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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512524/acknowledgement-to-reviewers
#1
Takashi Yagi
The editors of Genes and Environment would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume XXXVII (2015).
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822323/inhibitory-effect-of-actinidia-arguta-on-mutagenesis-inflammation-and-two-stage-mouse-skin-tumorigenesis
#2
Mari Nishimura, Yuma Okimasu, Naoko Miyake, Misako Tada, Ryoko Hida, Tomoe Negishi, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Actinidia arguta, known as sarunashi in Japan, is a vine tree native to east-Asia, including Japan, that produces small fruit rich in anthocyanins, catechins, vitamin C, chlorophyll, beta-carotene and other polyphenols. RESULTS: Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of the juice of A. arguta (arguta-juice) toward the mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using the Ames test, and antioxidant activity of arguta-juice as determined using a free radical scavenging assay...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822322/selective-enhancing-effect-of-metal-ions-on-mutagenicity
#3
Nobuyoshi Fujii, Shigemitsu Yano, Kenji Takeshita
BACKGROUND: We investigated the enhancing effect of metal ions on several mutagens and examined their mechanism of action. We performed the Ames tests on six mutagens, i.e., 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), quercetin, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA), benzo[a]pyrene, and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole, in the presence of five metal ions: Ca(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II). RESULTS: Cu(II) enhanced the mutagenicity of only 4NQO and reduced the mutagenicity of the other mutagens...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822321/genotoxicity-assessment-of-4-methylimidazole-regulatory-perspectives
#4
Takeshi Morita, Chikako Uneyama
4-Methylimidazole (4-MI) is formed as a result of the Maillard reaction process, and therefore is found in many foods and beverages. It is also found in soft drinks (i.e., cola) as a by-product in the production of some caramel colors. NTP bioassays revealed clear evidence of lung carcinogenicity of 4-MI in male and female mice, but not in rats and then IARC classified 4-MI as group 2B carcinogen. Genotoxicity studies with 4-MI were negative in the Ames tests and in the erythrocyte micronucleus tests with mice or rats...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733886/structural-chromosome-aberrations-cause-swelling-of-the-nucleus
#5
Kenji Takeshita, Hiroaki I Ogawa, Toshinari Maeda
BACKGROUND: Carcinogens are known to cause swelling of the mammalian cell nucleus. However, the mechanism of the swelling and its toxicological significance have not been fully elucidated. Since nuclear swelling (NS hereafter) has been frequently observed in chromosomal aberration (CA hereafter) tests (in vitro), the relationship between NS and CAs was investigated in this study. RESULTS: In a short-term CA test using the fibroblast CHL cell line, the appearance of NS increased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to six types of clastogens (mitomycin C, methyl methane sulfonate, 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine, benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide monohydrate, and 9,10-dimethyl-2-benzanthracene), and a strong correlation was found between NS (%) and CAs (%) at each dosage...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733885/the-micronucleus-test-most-widely-used-in-vivo-genotoxicity-test
#6
Makoto Hayashi
Genotoxicity is commonly evaluated during the chemical safety assessment together with other toxicological endpoints. The micronucleus test is always included in many genotoxic test guidelines for long time in many classes of chemicals, e.g., pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural chemicals, food additives. Although the trend of the safety assessment of chemicals faces to animal welfare and in vitro systems are more welcome than the in vivo systems, the in vivo test systems are paid more attention in the field of genotoxicity because of its weight of evidence...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588157/mutagenic-consequences-of-cytosine-alterations-site-specifically-embedded-in-the-human-genome
#7
Akira Sassa, Yuki Kanemaru, Nagisa Kamoshita, Masamitsu Honma, Manabu Yasui
INTRODUCTION: Cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides often undergo various types of modification, such as methylation, deamination, and halogenation. These types of modifications can be pro-mutagenic and can contribute to the formation of mutational hotspots in cells. To analyze mutations induced by DNA modifications in the human genome, we recently developed a system for tracing DNA adducts in targeted mutagenesis (TATAM). In this system, a modified/damaged base is site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes in human lymphoblastoid cells...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588156/contribution-to-regulatory-science-and-a-next-challenge-of-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-jems
