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BMJ Global Health

Nonhlanhla Nxumalo, Lucy Gilson, Jane Goudge, Benjamin Tsofa, Susan Cleary, Edwine Barasa, Sassy Molyneux
Resource constraints, value for money debates and concerns about provider behaviour have placed accountability 'front and centre stage' in health system improvement initiatives and policy prescriptions. There are a myriad of accountability relationships within health systems, all of which can be transformed by decentralisation of health system decision-making from national to subnational level. Many potential benefits of decentralisation depend critically on the accountability processes and practices of front-line health facility providers and managers, who play a central role in policy implementation at province, county, district and facility levels...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Charlotte Christiane Hammer, Julii Brainard, Paul R Hunter
Background: Communicable diseases are a major concern during complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Descriptions of risk factors for outbreaks are often non-specific and not easily generalisable to similar situations. This review attempts to capture relevant evidence and explore whether it is possible to better generalise the role of risk factors and risk factor cascades these factors may form. Methods: A systematic search of the key databases and websites was conducted...
2018: BMJ Global Health
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000904.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000904.].
2018: BMJ Global Health
Aaron S Karat, Noriah Maraba, Mpho Tlali, Salome Charalambous, Violet N Chihota, Gavin J Churchyard, Katherine L Fielding, Yasmeen Hanifa, Suzanne Johnson, Kerrigan M McCarthy, Kathleen Kahn, Daniel Chandramohan, Alison D Grant
Introduction: Verbal autopsy (VA) can be integrated into civil registration and vital statistics systems, but its accuracy in determining HIV-associated causes of death (CoD) is uncertain. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of VA questions in determining HIV status and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and compared HIV-associated mortality fractions assigned by different VA interpretation methods. Methods: Using the WHO 2012 instrument with added ART questions, VA was conducted for deaths among adults with known HIV status (356 HIV positive and 103 HIV negative) in South Africa...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Adriano Massuda, Thomas Hone, Fernando Antonio Gomes Leles, Marcia C de Castro, Rifat Atun
The Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS)) has enabled substantial progress towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Brazil. However, structural weakness, economic and political crises and austerity policies that have capped public expenditure growth are threatening its sustainability and outcomes. This paper analyses the Brazilian health system progress since 2000 and the current and potential effects of the coalescing economic and political crises and the subsequent austerity policies. We use literature review, policy analysis and secondary data from governmental sources in 2000-2017 to examine changes in political and economic context, health financing, health resources and healthcare service coverage in SUS...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Joanna May Kesten, Suzanne Audrey, Maya Holding, Caroline Coope, Nick Young, Colin S Brown, Jenny Harries, Matthew Hickman, Isabel Oliver
Introduction: In response to the 2013-2016 West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), Public Health England introduced enhanced screening at major UK ports of entry. Our aim was to explore screeners' and screened travellers' perceptions of screening as part of an evaluation of the screening programme. Methods: We undertook qualitative focus groups and semistructured interviews with screeners and travellers who had returned from affected countries before and after the introduction of screening in England...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Hamish R Graham, Ayobami A Bakare, Amy Gray, Adejumoke Idowu Ayede, Shamim Qazi, Barbara McPake, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Trevor Duke, Adegoke G Falade
Introduction: Pulse oximetry is a life-saving tool for identifying children with hypoxaemia and guiding oxygen therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the adoption of oximetry practices in 12 Nigerian hospitals and identify strategies to improve adoption. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods realist evaluation to understand how oximetry was adopted in 12 Nigerian hospitals and why it varied in different contexts. We collected quantitative data on oximetry use (from case notes) and user knowledge (pretraining/post-training tests)...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Peter C Rockers, Richard O Laing, Veronika J Wirtz
Introduction: Wealth-based inequity in access to medicines is an impediment to achieving universal health coverage in many low-income and middle-income countries. We explored the relationship between household wealth and access to medicines for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Kenya. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional survey to a sample of patients prescribed medicines for hypertension, diabetes or asthma. Data were collected on medicines available in the home, including the location and cost of purchase...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Clara Calvert, Onikepe O Owolabi, Felicia Yeung, Rudiger Pittrof, Bela Ganatra, Özge Tunçalp, Alma J Adler, Veronique Filippi
Introduction: Defining and accurately measuring abortion-related morbidity is important for understanding the spectrum of risk associated with unsafe abortion and for assessing the impact of changes in abortion-related policy and practices. This systematic review aims to estimate the magnitude and severity of complications associated with abortion in areas where access to abortion is limited, with a particular focus on potentially life-threatening complications. Methods: A previous systematic review covering the literature up to 2010 was updated with studies identified through a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Popline and two WHO regional databases until July 2016...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Maaz Shaikh, Sanne A E Peters, Mark Woodward, Robyn Norton, Vivekanand Jha
Background: Universal healthcare coverage provides healthcare and financial protection to all citizens and might help to facilitate gender equity in care. We assessed the utilisation of hospital care services among women and men in a large underprivileged population with access to free hospital care in India. Methods: The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme, a state-sponsored scheme, provided access to free hospital care for poor households across undivided Andhra Pradesh...
