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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405246/modulation-of-benzo-a-pyrene-dna-adduct-formation-by-cyp1-inducer-and-inhibitor
#1
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Masanobu Kawanishi, Takashi Yagi
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-studied pro-carcinogen that is metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) has been considered to play a central role in the activation step, which is essential for the formation of DNA adducts. This enzyme is strongly induced by many different chemical agents, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Therefore, AhR activators are suspected to have the potential to aggravate the toxicity of BaP through the induction of CYP1A1...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373898/evaluation-of-in-vivo-mutagenesis-for-assessing-the-health-risk-of-air-pollutants
#2
REVIEW
Yasunobu Aoki
Various kind of chemical substances, including man-made chemical products and unintended products, are emitted to ambient air. Some of these substances have been shown to be mutagenic and therefore to act as a carcinogen in humans. National pollutant inventories (e.g., Pollutant Release and Transfer Registration in Japan) have estimated release amounts of man-made chemical products, but a major concern is the release of suspended particulate matter containing potent mutagens, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds generated by the combustion of fossil fuel, which are not estimated by PRTR system...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373897/new-insight-for-metformin-against-bladder-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Amr Ahmed El-Arabey
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated that bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world, with 430,000 new cases and 165,000 deaths in 2012. Bladder cancer represents the fourth most common cancer in men and ninth most common cancer in women. It is the second most prevalent cancer in men 60 years of age or older in United States. Looking further down, continuing advancements in cancer research could potentially offer more choices for clinician and patient with longer survival and better quality of life...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265305/the-10th-anniversary-of-the-publication-of-genes-and-environment-memoir-of-establishing-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-and-a-proposal-for-a-new-collaborative-study-on-mutagenic-hormesis
#4
Shizuyo Sutou
The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) was established in 1972 by 147 members, 11 of whom are still on the active list as of May 1, 2016. As one of them, I introduce some historic topics here. These include 1) establishment of JEMS, 2) the issue of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(3-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), 3) the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS) and its achievements, and 4) the Collaborative Study Group of the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) and its achievements. In addition to these historic matters, some of which are still ongoing, a new collaborative study is proposed on adaptive response or hormesis by mutagens...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265304/tumor-augmenting-effects-of-gestational-arsenic-exposure-on-f1-and-f2-in-mice
#5
REVIEW
Keiko Nohara, Takehiro Suzuki, Kazuyuki Okamura, Junya Matsushita, Shota Takumi
The consequences of early-life exposure to chemicals in the environment are emerging concerns. Chronic exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic has been known to cause various adverse health effects, including cancers, in humans. On the other hand, animal studies by Dr. M. Waalkes' group reported that arsenite exposure of pregnant F0 females, only from gestational day 8 to 18, increased hepatic tumors in the F1 (arsenite-F1) males of C3H mice, whose males tend to develop spontaneous hepatic tumors later in life...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250868/evolution-of-genotoxicity-test-methods-in-japan
#6
Toshio Sofuni
The evolution of methods to assess genotoxicity of test compounds is thought to be one of the important subjects in The Japanese Environmental and Mutagen Society (JEMS). In 1970, the Ministry of Education of Japan (at that time) organized a research group (Organizer: Y. Tazima, National Institute of Genetics), and started a systematic research on the genotoxic effects induced by chemical substances. Considering the importance of this issue through the outcomes of the research group, JEMS was established in 1972, and President Tazima organized the 1st annual meeting in the August in Tokyo with the participation of experts in this field working in national institutes, universities and others in Japan...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174618/transgenic-rat-models-for-mutagenesis-and-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Takehiko Nohmi, Kenichi Masumura, Naomi Toyoda-Hokaiwado
Rats are a standard experimental animal for cancer bioassay and toxicological research for chemicals. Although the genetic analyses were behind mice, rats have been more frequently used for toxicological research than mice. This is partly because they live longer than mice and induce a wider variety of tumors, which are morphologically similar to those in humans. The body mass is larger than mice, which enables to take samples from organs for studies on pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics. In addition, there are a number of chemicals that exhibit marked species differences in the carcinogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163803/estrogen-and-stress-induced-dna-damage-in-breast-cancer-and-chemoprevention-with-dietary-flavonoid
#8
REVIEW
Michiko T Yasuda, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Kayoko Shimoi
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed female cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Multiple factors are responsible for breast cancer and heritable factors have received much attention. DNA damage in breast cancer is induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol, daily social/psychological stressors, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). DNA damage induced by estrogen and stress is an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of breast cancer and is now recognized as a critical provision for chemoprevention of breast cancer...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163802/nitrative-and-oxidative-dna-damage-in-infection-related-carcinogenesis-in-relation-to-cancer-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Shosuke Kawanishi, Shiho Ohnishi, Ning Ma, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Mariko Murata
Infection and chronic inflammation have been recognized as important factors for carcinogenesis. Under inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from inflammatory and epithelial cells, and result in the formation of oxidative and nitrative DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine. The DNA damage can cause mutations and has been implicated in inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that various infectious agents are carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1), including bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#10
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074113/genetic-polymorphisms-of-human-cytochrome-p450-cyp1a1-in-an-egyptian-population-and-tobacco-induced-lung-cancer
#11
Nada Ezzeldin, Dalia El-Lebedy, Amira Darwish, Ahmed El-Bastawisy, Mirhane Hassan, Shereen Abd El-Aziz, Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Amal Saad-Hussein
