanthin by fermentation. First, we screened 12 different Y. lipolytica isolates for β-carotene production by introducing two genes for β-carotene biosynthesis: bi-functional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase ( crtYB ) and phytoene desaturase ( crtI ) from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
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