Read by QxMD icon Read

Food and Energy Security

Graham A McAuliffe, Taro Takahashi, Michael R F Lee
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely regarded as a useful tool for comparing the environmental impacts of multiple livestock production systems. While LCA results are typically communicated in the form of environmental burdens per mass unit of the end product, it is increasingly becoming recognized that the product quality also needs to be accounted for to truly understand the value of a farming system to society. To date, a number of studies have examined environmental consequences of different food consumption patterns at the diet level; however, few have addressed nutritional variations of a single commodity attributable to production systems, leaving limited insight into how on-farm practices can be improved to better balance environment and human nutrition...
August 2018: Food and Energy Security
Amanda P De Souza, Stephen P Long
Despite the vast importance of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) for smallholder farmers in Africa, yields per unit land area have not increased over the past 55 years. Genetic engineering or breeding for increased photosynthetic efficiency may represent a new approach. This requires the understanding of limitations to photosynthesis within existing germplasm. Here, leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf carbon and nitrogen content, and nonstructural carbohydrates content and growth were analyzed in four high-yielding and farm-preferred African cultivars: two landraces (TME 7, TME 419) and two improved lines (TMS 98/0581 and TMS 30572)...
May 2018: Food and Energy Security
Tanya Y Curtis, Valeria Bo, Allan Tucker, Nigel G Halford
A detailed network describing asparagine metabolism in plants was constructed using published data from Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) maize ( Zea mays ), wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), pea ( Pisum sativum ), soybean ( Glycine max ), lupin ( Lupus albus ), and other species, including animals. Asparagine synthesis and degradation is a major part of amino acid and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The complexity of its metabolism, including limiting and regulatory factors, was represented in a logical sequence in a pathway diagram built using yED graph editor software...
February 2018: Food and Energy Security
David C Rose, Toby J A Bruce
Farmers require evidence-based guidance to make optimal decisions, enabling them to reduce costs by increasing the efficiency of input use. We discuss how decision support systems could be improved and made more useful for the farmer.
February 2018: Food and Energy Security
Gareth J Norton, Anthony J Travis, John M C Danku, David E Salt, Mahmud Hossain, Md Rafiqul Islam, Adam H Price
As the global population grows, demand on food production will also rise. For rice, one limiting factor effecting production could be availability of fresh water, hence adoption of techniques that decrease water usage while maintaining or increasing crop yield are needed. Alternative wetting and drying (AWD) is one of these techniques. AWD is a method by which the level of water within a rice field cycles between being flooded and nonflooded during the growth period of the rice crop. The degree to which AWD affects cultivars differently has not been adequately addressed to date...
August 2017: Food and Energy Security
Leena Tripathi, Howard Atkinson, Hugh Roderick, Jerome Kubiriba, Jaindra N Tripathi
Banana is an important staple food crop feeding more than 100 million Africans, but is subject to severe productivity constraints due to a range of pests and diseases. Banana Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is capable of entirely destroying a plantation while nematodes can cause losses up to 50% and increase susceptibility to other pests and diseases. Development of improved varieties of banana is fundamental in order to tackle these challenges. However, the sterile nature of the crop and the lack of resistance in Musa germplasm make improvement by traditional breeding techniques either impossible or extremely slow...
May 2017: Food and Energy Security
Kevin N Lindegaard, Paul W R Adams, Martin Holley, Annette Lamley, Annika Henriksson, Stig Larsson, Hans-Georg von Engelbrechten, Gonzalo Esteban Lopez, Marcin Pisarek
Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry...
August 2016: Food and Energy Security
Dionysios Touliatos, Ian C Dodd, Martin McAinsh
Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density...
August 2016: Food and energy security
Toby J A Bruce
A key global 21st century challenge is to maximize agricultural production while minimizing use of resources such as land, water, and energy to meet rising demand for produce. To meet this challenge, while also adapting to climate change, agriculture will have to become more knowledge intensive and deploy smarter farming techniques. The intention of this study was to: (1) Highlight the opportunity for web-based knowledge exchange to increase farm productivity and thus contribute to achieving food and energy security, (2) Give some examples of online farming information services such as the "CROPROTECT" tool I am developing in the UK, the CABI "Plantwise" Knowledge Bank and the IRRI "Rice Doctor," and (3) Consider lessons learnt so far...
May 2016: Food and Energy Security
Iain S Donnison, Mariecia D Fraser
Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities...
May 2016: Food and Energy Security
Qingfeng Song, Chengcai Chu, Martin A J Parry, Xin-Guang Zhu
Improving canopy photosynthetic light use efficiency instead of leaf photosynthesis holds great potential to catalyze the next "green revolution". However, leaves in a canopy experience different biochemical limitations due to the heterogeneities of microclimates and also physiological parameters. Mechanistic dynamic systems models of canopy photosynthesis are now available which can be used to design the optimal canopy architectural and physiological parameters to maximize CO 2 uptake. Rapid development of modern crop genetics research now makes it possible to link such canopy models with genetic variations of crops to develop genetics-based dynamic systems models of canopy photosynthesis...
February 2016: Food and Energy Security
Athole H Marshall, Rosemary P Collins, Mike W Humphreys, John Scullion
Grasslands cover a significant proportion of the agricultural land within the UK and across the EU, providing a relatively cheap source of feed for ruminants and supporting the production of meat, wool and milk from grazing animals. Delivering efficient animal production from grassland systems has traditionally been the primary focus of grassland-based research. But there is increasing recognition of the ecological and environmental benefits of these grassland systems and the importance of the interaction between their component plants and a host of other biological organisms in the soil and in adjoining habitats...
February 2016: Food and Energy Security
Peter R Shewry, Sandra J Hey
Wheat is the most important staple crop in temperate zones and is in increasing demand in countries undergoing urbanization and industrialization. In addition to being a major source of starch and energy, wheat also provides substantial amounts of a number of components which are essential or beneficial for health, notably protein, vitamins (notably B vitamins), dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Of these, wheat is a particularly important source of dietary fiber, with bread alone providing 20% of the daily intake in the UK, and well-established relationships between the consumption of cereal dietary fiber and reduced risk of cardio-vascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and forms of cancer (notably colo-rectal cancer)...
October 2015: Food and Energy Security
Huw D Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Food and Energy Security
Katharine R Howell, Pitambar Shrestha, Ian C Dodd
Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation can save water while maintaining rice yields, but in some countries its adoption by farmers remains limited. Key knowledge gaps include the effect of AWD on early vegetative vigor and its relationship with yield; the effects of AWD on yield and water use efficiency of local cultivars used by smallholder farmers; and the socio-economic factors influencing current irrigation scheduling. To address these questions, an on-farm field trial of dry-season (chaite) rice, comparing two locally important cultivars (Hardinath-1 and CH-45) under AWD imposed from 1 week after transplanting to flowering and continuous flooding (CF), was carried out in Agyauli in the central Terai region of Nepal, and triangulated with social research methods exploring the rationale for current irrigation scheduling and perceptions of AWD...
July 2015: Food and Energy Security
Ian Mackay, Eric Ober, John Hickey
GplusE is a strategy for genomic selection in which the accuracy of assessment in the reference population for a primary trait such as yield is increased by the incorporation of data from high- throughput field phenotyping platforms. This increase in precision comes from both exploiting genetic relationships between traits and reducing the effect of environmental influences upon them. We describe a collaborative project among researchers and breeders to develop a large reference population of elite UK wheat lines...
April 2015: Food and Energy Security
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"