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Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)

Alexander M Puziy, Olga I Poddubnaya, Olena Sevastyanova
Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is generated in enormous amounts during the pulp production. It is also a major coproduct of second generation biofuels. The effective utilization of lignin is critical for the accelerated development of the advanced cellulosic biorefinery. Low cost and availability of lignin make it attractive precursor for preparation of a range of carbon materials, including activated carbons, activated carbon fibers (CF), structural CF, graphitic carbons or carbon black that could be used for environmental protection, as catalysts, in energy storage applications or as reinforcing components in advanced composite materials...
July 11, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Elias Feghali, Kirk M Torr, Daniel J van de Pas, Pablo Ortiz, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, Walter Eevers, Richard Vendamme
Lignin is the most abundant source of renewable ready-made aromatic chemicals for making sustainable polymers. However, the structural heterogeneity, high polydispersity, limited chemical functionality and solubility of most technical lignins makes them challenging to use in developing new bio-based polymers. Recently, greater focus has been given to developing polymers from low molecular weight lignin-based building blocks such as lignin monomers or lignin-derived bio-oils that can be obtained by chemical depolymerization of lignins...
July 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Toshiaki Murai
The current section presents an overview of the fundamental aspects of thiocarbonyl compounds, such as thioaldehydes and thioketones. Firstly, a theoretical approach and a physical-organic experimental approach disclose their properties. Secondly, their synthetic reactions are introduced. Finally, a focus is given to their synthetic applications, including nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions, as well as concerted reactions.
July 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Thijs Vangeel, Wouter Schutyser, Tom Renders, Bert F Sels
Lignin valorization has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Being the world's largest source of renewable aromatics, its valorization could pave the way towards more profitable and more sustainable lignocellulose biorefineries. Many lignin valorization strategies focus on the disassembly of lignin into aromatic monomers, which can serve as platform molecules for the chemical industry. Within this framework, the oxidative conversion of lignin is of great interest because it enables the formation of highly functionalized, valuable compounds...
July 4, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Yuting Zhu, Jing Liu, Yuhe Liao, Wei Lv, Longlong Ma, Chenguang Wang
The preparation of vanillin from lignin is one of the lignin valorization strategies. However, obtaining high vanillin yield is still a challenge. Therefore, the process of vanillin production and factors that affect yield of vanillin has attracted much attention. Here, oxidation of vanillin was performed to study its degradation behavior under lignin alkaline oxidation conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and gel permeation chromatography were employed to analyze the products including monomers and dimers...
July 2, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Jan Philip Kraack, Tiago Buckup
The field of multidimensional laser spectroscopy comprises a variety of highly developed state-of-the-art methods, which exhibit broad prospects for applications in several areas of natural, material, and even medical sciences. This collection summarizes the main achievements from this area and gives basic introductory insight into what is currently possible with such methods. In the present introductory contribution, we briefly outline the general concept behind multidimensional laser spectroscopy, for instance by highlighting the often-employed analogy between multidimensional laser spectroscopy and NMR methods...
June 25, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Jing Zeng, Yan Liu, Wei Chen, Xiang Zhao, Lingkui Meng, Qian Wan
Carbohydrate chemistry has benefited a lot from the intrinsic reactivity of sulfoxide since it was introduced in glycosylation reactions by Kahne in 1989. Since then, extensive studies have been explored by employing sulfoxide as glycosyl donors and activation reagents in construction of glycosidic bonds. As glycosyl donors, the sulfinyl groups could locate either directly or remotely at anomeric position. This chapter focuses on the establishment and development of sulfoxides as glycosyl donors in glycosylation reactions, with an emphasis on their applications and postulated mechanisms...
June 12, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Mohammad Bayat, Zeinab Amiri
This review characterizes the multicomponent reactions of acenaphthoquinone as building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds with medicinal chemistry interest. There is a wide range of reactions that include acenaphthoquinone in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. Also this review gives an overview spirocyclic compounds has important applications in pharmacological during the period from 2000 to 2017. Spiro compounds having cyclic structures fused at a central carbon are of recent interest due to their interesting adjustable overall qualities and their structural implications on biological systems...
June 5, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Chin-Fa Lee, R Sidick Basha, Satpal Singh Badsara
Due to the versatile applications of thioethers and thioesters in organic synthesis, medicinal chemistry, the pharmaceutical industry, and materials science, recently the construction of C-S bonds has emerged as the forefront in the field of cross-coupling reactions. Enough progress has been made in this direction by using both metal catalysis and other alternative processes. A brief review of the recent developments in the area of C-S coupling reaction is described.
June 4, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Javier Segarra-Martí, Shaul Mukamel, Marco Garavelli, Artur Nenov, Ivan Rivalta
We introduce the basic concepts of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) and a general theoretical framework adopted to calculate, from first principles, the nonlinear response of multi-chromophoric systems in realistic environments. Specifically, we focus on UV-active chromophores representing the building blocks of biological systems, from proteins to nucleic acids, describing our progress in developing computational tools and protocols for accurate simulation of their 2DUV spectra. The roadmap for accurate 2DUV spectroscopy simulations is illustrated starting with benchmarking of the excited-state manifold of the chromophoric units in a vacuum, which can be used for building exciton Hamiltonians for large-scale applications or as a reference for first-principles simulations with reduced computational cost, enabling treatment of minimal (still realistic) multi-chromophoric model systems...
