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Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682634/commentary-mir-132-212-modulates-seasonal-adaptation-and-dendritic-morphology-of-the-central-circadian-clock
#1
Lucia Mendoza-Viveros, Karl Obrietan, Hai-Ying M Cheng
Daily rhythms in behavior and physiology are coordinated by an endogenous clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This central pacemaker also relays day length information to allow for seasonal adaptation, a process for which melatonin signaling is essential. How the SCN encodes day length is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by directing target mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. The miR-132/212 cluster plays a key role in facilitating neuronal plasticity, and miR-132 has been shown previously to modulate resetting of the central clock...
2018: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825058/recent-advances-in-modelling-of-cerebellar-ataxia-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Maggie M K Wong, Lauren M Watson, Esther B E Becker
The cerebellar ataxias are a group of incurable brain disorders that are caused primarily by the progressive dysfunction and degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The lack of reliable disease models for the heterogeneous ataxias has hindered the understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms as well as the development of effective therapies for these devastating diseases. Recent advances in the field of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offer new possibilities to better understand and potentially reverse disease pathology...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152613/commentary-target-intestinal-microbiota-to-alleviate-disease-progression-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
COMMENT
Jun Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616625/heterozygous-enos-deficient-mice-as-a-model-to-examine-the-effects-of-enos-haploinsufficiency-on-the-cerebral-circulation
#4
Sean P Didion
Nitric oxide derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been shown to be a major mediator of endothelium-dependent responses in cerebral blood vessels. Loss of a single eNOS gene is not associated with any apparent negative consequences on endothelial function in most blood vessels. In contrast, we have recently demonstrated that heterozygous eNOS gene deficiency in combination with a high fat diet is associated with marked impairment of endothelial function. These findings provide an important example of eNOS haploinsufficiency and one that directly impacts the cerebral vasculature...
2017: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405636/when-transporters-fail-to-be-transported-how-to-rescue-folding-deficient-slc6-transporters
#5
Sonja Sucic, Ameya Kasture, H M Mazhar Asjad, Carina Kern, Ali El-Kasaby, Michael Freissmuth
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) belongs to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family. Point mutations in hDAT (SLC6A3) have been linked to a syndrome of dopamine transporter deficiency or infantile dystonia/parkinsonism. The mutations impair DAT folding, causing retention of variant DATs in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently impair transport activity. The folding trajectory of DAT itself is not understood, though many insights have been gained from studies of folding-deficient mutants of the closely related serotonin transporter (SERT); i...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376156/dna-pk-deficiency-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jyotshna Kanungo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal death with an accumulaton of intra-cellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques. Reduced DNA repair ability has been reported in AD brains. In neurons, the predominant mechanism to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) is non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that requires DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. DNA-PK is a holoenzyme comprising the p460 kD DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and its activator Ku, a heterodimer of p86 (Ku80) and p70 (Ku70) subunits...
September 2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620655/a-commentary-on-attitudes-towards-deep-brain-stimulation-for-addiction
#7
COMMENT
Karen E Lee, Mahendra T Bhati, Casey H Halpern
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven to be an effective treatment for neurologic disorders such as Parkinson's disease, and is currently being investigated as a therapy for psychiatric diseases such as addiction, major depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. In this commentary, we review and discuss the findings presented in the Letter to the Editor entitled "Attitudes towards treating addiction with deep brain stimulation," written by Ali et al(1). The survey presented in this Letter reported general approval for examining the effects of DBS on addictive disorders in a clinical trial, but highlighted critical areas of concern including informed consent, patient autonomy, appropriate medical practice, passing of clinical trial milestones, and implications on law enforcement...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255581/feasibility-study-for-remote-assessment-of-cognitive-function-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Michaela F George, Calliope B Holingue, Farren B S Briggs, Xiaorong Shao, Kalliope H Bellesis, Rachel A Whitmer, Catherine Schaefer, Ralph Hb Benedict, Lisa F Barcellos
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and affects employment and quality of life. Large studies are needed to identify risk factors for cognitive decline. Currently, a MS-validated remote assessment for cognitive function does not exist. Studies to determine feasibility of large remote cognitive function investigations in MS have not been published. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether MS patients would participate in remote cognitive studies...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111642/karenitecin-bnp1350-and-flavopridol-as-radiosensitizers-in-malignant-glioma
#9
Deepika Rajesh, H Ian Robins, Steven P Howard
