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Veterinary Medicine and Science

Ganesh Adhikari, Krishna P Acharya, Mukul Upadhyay, Rabin Raut, Krishna Kaphle, Tanka Khanal, Miranda R Bertram, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Nepal and causes substantial economic losses in the livestock industry. The goal of this study was to perform an epidemiological analysis of FMD outbreaks reported to the Veterinary Epidemiology Center, Tripureshwor, Nepal during 2010-2015, in order to strengthen the National FMD Control Program. These current data were considered in the context of historical data on FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes detected in the country between 1965 and 2015. During 2010-2015, a total of 1333 livestock holdings reported FMD outbreaks in Nepal...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Martha J Lane, Alma F Roy, Michael T Kearney, Cherie M Pucheu-Haston
Relatively few studies have been published describing the patterns of staphylococcal isolation and antimicrobial resistance over time in cats. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency, location, characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of staphylococci isolated by the Louisiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2001 and 2014. All feline staphylococcal isolates were classified phenotypically. Isolates corresponding to known or possibly pathogenic species (Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA)) as well as Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) and non-speciated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were further evaluated to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Saam Torkan, Behnam Vazirian, Faham Khamesipour, Gabriel O Dida
Campylobacter is considered the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world with C. jejuni being regarded as the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. A broad range of other Campylobacter species, including C. coli have also been implicated in human gastroenteritis. This study sought to isolate, characterize and assess the antibiogram of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from faecal samples obtained from cats and dogs in Isfahan and Shahrekord cities in Iran. Faecal samples were collected from 100 pets comprising of 50 dogs and 50 cats from March 2015 to March 2016; incorporating the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter)...
August 31, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Halit Kanca, Gizem Tez, Kazim Bal, Dogukan Ozen, Eray Alcigir, Sevil Atalay Vural
Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a naturally occurring contagious neoplasm of dogs located mainly on the external genitalia of both sexes. The course of vincristine chemotherapy, the most effective and practical therapy, is affected by the immune status of the host. The aim was to investigate recombinant human interferon alpha-2a (rhIFNα-2a) and vincristine for treatment of CTVT. A total of 21 female dogs were included. In group I (n = 9), vincristine (0.025 mg/kg, IV) was administered weekly...
August 17, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Kaitlin M Curran, Shay Bracha, Carmen P Wong, Laura M Beaver, Jan F Stevens, Emily Ho
The role of epigenetic alterations during cancer has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of mechanisms leading to cancer susceptibility. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the precursor glucosinolate, glucoraphanin (GFN), which is found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. Sulforaphane has been shown to suppress tumour growth by several mechanisms including inhibiting histone deacetylases. The objective of this study was to provide a detailed analysis of sulforaphane absorption following a single oral dose of a broccoli sprout supplement in normal dogs...
August 17, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Lisa Flammini, Leonardo Mantelli, Alessandra Volpe, Giuseppe Domenichini, Rosanna Di Lecce, Maurizio Dondi, Anna Maria Cantoni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Fausto Quintavalla
Rifaximin is an unabsorbed oral antibiotic showing anti-inflammatory properties in human pathologies like irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In veterinary medicine, rifaximin is primarily used in the treatment of dermatological diseases in all animal species, in therapy and prophylaxis of mastitis in cows and in the treatment of endometritis in cattle and horses. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of rifaximin on primary cell cultures from bovine endometrium in which inflammatory response was induced by Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) treatment...
July 9, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Ratna B Gurung, Douglas J Begg, Richard J Whittington
Johne's disease is an economically important ruminant disease predominantly affecting cattle, sheep and goats. The economic losses are due to early culling, reduced growth rate, progressive weight loss and reduced production. It is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Johne's disease was reported in cattle in Bhutan, based on clinical signs and histopathology; in the late 1990s samples from one mithun that was suspected to have died due to this disease was confirmed by molecular testing at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Australia...
