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Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)

David P Hickey, Erin M Gaffney, Shelley D Minteer
In biological systems, the majority of chemistry occurs in enzymatic pathways. Pathways are essentially cascades of protein catalysts used for catabolism or metabolism. However, in cellular-free systems, catalytic cascades have been rarely studied until recently. This review will introduce the lessons that can be learned from in vivo enzymatic pathways and novel enzymatic pathways that have been developed for synthetic biology of electrochemical energy production and conversion. This review will also discuss the recent bio-inspired developments to utilize catalytic cascades for non-biological applications ranging from energy conversion to biosensing and the electrochemical production of important chemicals such as methanol from carbon dioxide and ammonia from agricultural waste runoff...
November 3, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Ke Ye, Gang Wang, Dianxue Cao, Guoxiong Wang
This paper provides an overview of recent advances in urea electro-oxidation. Urea sources are abundant from human urine, urea-containing wastewater, and industrial urea, thus becoming an attractive option as anodic fuel for the application in direct urea fuel cells (DUFCs). Besides, as a hydrogen-rich chemical fuel, urea can also be electrolyzed to produce hydrogen for energy storage in the near future. The exact mechanisms of urea decomposition are pretty different in alkaline or neutral mediums and are separately discussed in detail...
October 26, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Wenlei Zhu, Brian M Tackett, Jingguang G Chen, Feng Jiao
The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has caused various environmental issues. Utilizing CO2 as the carbon feedstock to replace traditional fossil sources in commodity chemical production is a potential solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 has attracted much attention because it not only converts CO2 into a variety of useful chemicals under mild reaction conditions, but also can be powered by renewable electricity at remote locations. From this review article, we summarize recent literature on the topic of bimetallic electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction...
October 26, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Hajar Hosseini, Mohammad Bayat
Use of cyanoacetohydrazides as precursors in reactions leading to construction of heterocycles is reviewed. In addition to some common heterocyclic compounds, synthesis of other uncommon heterocycles such as thiadiazole, oxadiazole, fused heterocycles, and some seven- and eight-membered heterocycles such as benzodiazepine, oxazepine, and benzoxocine starting with cyanoacetohydrazides and their derivatives is also reported. The main aim of this review is to show the application of cyanoacetohydrazides in heterocyclic synthesis via different types of reaction, including cyclocondensation and cyclization...
October 11, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Akram Hosseinian, Sheida Ahmadi, Fatemeh Alsadat Hosseini Nasab, Robab Mohammadi, Esmail Vessally
Carbon-sulfur bond formation represents a key step in the synthesis of thioethers, which are a common structural motif in many pharmaceutically compounds. The direct cross-dehydrogenative coupling of C-H/S-H bonds has become a powerful tool for C-S bond formation. As these coupling reactions avoid pre-functionalization of the starting materials, they are more atom-economical, practical, and environmentally friendly than traditional cross-coupling reactions. In this review, we will highlight the most important developments in this novel and interesting research arena with the emphasis on the mechanistic aspects of the reactions...
October 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Klaus Schaper, Thomas J J Müller
Thiophenes occur as important building blocks in natural products, pharmaceutical active compounds, and in materials for electronic and opto-electronic devices. Therefore, there is a considerable demand for efficient synthetic strategies for producing these compounds. This review focuses on ring-forming multicomponent reactions for synthesizing thiophenes and their derivatives.
September 17, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Hyunwook Song
Molecular transistors, in which single molecules serve as active channel components in a three-terminal device geometry, constitute the building blocks of molecular scale electronic circuits. To demonstrate such devices, a gate electrode has been incorporated in several test beds of molecular electronics. The frontier orbitals' alignments of a molecular transistor can be delicately tuned by modifying the molecular orbital energy with the gate electrode. In this review, we described electrostatic gate control of solid-state molecular transistors...
September 8, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
S Van den Bosch, S-F Koelewijn, T Renders, G Van den Bossche, T Vangeel, W Schutyser, B F Sels
Lignin valorization represents a crucial, yet underexploited component in current lignocellulosic biorefineries. An alluring opportunity is the selective depolymerization of lignin towards chemicals. Although challenged by lignin's recalcitrant nature, several successful (catalytic) strategies have emerged. This review provides an overview of different approaches to cope with detrimental lignin structural alterations at an early stage of the biorefinery process, thus enabling effective routes towards lignin-derived chemicals...
August 27, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Tiago Buckup, Jérémie Léonard
Multidimensional vibrational coherence spectroscopy has been part of laser spectroscopy since the 1990s and its role in several areas of science has continuously been increasing. In this contribution, after introducing the principals of vibrational coherence spectroscopy (VCS), we review the three most widespread experimental methods for multidimensional VCS (multi-VCS), namely femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, pump-impulsive vibrational spectroscopy, and pump-degenerate four wave-mixing. Focus is given to the generation and typical analysis of the respective signals in the time and spectral domains...
August 24, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
A Sajeli Begum, S Santhosh Kumar
Coumarinolignans (CLs) are a group of non-conventional lignans having coumarins and phenyl propanes as two C6 C3 units linked commonly through a dioxane bridge. The research findings during Jan 2008-May 2018 on this group of secondary metabolites describing their occurrence, structural characteristics, large-scale preparation, synthesis, derivatives, pharmacological activities, and structure-activity relationship are presented in this review. Around 38 CLs have been isolated from 40 plant species belonging to 20 different families during the review period...