The poor prognosis of malignant glioma patients highlights the need to develop low toxicity, tumor specific agents with the ability to synergize with proven efficacious treatment modalities, e.g., ionizing irradiation. This paper investigates the potential of BNP1350 (karenitecin), a topoisomerase I-targeting anticancer agent, and flavopridol a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor as radiosensitizers at clinically relevant doses in glioblastoma cell lines. A clonogenic survival and apoptosis assays were performed to test the effect of karenitecin (0...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058407/neuropathies-of-st%C3%A3-ve-wiedemann-syndrome-due-to-mutations-in-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-receptor-lifr-gene
#10
Alexandra E Oxford, Cheryl L Jorcyk, Julia Thom Oxford
Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome (STWS; OMIM #610559) is a rare disease that results in dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary processes such as breathing rate and body temperature. In infants, this can result in respiratory distress, feeding and swallowing difficulties, and hyperthermic episodes. Individuals may sweat excessively when body temperature is not elevated. Additionally, individuals have reduced ability to feel pain and may lose reflexes such as the corneal reflex that normally causes one to blink, and the patellar reflex resulting in the knee-jerk...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990499/obesity-and-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility-a-review
#11
Milena A Gianfrancesco, Lisa F Barcellos
Several studies conducted around the world over the last decade have demonstrated that early childhood and adolescent obesity are significant risk factors for MS susceptibility. This association has been largely confirmed in females, while evidence supporting a strong role for obesity and risk of MS in males has been mixed. Further, interaction between increased body mass index and genetic as well as environmental factors in MS susceptibility has been proposed, and evidence of a causal relationship has recently been established...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853754/commentary-alpha-synuclein-interacts-with-sod1-and-promotes-its-oligomerization
#12
Anika M Helferich, Pamela J McLean, Jochen H Weishaupt, Karin M Danzer
Alpha-synuclein and Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are both aggregation-prone proteins that are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), respectively. Recently, we showed that alpha-synuclein interacts with SOD1 in various cell types and tissues. Using a cell culture model, we also found that alpha-synuclein nucleates the polymerization of SOD1. Here, we discuss the current literature regarding their interaction and their co-localization in aggregates of human post-mortem tissue...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819070/primary-age-related-tauopathy-and-the-amyloid-cascade-hypothesis-the-exception-that-proves-the-rule
#13
John F Crary
Extensive data supports the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which states that Alzheimer's disease (AD) stems from neurotoxic forms of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. But the poor correlation between Aβ plaques and neurodegeneration/cognitive impairment, the spaciotemporal disparity between Aβ and tau pathology, and the disappointing results following several large clinical trials using Aβ-targeting agents are inconsistent with this explanation. The most perplexing inconsistency is the existence of AD-type dementia patients that develop abundant neurofibrillary tangles that are indistinguishable from those in early to moderate-stage AD in the absence of compelling evidence of amyloid toxicity...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796011/long-term-window-of-ischemic-tolerance-an-evolutionarily-conserved-form-of-metabolic-plasticity-regulated-by-epigenetic-modifications
#14
Nathalie Khoury, Kevin B Koronowski, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
In the absence of effective neuroprotective agents in the clinic, ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning are gaining increased interest in the field of cerebral ischemia. Our lab recently reported that resveratrol preconditioning affords tolerance against a focal cerebral ischemic insult in mice that can last for at least 14 days in vivo making it the longest window of ischemic tolerance discovered to date by a single administration of a pharmacological agent. The mechanism behind this novel extended window of ischemic tolerance remains elusive...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747316/tyrosyl-dna-phosphodiesterase-i-a-critical-survival-factor-for-neuronal-development-and-homeostasis
#15
Robert C A M van Waardenburg
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (TDP1), like most DNA repair associated proteins, is not essential for cell viability. However, dysfunctioning TDP1 or ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) results in autosomal recessive neuropathology with similar phenotypes, including cerebellar atrophy. Dual inactivation of TDP1 and ATM causes synthetic lethality. A TDP1H(493)R catalytic mutant is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1), and stabilizes the TDP1 catalytic obligatory enzyme-DNA covalent complex...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468429/can-the-brain-benefits-of-exercise-be-enhanced-without-additional-exercise
#16
J Leigh Leasure, Rebecca West
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430034/substance-p-and-antagonists-of-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-in-neuroinflammation-associated-with-infectious-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Alejandra N Martinez, Mario T Philipp
This review addresses the role that substance P (SP) and its preferred receptor neurokinin-1 (NK1R) play in neuroinflammation associated with select bacterial, viral, parasitic, and neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The SP/NK1R complex is a key player in the interaction between the immune and nervous systems. A common effect of this interaction is inflammation. For this reason and because of the predominance in the human brain of the NK1R, its antagonists are attractive potential therapeutic agents...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
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