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Veterinary Medicine and Science

Yi-Chun Lin, Siobhan Mullan, David C J Main
Lameness is one of the most serious economic and welfare issues in the dairy industry. Early detection of lameness can be difficult, but provision of early treatment is crucial. Previous studies have used infrared thermography to show that increased foot temperature (FT) is associated with lameness and foot lesions. However, poor accuracy has limited the management application potential. This study analysed ambient-temperature (AT)-adjusted foot-surface temperatures and temperature differences between the hind feet of individual cows to enhance lameness detection...
April 29, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Adeline de Mira Fernandes, Paulo E Brandão, Michele Dos Santos Lima, Maira de Souza Nunes Martins, Thais G da Silva, Vivian da Silva Cardoso Pinto, Larissa T de Paula, Marta Elisabete S Vicente, Liria H Okuda, Edviges M Pituco
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is one of the main aetiological agents of gastroenteritis in calves, causing significant economic damage to livestock. This study aims to characterise BCoV genetically on the basis of the N gene. A total of 114 faecal samples from beef and dairy calves with or without clinical symptoms of diarrhoea from five Brazilian states (São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso and Bahia) were evaluated between 2008 and 2015 by technique of Semi-nested RT-PCR for gene N and genealogical analysis...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Erik Zager, Daniel J Fletcher, Robert Goggs
Acid-base abnormalities are frequently encountered in veterinary emergency and critical care, but information regarding the prognostic value of these findings is limited. Several systems for analysing acid-base disturbances have been reported, but the prognostic abilities of these systems have not been compared in dogs. The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine if the commonly used acid-base interpretation methods (Henderson-Hasselbalch, Stewart and semi-quantitative) have prognostic value, and to compare the performance of the three methods...
April 10, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Mohammed Z Rahman, Najmul Haider, Emily S Gurley, Sadia Ahmed, Mozaffar G Osmani, Muhammad B Hossain, Ariful Islam, Shahneaz A Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Jonathan H Epstein, Nord Zeidner, Mustafizur Rahman
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible sheep and goats. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of PPR and characterize the strains circulating in Bangladesh. Veterinarians enrolled goats showing signs consistent with PPR, including diarrhoea, fever and respiratory distress, from three veterinary hospitals...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Jessica S Fortin, Angela B Royal, Keiichi Kuroki
A 21-year-old American Saddlebred mare died with a history of weight loss and breathing difficulties of 1 month duration. Post-mortem examination revealed a copious pleural effusion with multifocal to coalescing numerous white to grey nodular masses on the serosal surface of the pericardium, lungs and thoracic cavity. In addition, the left thyroid gland was markedly enlarged. A thoracic mesothelioma and C-cell adenoma with amyloid deposits of the left thyroid gland were diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry employing antibodies against cytokeratin (CK), vimentin and calcitonin...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Naomi Hansen, Nikianna Nicholas, Graeme Pack, John T Mackie, Michael Shipstone, John S Munday, Paul Reddell, Geoff Orbell, Richard Malik
Cutaneous pigmented viral plaques is a disorder of epidermal growth caused by canine papillomavirus type 4 (CPV-4). There is currently no standard of care for managing this condition and it has not been reported in the Hungarian Vizsla. This case series documents the clinical features of canine pigmented viral plaques in Hungarian Vizsla dogs and the treatment of a severe case using a novel topical agent tigilanol tiglate (EBC-46). A 4-year-old spayed Hungarian Vizsla in Australia was presented for multiple cutaneous pigmented plaques extending from the ventral cervical region...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Shamim Sarkar, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Emily S Gurley, Rashedul Hasan, Mohammed Z Rahman
In a group of 22 healthy pigs aged between 4 and 6 months, 2 pigs became ill with high fever, complete anorexia, cough and abnormal swaying movements on 22 June 2015. One of them died on June 24 and the second died on July 3. Shortly after, the remaining pigs also fell ill and died from the same illness by 10 August 2015. We investigated the aetiology, epidemiological and clinical features of the outbreak. We recorded the clinical signs and symptoms for each pig with the date of onset of illness. Veterinarians conducted post-mortem examinations on the 12 dead pigs, they collected tissue samples from the dead pigs and placed them in a tube containing 1 mL of nucleic acid extraction buffer (lysis buffer)...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Socheat Sieng, Stephen W Walkden-Brown, James Kerr