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 helps detoxify the potential carcinogens in tobacco smoke, it was reported that polymorphisms in the coding gene result in variation in the expression and activity levels which alter metabolism and clearance of carcinogens and therefore modify cancer risk. In this work, we aimed to identify CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms associated with lung cancer in Egyptian population and to examine the interaction effect with Tobacco smoking in modulating disease risk...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074112/isolation-and-characterization-of-antimutagenic-components-of-glycyrrhiza-aspera-against-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea
#12
Keiko Inami, Yusuke Mine, Jin Tatsuzaki, Chihiro Mori, Masataka Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: A powdered ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza aspera root exhibits antimutagenic activity against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) based on the Ames assay with Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The aim of this study was to identify the antimutagenic components of the powdered ethanolic extract of G. aspera root. RESULTS: The powdered ethanolic extract of G. aspera root was sequentially suspended in n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, and each solvent soluble fraction and the residue were assayed for antimutagenic activity against MNU in S...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074111/absence-of-in-vivo-mutagenicity-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-in-single-intratracheal-instillation-study-using-f344-gpt-delta-rats
#13
Katsuyoshi Horibata, Akiko Ukai, Akio Ogata, Dai Nakae, Hiroshi Ando, Yoshikazu Kubo, Akemichi Nagasawa, Katsuhiro Yuzawa, Masamitsu Honma
INTRODUCTION: It is known that fibrous particles of micrometer length, such as carbon nanotubes, which have same dimensions as asbestos, are carcinogenic. Carcinogenicity of nanomaterials is strongly related to inflammatory reactions; however, the genotoxicity mechanism(s) is unclear. Indeed, inconsistent results on genotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been shown in several reports. Therefore, we analyzed the in vivo genotoxicity induced by an intratracheal instillation of straight MWCNTs in rats using a different test system-the Pig-a gene mutation assay-that can reflect the genotoxicity occurring in the bone marrow...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980700/mutations-induced-by-8-hydroxyguanine-8-oxo-7-8-dihydroguanine-a-representative-oxidized-base-in-mammalian-cells
#14
REVIEW
Tetsuya Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kamiya
Guanine oxidation occurs in both DNA and the cellular nucleotide pool, and one of the major products is 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine). The mutagenic potentials of this oxidized base have been examined in various experimental systems. In this review, we summarize the mutagenicity of the base in mammalian cells. We also describe the effects of specialized DNA polymerases, DNA repair proteins, and nucleotide pool sanitization enzymes.
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050219/nitrative-and-oxidative-dna-damage-in-infection-related-carcinogenesis-in-relation-to-cancer-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Shosuke Kawanishi, Shiho Ohnishi, Ning Ma, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Mariko Murata
Infection and chronic inflammation have been recognized as important factors for carcinogenesis. Under inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from inflammatory and epithelial cells, and result in the formation of oxidative and nitrative DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine. The DNA damage can cause mutations and has been implicated in inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that various infectious agents are carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1), including bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980699/development-and-progress-for-three-decades-in-umu-test-systems
#16
REVIEW
Yoshimitsu Oda
Umu test have been widely used to predict the detection and assessment of DNA- damaging chemicals in environmental genotoxicity field for three decades. This test system is more useful with respect to simplicity, sensitivity, rapidity, and reproducibility. A review of the literature on the development of the umu test is presented in this article. The contents of this article are included a description of numerous data using the umu test. This test have been fully evaluated and used in many directions. Different genetically engineered umu systems introducing bacterial and rat or human drug metabolizing enzymes into the umu tester strains, have been successfully established and are considered as useful tools for genotoxicity assays to study the mechanisms of biotransformation in chemical carcinogenesis...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980698/in-the-beginning-when-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-was-established
#17
Takashi Sugimura
Upon the commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the journal, "Genes and Environment", the history of sciences on environmental mutagens in Japan was reviewed.
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822323/inhibitory-effect-of-actinidia-arguta-on-mutagenesis-inflammation-and-two-stage-mouse-skin-tumorigenesis
#18
Mari Nishimura, Yuma Okimasu, Naoko Miyake, Misako Tada, Ryoko Hida, Tomoe Negishi, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Actinidia arguta, known as sarunashi in Japan, is a vine tree native to east-Asia, including Japan, that produces small fruit rich in anthocyanins, catechins, vitamin C, chlorophyll, beta-carotene and other polyphenols. RESULTS: Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of the juice of A. arguta (arguta-juice) toward the mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using the Ames test, and antioxidant activity of arguta-juice as determined using a free radical scavenging assay...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822322/selective-enhancing-effect-of-metal-ions-on-mutagenicity
#19
Nobuyoshi Fujii, Shigemitsu Yano, Kenji Takeshita
BACKGROUND: We investigated the enhancing effect of metal ions on several mutagens and examined their mechanism of action. We performed the Ames tests on six mutagens, i.e., 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), quercetin, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA), benzo[a]pyrene, and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole, in the presence of five metal ions: Ca(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II). RESULTS: Cu(II) enhanced the mutagenicity of only 4NQO and reduced the mutagenicity of the other mutagens...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822321/genotoxicity-assessment-of-4-methylimidazole-regulatory-perspectives
#20
Takeshi Morita, Chikako Uneyama
4-Methylimidazole (4-MI) is formed as a result of the Maillard reaction process, and therefore is found in many foods and beverages. It is also found in soft drinks (i.e., cola) as a by-product in the production of some caramel colors. NTP bioassays revealed clear evidence of lung carcinogenicity of 4-MI in male and female mice, but not in rats and then IARC classified 4-MI as group 2B carcinogen. Genotoxicity studies with 4-MI were negative in the Ames tests and in the erythrocyte micronucleus tests with mice or rats...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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