July 5, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Thaís G da Silva, Michele S Lima, Massimo Spedicato, Irene Carmine, Liana Teodori, Alessandra Leone, Maira S N Martins, Fernando G Buchala, Klaus S Hellwig, Adriana H de Campos Nogueira Romaldini, Eliana De Stefano, Giovanni Savini, Edviges M Pituco
Bluetongue (BT), caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV), is a disease that affects ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer. BTV is transmitted by female midges of the genus Culicoides. In Brazil, information on the prevalence of BTV in cattle is limited, so the objective of this work was to identify BTV serotypes in cattle. The State of São Paulo was divided into seven cattle-producing regions, and in each of them, 300 cattle farms were randomly selected. One animal from each farm (out of a total of 1,598 farms) was selected and its sera tested by virus neutralization technique against BTV serotypes (1-24 and 26) for determining antibody titre...
July 2, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Nusirat Elelu
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) caused by the bacteria Borrelia, is poorly documented in veterinary medicine. Given the widespread presence of the soft tick vectors - Ornithodoros and the recently discovered hard tick vectors, as well as their close association with animal hosts, it is highly likely that infection occurs, but is rarely reported to be of veterinary importance. Sporadic reports of canine infection, some being fatal through to probable cause of abortion in horses have been published. Some of these pathogens exist in regions where there are limited diagnostic facilities, hence, they are likely to be missed and their impact on productivity may be unquantified...
June 26, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Jennifer K Reagan, Laura E Selmic, Caroline Fallon, Elizabeth A Driskell, Laura D Garrett
For canine mast cell tumour (MCT), histopathology reports are one of the main factors considered in the decision-making process regarding need and type of adjunctive therapy. However, considerable variation exists in types of information reported, especially relating to surgical margins. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate how information is presented within canine MCT histopathology reports across the United States. The reports were collected from medical and surgical oncologists from 4 geographic regions of the USA: Midwest, Northeast, South and West...
June 7, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Rebecca E Pacheco, Bianca S Bauer, Miranda J Sadar
Normal values for intraocular pressure (IOP) and tear production in conscious cervids have not been reported to date. Based on trends in zoological institutions to perform non-anaesthetized health exams, it is applicable to establish normal values in conscious animals, as anaesthesia and sedation can alter these parameters. The goal of this study was to estimate intraocular pressures using rebound tonometry and measure tear production values in a group of healthy, conscious, European fallow deer utilizing chute restraint...
June 1, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Jaime A Olsen, Maurine Thomson, Kathleen O'Connell, Ken Wyatt
This retrospective study evaluates the progression-free interval and survival outcomes of 40 canine (Canis familiaris) patients with Patnaik grade II and III mast cell tumours treated with combination vinblastine, prednisolone and toceranib phosphate from 2011 to 2015. Patients were subdivided into three groups; patients who received neoadjuvant therapy for poorly operable lesions, patients who received adjuvant therapy following surgical resection and patients being palliated for gross metastatic disease. Median survival time (MST) for the neoadjuvant group was not reached...
May 24, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Yasmin ElTahir, Al Ghalya Al Toobi, Waleed Al-Marzooqi, Osman Mahgoub, Maryne Jay, Yannick Corde, Hadi Al Lawati, Shekar Bose, Abeer Al Hamrashdi, Kaadhia Al Kharousi, Nasseb Al-Saqri, Rudaina Al Busaidi, Eugene H Johnson
Brucellosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases and has significant public health and economic importance worldwide. Few studies and reports have been performed to estimate the true prevalence of animal brucellosis in the Sultanate of Oman; however, no incidence of the disease was previously reported in Al Jabal Al Akhdar. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of brucellosis in goats in eight villages in Al Jebal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman, namely: Al Aqaieb, Al Helailat, Al Ghilayil, Hail Al Hedap, Da'an Al Hamra, Shnoot, Al Qasha'e and Al Sarah, Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the Sultanate of Oman...