A field study investigated the effects of foot and mouth disease vaccine storage temperature for 7 days (frozen, refrigerated or held at ambient temperature) and dose (half or full dose) on the serological response to vaccination. It utilised a complete factorial design replicated on 18 smallholder cattle farms in three villages in Pursat province, Cambodia. Antibody responses from the 108 cattle involved were assessed by serological examination of blood samples collected at primary vaccination (day 0), at booster vaccination (day 30) and finally at 60 days post primary vaccination...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Victor A Amadi, Harry Hariharan, Gitanjali Arya, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Roxanne Nicholas-Thomas, Rhonda Pinckney, Ravindra Sharma, Roger Johnson
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis remains an important public health problem worldwide. Dogs may harbour Salmonella in their intestines and can easily shed Salmonella in the environment with the possibility of transmission to humans. Thus, monitoring is essential to understand the role of dogs in zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were to determine the shedding of Salmonella by owned, apparently healthy dogs in Grenada, West Indies, to identify the serovars, and to examine their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Souhir Sallemi, Mohamed R Rjeibi, Mariem Rouatbi, Safa Amairia, Mourad Ben Said, Madiha Khamassi Khbou, Mohamed Gharbi
The present study aimed to estimate the molecular prevalence of Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi infection in cattle in Northern Tunisia. A total number of 96 cattle from five farms were evaluated. T. annulata and T. evansi prevalences were 61% [56/66] and 10% [7/13], respectively, at a confidence interval (CI) of 95%, while co-infection was present in 6% [4/8] of the tested animals at a CI of 95%. There was a significant correlation between age and the prevalence of T. annulata infection, whereas, there was no significant association shown with the age of cattle and T...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Linda Rhodes, Bill Zollers, Jessica A Wofford, Ernst Heinen
Ghrelin is a hormone, secreted from cells in the stomach, which is important in the regulation of appetite and food intake in mammals. It exerts its action by binding to a specific G-protein-coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) which is found in areas of the brain associated with the regulation of food intake. Ghrelin causes a release of growth hormone (GH) through binding to GHS-R1a in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A class of compounds known as growth hormone secretagogues, or ghrelin receptor agonists, were developed for therapeutic use in humans for the stimulation of GH in the frail elderly, and have subsequently been studied for their effects on increasing appetite and food intake, increasing body weight, building lean muscle mass, and treating cachexia...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Levent Dirikolu, Pamela Waller, Mona Landry Waguespack, Frank Michael Andrews, Michael Layne Keowen, Stephen David Gaunt
This study evaluated the usage of Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzers for measurement of TCO2 in horse serum, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate administrations on serum TCO2 levels in resting horses. Treatment of horses with sodium bicarbonate did not result in any adverse events. Mean TCO2 concentration was significantly higher from 1 to 8 h in the sodium bicarbonate-treated horses compared to the untreated controls. Within an hour, administration of sodium bicarbonate increased the TCO2 level from 31.5 ± -2...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Ida N Kieler, Shamrulazhar Shamzir Kamal, Anne D Vitger, Dennis S Nielsen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Charlotte R Bjornvad
Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Carmen Schröck, Carina Eydt, Florian Geburek, Lena Kaiser, Felicitas Päbst, Janina Burk, Christiane Pfarrer, Carsten Staszyk
Allogeneic equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs) have been proposed for use in regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine. A source of allogeneic eMSCs might be the bone marrow from euthanized horses. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro characteristics of equine bone marrow derived eMSC (eBM-MSCs) from euthanized horses (eut-MSCs) and from narcotized horses (nar-MSCs). Eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs showed typical eMSC marker profiles (positive: CD44, CD90; negative: CD11a/CD18 and MHCII) and possessed tri-lineage differentiation characteristics...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Musa Ibrahim Waziri, Paul A Abdu, Lawal Sa'idu, Mohammed Bello