#8
Yoshifumi Uno
Many members of The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) have significantly contributed to guidelines on chemical genotoxicity. The guidelines have been useful for the hazard identification and risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals. However, risk assessors and developers of drugs and other commercial products might eliminate beneficial chemicals from further development simply based on positive results of genotoxicity testing. Experts in the field of genotoxicity should better characterize the biological significance of genotoxicants and more correctly assess human risk...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482301/collaborative-studies-in-toxicogenomics-in-rodent-liver-in-jems%C3%A2-mms-a-useful-application-of-principal-component-analysis-on-toxicogenomics
#9
REVIEW
Chie Furihata, Takashi Watanabe, Takayoshi Suzuki, Shuichi Hamada, Madoka Nakajima
Toxicogenomics is a rapidly developing discipline focused on the elucidation of the molecular and cellular effects of chemicals on biological systems. As a collaborative study group of Toxicogenomics/JEMS·MMS, we conducted studies on hepatocarcinogens in rodent liver in which 100 candidate marker genes were selected to discriminate genotoxic hepatocarcinogens from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. Differential gene expression induced by 13 chemicals were examined using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), including eight genotoxic hepatocarcinogens [o-aminoazotoluene, chrysene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, dimethylnitrosamine, dipropylnitrosamine and ethylnitrosourea (ENU)], four non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens [carbon tetrachloride, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), phenobarbital and trichloroethylene] and a non-genotoxic non-hepatocarcinogen [ethanol]...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482300/oral-environment-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Yasusei Kudo, Hidesuke Tada, Natsumi Fujiwara, Yoshiko Tada, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Yoichiro Miyake, Naozumi Ishimaru
Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375797/what-causes-human-cancer-approaches-from-the-chemistry-of-dna-damage
#11
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kasai
To prevent human cancers, environmental mutagens must be identified. A common mechanism of carcinogenesis is DNA damage, and thus it is quite possible that environmental mutagens can be trapped as adducts by DNA components. It is also important to identify new types of DNA damaging reactions and clarify their mechanisms. In this paper, I will provide typical examples of our efforts to identify DNA damage by environmental agents, from chemistry-based studies. 1) Oxidative DNA damage: 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, 8-oxodG) was discovered during a structural study of DNA modifications caused in vitro by heating glucose, which was used as a model of cooked foods...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375796/cancer-in-japan-prevalence-prevention-and-the-role-of-heterocyclic-amines-in-human-carcinogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Minako Nagao, Shoichiro Tsugane
In this article, three topics are being studied in order to understand the present state of cancer in Japan. First, the statistics on cancer mortality indicates that the mortality from cancer in young individuals has been decreasing during the last 50 years, although the total mortality from cancer has been steadily and steeply increasing. Second, epidemiological analyses of cancer causes in Japan indicated that 50 % of cancer cases are preventable, and that prevention of infection and refraining from tobacco smoking will reduce cancer mortality by about 40 %...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350831/a-message-to-fukushima-nothing-to-fear-but-fear-itself
#13
Shizuyo Sutou
INTRODUCTION: The linear no-threshold model (LNT) has been the basis for radiation protection policies worldwide for 60 years. LNT was fabricated without correct data. The lifespan study of Atomic bomb survivors (LSS) has provided fundamental data to support the NLT. In LSS, exposure doses were underestimated and cancer risk was overestimated; LSS data do not support LNT anymore. In light of these findings, radiation levels and cancer risk in Fukushima are reexamined. RESULTS: Soon after the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued an emergency recommendation that national authorities set reference highest levels in the band of 20-100 mSv and, when the radiation source is under control, reference levels are in the band of 1-20 mSv/y...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350830/gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Mayuko Yamamoto, Satoshi Matsumoto