May 23, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Naoufal Rahmatallah, Hicham El Rhaffouli, Idriss Lahlou Amine, Yassine Sekhsokh, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Mohammed El Houadfi
Monitoring the use of antibacterial agents in food-producing animals is crucial in order to reduce antimicrobial resistance, selection and dissemination of resistant bacterial strains, and drug residues in the animal food products. The broiler production sector is considered a great consumer of antibacterials and incriminated in the rise of antimicrobial resistance level in zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Following recommendations from the OIE and WHO, a survey was conducted about the use and consumption of several antibacterial agents in Moroccan broiler flocks...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Kristen M Hutchinson, Kelly Tart, Kari L Anderson, Lisa L Powell
To describe a case of naturally occurring pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli and emphysematous hepatitis in a cat. A 9-month-old, indoors-only, female spayed, domestic medium hair cat presented for vomiting, open-mouth breathing and acute collapse. The initial physical examination identified moderate to severe hypothermia [35°C (95°F)], obtunded mentation, weak femoral pulses, tachycardia (heart rate 240 beats per min), pale pink mucous membranes and significant splenomegaly on abdominal palpation...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Benjamin L Hart, Lynette A Hart, Abigail P Thigpen, Alisha Tran, Melissa J Bain
Canine conspecific coprophagy, the tendency or predisposition of some dogs to eat their own faeces or those of other dogs, seems paradoxical because dogs typically show an aversion to conspecific faeces. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, we set out to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of this behaviour and to evaluate the efficacy of 11 products marketed for treating coprophagy as well as behaviour modification procedures. Because a large sample of dogs was needed to address these issues, two web-based surveys were utilized...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Mustapha Dahmani, Djamel Tahir, Olivier Cabre, Didier Raoult, Florence Fenollar, Bernard Davoust, Oleg Mediannikov
Dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several zoonotic agents, including Filariidae nematodes and Anaplasmataceae family bacteria. The latter family unites human and veterinary pathogens (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Neorickettsia bacteria) with Wolbachia, some of which are obligatory endosymbionts of pathogenic filarial nematodes. The epidemiology of Anaplasmataceae and Filariidae species infecting dogs living in kennels in New Caledonia was studied. 64 EDTA blood samples were screened for the presence of Anaplasmataceae and filarial nematodes...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Thomas Pölzler, Hans-Peter Stüger, Heimo Lassnig
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of most common human pathogenic Campylobacter species, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), in dogs and cats in Styria, Austria. In the period from April 2010 to April 2012, 842 faecal samples from dogs and cats from Styria, Austria were examined for Campylobacter (C.) species (spp.). All samples were subjected to qualitative microbiological culture testing, and additionally, some of them have been studied using qualitative real-time PCR...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Muhammad I Malik, Muhammad Qamar, Quratul Ain, Malik F Hussain, Mustapha Dahmani, Mazhar Ayaz, Asim K Mahmood, Bernard Davoust, Rehan S Shaikh, Furhan Iqbal
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an intracellular alpha-proteobacterium, Ehrlichia canis, which replicates within mononuclear cells in the host. This study was designed to use a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the molecular detection of E. canis by the amplification of a portion of its 16S rRNA gene, as well as the effects of this alpha-proteobacterium on the haematological parameters of the sampled dogs and the risk factors associated with E. canis infection. A total of 151 blood samples were collected from dogs of various breeds at three sampling sites (Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad and Multan) in Punjab, Pakistan...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Thaleia-Rengina Stathopoulou, Rui Pinelas, Gert Ter Haar, Ine Cornelis, Jaime Viscasillas
Otitis externa is a painful condition that may require surgical intervention in dogs. A balanced analgesia protocol should combine systemic analgesic agents and local anaesthesia techniques. The aim of the study was to find anatomical landmarks for the great auricular and the auriculotemporal nerves that transmit nociceptive information from the ear pinna and to develop the optimal technique for a nerve block. The study consisted of two phases. In phase I, one fox cadaver was used for dissection and anatomical localization of the auricular nerves to derive landmarks for needle insertion...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
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