Despite modified stamping out eradication policy adopted in Nigeria, there was resurgence in 2015 of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 with greater infectivity. A survey of the risk of spread of HPAI in two HPAI-infected and -uninfected Nigerian states were studied. A cross-sectional study to detect avian influenza (AI) H5 antibodies was conducted using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 950 birds' sera were tested for AI H5 antibodies...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Clare J Phythian, Siobhan Mullan, Andrew Butterworth, Sarah Lambton, Jelena Ilić, Jelena Burazerović, Elvir Burazerović, Katharine A Leach
The selection and field application of animal-based welfare measures for pigs, sheep, dairy cows and broilers was the first step towards the future development of welfare improvement schemes for Serbia - a country that is applying for EU accession. The aim of this pilot study was to: (1) test the feasibility of a protocol for monitoring farm animal welfare in Serbia, (2) ascertain preliminary data on animal-based outcomes of farm welfare and (3) gain insight into Serbian farmers' understanding of animal welfare as part of a wider project working towards inclusion of animal-based assessments in a 'higher welfare' voluntary assurance scheme...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Abdennasser Benjelloun, Mehdi El Harrak, Paolo Calistri, Chafiqa Loutfi, Hafsa Kabbaj, Annamaria Conte, Carla Ippoliti, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Bouchra Belkadi
West Nile virus-associated disease is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in the world. In Morocco, the first cases were reported in horses in 1996 and the disease re-emerged in 2003 and in 2010. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological situation of WNV-associated infection in Morocco, by quantifying the seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in horses in different bioclimatic regions-zones of Morocco in 2011. During the months of May, June and July 2011, 840 serum samples were collected from horses in four regions characterized by different environmental and climatic features such as altitude, temperature and precipitation...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Noemi Romagnoli, Khaled M Al-Qudah, Sara Armorini, Carlotta Lambertini, Anna Zaghini, Alessandro Spadari, Paola Roncada
The aims of this study were to assess the plasma concentrations of romifidine in horses after intravenous injection, to evaluate the red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of the anaesthetic drug, and to improve knowledge regarding its sedative effect in horses describing the pharmacokinetic model. Eight adult Standardbred horses received a single bolus of romifidine at a dosage of 100  μ g/kg. Blood samples (5 mL) were collected immediately before romifidine administration ( t 0 ), and at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 150 and 180 min after injection...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Erick Kandiwa, Leoncie Nyirakunzimana, Gervais Habarugira, Borden Mushonga, Alaster Samkange
Male reproductive performance has more impact on overall herd productivity than in the female. In order to assess herd productivity in cattle in Nyagatare, Eastern Rwanda, the proportional distribution of male reproductive organ abnormalities was investigated in 3087 bulls slaughtered over a 4-year period. The aim of the study was to investigate the proportional distribution of male reproductive organ abnormalities in exotic and indigenous bulls slaughtered over a 4-year period at Nyagatare abattoir in Eastern Rwanda...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Tamara L Grubb, David E Anderson
The placement and accuracy of pulse oximeter probes can vary markedly among species. For our study, we aimed to assess the accuracy of pulse oximetry and to determine the most clinically useful sites for probe placement in llamas and alpacas. The objectives included an analysis of pulse oximetry probes for accurate assessment of llamas and alpacas and to determine the best placement of the probes to achieve accurate readings. For study 1, saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen was measured in 184 arterial blood gas samples (SaO2 ) using a co-oximeter and compared to saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen simultaneously measured using a pulse oximeter (Sp O2 )...
August 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
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