June 1, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Akram Hosseinian, Sepideh Farshbaf, Leila Zare Fekri, Mohammad Nikpassand, Esmail Vessally
P(O)-X (X = S, N, O, P) bond-containing compounds have extensive application in medicinal chemistry, agrochemistry, and material chemistry. These useful organophosphorus compounds also have many applications in organic synthesis. In light of the importance of titled compounds, there is continuing interest in the development of synthetic methods for P(O)-X bonds construction. In the last 4 years, the direct coupling reaction of P(O)-H compounds with thiols, alcohols, and amines/amides has received much attention because of the atom-economic character...
May 26, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Richard S Glass
The present review highlights recent developments in the chemistry of sulfur radicals. Background material essential to the understanding of these developments is briefly reviewed and references to previous in depth reviews are cited. The exciting applications of current research involving sulfur radicals in bonding theory, organic synthesis, polymer chemistry, materials science, and biochemistry are outlined.
May 9, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Ayesha Khan, Vaishakh Nair, Juan Carlos Colmenares, Roger Gläser
Depleting conventional fuel reserves has prompted the demand for the exploration of renewable resources. Biomass is a widely available renewable resource that can be valorized to produce fuels, chemicals, and materials. Among all the fractions of biomass, lignin has been underutilized. Due to its complex structure, recalcitrant nature, and heterogeneity, its valorization is relatively challenging. This review focuses on the utilization of lignin for the preparation of composite materials and their application in the field of photocatalysis and photovoltaics...
May 2, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Anchal Singhal
Calixphyrins are hybrid macrocycles that contain both sp2 - and sp3 -hybridized carbon atoms and hence bear analogy to both porphyrins and calixpyrroles. Due to the presence of sp3 -hybridized carbon atoms, π-conjugation is disrupted in calixphyrins, which leads to conformational flexibility. Hence, these molecules find a use in anion binding, host-guest chemistry and metal-coordination chemistry. During the last decade, studies on calixphyrins have been a topic of wide interest to researchers. Various functionalities have been introduced to the structure of calixphyrins, leading to the development of expanded calixphyrins, core-modified calixphyrins and N-confused calixphyrins with diverse applications...
May 2, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Nav Nidhi Rajput, Trevor J Seguin, Brandon M Wood, Xiaohui Qu, Kristin A Persson
Fundamental molecular-level understanding of functional properties of liquid solutions provides an important basis for designing optimized electrolytes for numerous applications. In particular, exhaustive knowledge of solvation structure, stability, and transport properties is critical for developing stable electrolytes for fast-charging and high-energy-density next-generation energy storage systems. Accordingly, there is growing interest in the rational design of electrolytes for beyond lithium-ion systems by tuning the molecular-level interactions of solvate species present in the electrolytes...
April 26, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Francisco G Calvo-Flores, María José Monteagudo-Arrebola, José A Dobado, Joaquín Isac-García
Chemical reactions and many of the procedures of separation and purification employed in industry, research or chemistry teaching utilize solvents massively. In the last decades, with the birth of Green Chemistry, concerns about the employment of solvents and the effects on human health, as well as its environmental impacts and its dependence on non-renewable raw materials for manufacturing most of them, has drawn the attention of the scientific community. In this work, we review the concept of green solvent and the properties and characteristics to be considered green...
April 24, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Axel Groß
There is a strong need to improve the efficiency of electrochemical energy storage, but progress is hampered by significant technological and scientific challenges. This review describes the potential contribution of atomic-scale modeling to the development of more efficient batteries, with a particular focus on first-principles electronic structure calculations. Numerical and theoretical obstacles are discussed, along with ways to overcome them, and some recent examples are presented illustrating the insights into electrochemical energy storage that can be gained from quantum chemical studies...
April 23, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Johannes Kasnatscheew, Ralf Wagner, Martin Winter, Isidora Cekic-Laskovic
Energy storage is considered a key technology for successful realization of renewable energies and electrification of the powertrain. This review discusses the lithium ion battery as the leading electrochemical storage technology, focusing on its main components, namely electrode(s) as active and electrolyte as inactive materials. State-of-the-art (SOTA) cathode and anode materials are reviewed, emphasizing viable approaches towards advancement of the overall performance and reliability of lithium ion batteries; however, existing challenges are not neglected...
April 18, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
James D Neuhaus, Rik Oost, Jérémy Merad, Nuno Maulide
Traditionally employed in the synthesis of small ring systems and rearrangement chemistry, sulfur-based ylides occupy a unique position in the toolbox of the synthetic organic chemist. In recent years a number of pioneering researchers have looked to expand the application of these unorthodox reagents through the use of transition metal catalysis. The strength and flexibility of such a combination have been shown to be of key importance in developing powerful novel methodologies. This chapter summarises recent developments in transition metal-catalysed sulfonium/sulfoxonium ylide reactions, as well as providing a historical perspective...
April 13, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Shinya Otsuka, Keisuke Nogi, Hideki Yorimitsu
This review first briefly summarizes stoichiometric C-S bond activation by transition metal complexes and then focuses on catalytic synthetic reactions involving C-S bond activation.
April 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
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