August 2, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Alexander M Puziy, Olga I Poddubnaya, Olena Sevastyanova
Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is generated in enormous amounts during the pulp production. It is also a major coproduct of second generation biofuels. The effective utilization of lignin is critical for the accelerated development of the advanced cellulosic biorefinery. Low cost and availability of lignin make it attractive precursor for preparation of a range of carbon materials, including activated carbons, activated carbon fibers (CF), structural CF, graphitic carbons or carbon black that could be used for environmental protection, as catalysts, in energy storage applications or as reinforcing components in advanced composite materials...
July 11, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Elias Feghali, Kirk M Torr, Daniel J van de Pas, Pablo Ortiz, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, Walter Eevers, Richard Vendamme
Lignin is the most abundant source of renewable ready-made aromatic chemicals for making sustainable polymers. However, the structural heterogeneity, high polydispersity, limited chemical functionality and solubility of most technical lignins makes them challenging to use in developing new bio-based polymers. Recently, greater focus has been given to developing polymers from low molecular weight lignin-based building blocks such as lignin monomers or lignin-derived bio-oils that can be obtained by chemical depolymerization of lignins...
July 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Toshiaki Murai
The current section presents an overview of the fundamental aspects of thiocarbonyl compounds, such as thioaldehydes and thioketones. Firstly, a theoretical approach and a physical-organic experimental approach disclose their properties. Secondly, their synthetic reactions are introduced. Finally, a focus is given to their synthetic applications, including nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions, as well as concerted reactions.
July 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Thijs Vangeel, Wouter Schutyser, Tom Renders, Bert F Sels
Lignin valorization has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Being the world's largest source of renewable aromatics, its valorization could pave the way towards more profitable and more sustainable lignocellulose biorefineries. Many lignin valorization strategies focus on the disassembly of lignin into aromatic monomers, which can serve as platform molecules for the chemical industry. Within this framework, the oxidative conversion of lignin is of great interest because it enables the formation of highly functionalized, valuable compounds...
July 4, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Yuting Zhu, Jing Liu, Yuhe Liao, Wei Lv, Longlong Ma, Chenguang Wang
The preparation of vanillin from lignin is one of the lignin valorization strategies. However, obtaining high vanillin yield is still a challenge. Therefore, the process of vanillin production and factors that affect yield of vanillin has attracted much attention. Here, oxidation of vanillin was performed to study its degradation behavior under lignin alkaline oxidation conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and gel permeation chromatography were employed to analyze the products including monomers and dimers...
July 2, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Jan Philip Kraack, Tiago Buckup
The field of multidimensional laser spectroscopy comprises a variety of highly developed state-of-the-art methods, which exhibit broad prospects for applications in several areas of natural, material, and even medical sciences. This collection summarizes the main achievements from this area and gives basic introductory insight into what is currently possible with such methods. In the present introductory contribution, we briefly outline the general concept behind multidimensional laser spectroscopy, for instance by highlighting the often-employed analogy between multidimensional laser spectroscopy and NMR methods...
June 25, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Jing Zeng, Yan Liu, Wei Chen, Xiang Zhao, Lingkui Meng, Qian Wan
Carbohydrate chemistry has benefited a lot from the intrinsic reactivity of sulfoxide since it was introduced in glycosylation reactions by Kahne in 1989. Since then, extensive studies have been explored by employing sulfoxide as glycosyl donors and activation reagents in construction of glycosidic bonds. As glycosyl donors, the sulfinyl groups could locate either directly or remotely at anomeric position. This chapter focuses on the establishment and development of sulfoxides as glycosyl donors in glycosylation reactions, with an emphasis on their applications and postulated mechanisms...
June 12, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Mohammad Bayat, Zeinab Amiri
This review characterizes the multicomponent reactions of acenaphthoquinone as building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds with medicinal chemistry interest. There is a wide range of reactions that include acenaphthoquinone in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. Also this review gives an overview spirocyclic compounds has important applications in pharmacological during the period from 2000 to 2017. Spiro compounds having cyclic structures fused at a central carbon are of recent interest due to their interesting adjustable overall qualities and their structural implications on biological systems...
June 5, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Chin-Fa Lee, R Sidick Basha, Satpal Singh Badsara
Due to the versatile applications of thioethers and thioesters in organic synthesis, medicinal chemistry, the pharmaceutical industry, and materials science, recently the construction of C-S bonds has emerged as the forefront in the field of cross-coupling reactions. Enough progress has been made in this direction by using both metal catalysis and other alternative processes. A brief review of the recent developments in the area of C-S coupling reaction is described.
June 4, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Javier Segarra-Martí, Shaul Mukamel, Marco Garavelli, Artur Nenov, Ivan Rivalta
We introduce the basic concepts of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) and a general theoretical framework adopted to calculate, from first principles, the nonlinear response of multi-chromophoric systems in realistic environments. Specifically, we focus on UV-active chromophores representing the building blocks of biological systems, from proteins to nucleic acids, describing our progress in developing computational tools and protocols for accurate simulation of their 2DUV spectra. The roadmap for accurate 2DUV spectroscopy simulations is illustrated starting with benchmarking of the excited-state manifold of the chromophoric units in a vacuum, which can be used for building exciton Hamiltonians for large-scale applications or as a reference for first-principles simulations with reduced computational cost, enabling treatment of minimal (still realistic) multi-chromophoric model systems...
June 1, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
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