2018: BMJ Global Health
G Justus Hofmeyr, Joshua P Vogel, Mandisa Singata, Ndema Abu Habib, Sihem Landoulsi, A Metin Gülmezoglu
Introduction: Gentle assisted pushing (GAP) is an innovative method of applying gentle, steady pressure to a woman's uterine fundus during second stage of labour. This randomised trial evaluated GAP in an upright position, compared with upright position alone or routine practice (recumbent posture). Methods: An open-label, hospital-based, randomised trial was conducted in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Randomisation occurred following at least 15 min in second stage of labour...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Handrick Chigiji, Deborah Fry, Tinashe Enock Mwadiwa, Aldo Elizalde, Noriko Izumi, Line Baago-Rasmussen, Mary Catherine Maternowska
Introduction: This study provides, for the first time, comparable national population-based estimates that describe the nature and magnitude of physical and emotional violence during childhood in Zimbabwe. Methods: From August to September 2011, we conducted a national population-based survey of 2410 respondents aged 13-24 years, using a two-stage cluster sampling. Regression models were adjusted for relevant demographics to estimate the ORs for associations between violence, risk factors and various health-related outcomes...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Ann O'Leary, Mohamed F Jalloh, Yuval Neria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Global Health
Joshua S Ng-Kamstra, Sumedha Arya, Sarah L M Greenberg, Meera Kotagal, Catherine Arsenault, David Ljungman, Rachel R Yorlets, Arnav Agarwal, Claudia Frankfurter, Anton Nikouline, Francis Yi Xing Lai, Charlotta L Palmqvist, Terence Fu, Tahrin Mahmood, Sneha Raju, Sristi Sharma, Isobel H Marks, Alexis Bowder, Lebei Pi, John G Meara, Mark G Shrime
Introduction: The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery proposed the perioperative mortality rate (POMR) as one of the six key indicators of the strength of a country's surgical system. Despite its widespread use in high-income settings, few studies have described procedure-specific POMR across low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to estimate POMR across a wide range of surgical procedures in LMICs. We also describe how POMR is defined and reported in the LMIC literature to provide recommendations for future monitoring in resource-constrained settings...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Jo-Anne Lee Geere, Moa Cortobius, Jonathan Harold Geere, Charlotte Christiane Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Introduction: The work of carrying water falls mainly on women and children, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and rural areas. While concerns have been raised, how water carriage is associated with health of the water carrier is not clear. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on whether, and how, water carriage is associated with the water carrier's health. Methods: A systematic review of literature was conducted, searching Embase; Medline; Web of Science Social Sciences Citation Index; Web of Science Arts and Humanities Citation Index; International Initiative for Impact Evaluation website; WHO Virtual Health Sciences Library and WHO African index medicus, from inception to 8 November 2017...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Edwine Barasa, Peter Nguhiu, Di McIntyre
Background: The inclusion of universal health coverage (UHC) as a health-related Sustainable Development Goal has cemented its position as a key global health priority. We aimed to develop a summary measure of UHC for Kenya and track the country's progress between 2003 and 2013. Methods: We developed a summary index for UHC by computing the geometrical mean of indicators for the two dimensions of UHC, service coverage (SC) and financial risk protection (FRP). The SC indicator was computed as the geometrical mean of preventive and treatment indicators, while the financial protection indicator was computed as a geometrical mean of an indicator for the incidence of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the impoverishing effect of healthcare payments...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Cother Hajat, Sandeep P Kishore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Global Health
Josephine Borghi, Neha S Singh, Garrett Brown, Laura Anselmi, Soren Kristensen
Background: Many low and middle income countries (LMIC) are implementing payment for performance (P4P) schemes to strengthen health systems and make progress towards universal health coverage. A number of systematic reviews have considered P4P effectiveness but did not explore how P4P works in different settings to improve outcomes or shed light on pathways or mechanisms of programme effect. This research will undertake a realist review to investigate how, why and in what circumstances P4P leads to intended and unintended outcomes in LMIC...
2018: BMJ Global Health
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000683.].
2018: BMJ Global Health
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000506.].
2018: BMJ Global Health
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