The mucosal immune system is unique to the gastrointestinal mucosa, in which a large number of immune cells are located and exert multiple functions. Meanwhile, ~100 trillion microorganisms are thought to co-inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, immune cells and gut microbiota have a mutual influence and the maintenance of this symbiotic relationship results in gut homeostasis. A recent study suggested that a disturbance of gut microbiota-so called "dysbiosis"-is related to various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated cancer (CAC)...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350829/estimation-of-the-frequency-of-inherited-germline-mutations-by-whole-exome-sequencing-in-ethyl-nitrosourea-treated-and-untreated-gpt-delta-mice
#15
Kenichi Masumura, Naomi Toyoda-Hokaiwado, Akiko Ukai, Yoichi Gondo, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations are heritable and may cause health disadvantages in the next generation. To investigate trans-generational mutations, we treated male gpt delta mice with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) (85 mg/kg intraperitoneally, weekly on two occasions). The mice were mated with untreated female mice and offspring were obtained. Whole exome sequencing analyses were performed to identify de novo mutations in the offspring. RESULTS: At 20 weeks after the treatment, the gpt mutant frequencies in the sperm of ENU-treated mice were 21-fold higher than those in the untreated control...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350828/mechanisms-of-interstrand-dna-crosslink-repair-and-human-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Satoru Hashimoto, Hirofumi Anai, Katsuhiro Hanada
Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are the link between Watson-Crick strands of DNAs with the covalent bond and prevent separation of DNA strands. Since the ICL lesion affects both strands of the DNA, the ICL repair is not simple. So far, nucleotide excision repair (NER), structure-specific endonucleases, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), homologous recombination (HR), and factors responsible for Fanconi anemia (FA) are identified to be involved in ICL repair. Since the presence of ICL lesions causes severe defects in transcription and DNA replication, mutations in these DNA repair pathways give rise to a various hereditary disorders...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350827/the-association-of-nuclear-abnormalities-in-exfoliated-buccal-epithelial-cells-with-the-health-status-of-different-agricultural-activities-farmers-in-peninsular-malaysia
#17
Zariyantey Abdul Hamid, Mohd Faizal Mohd Zulkifly, Asmah Hamid, Syarif Husin Lubis, Nihayah Mohammad, Ismarulyusda Ishak, Nur Zakiah Mohd Saat, Hidayatul Fathi Othman, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali, Mohd Jamil Mohd Rafaai, Mohamad Roff Mohd Noor, Nor Fadilah Rajab
BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure possesses risk of genotoxicity to humans, particularly farmers. Despite accumulating evidences linking genotoxicity to pesticide exposure, epidemiological studies to address pesticide toxicity in occupationally exposed farmers in Malaysia remain underreported. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the presence of nuclear abnormalities through the assessment of micronucleus (MN) and binucleus (BNu) frequencies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells from farmers who were exposed to pesticides...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350826/effects-of-nsaids-on-the-risk-factors-of-colorectal-cancer-a-mini-review
#18
REVIEW
Takahiro Hamoya, Gen Fujii, Shingo Miyamoto, Mami Takahashi, Yukari Totsuka, Keiji Wakabayashi, Jiro Toshima, Michihiro Mutoh
Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The function of NSAIDs and the molecular targets for chemopreventive effects on CRC have been extensively studied and their data were reported. However, the relation between NSAIDs and the risk factors of CRC have not been fully elucidated yet. Thus, relations between NSAIDs and the risk factors of CRC, such as overweight and obesity, alcohol, aging, hypertriglyceridemia and smoking, are summarized with our data and with recent reported data in this review...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350825/mitochondrial-complex-i-and-v-gene-polymorphisms-in-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-among-high-risk-mizo-mongoloid-population-northeast-india
#19
Freda Lalrohlui, Sunaina Thapa, Souvik Ghatak, John Zohmingthanga, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
INTRODUCTION: The study was carried out to identify the polymorphisms in mitochondrial genes (ATPase and ND1) in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) from Mizo population and to correlate the involvement of demographic factors. FINDINGS: In the present study, 58 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were considered. The mutations observed were mostly base substitutions and were similar as reported for other populations. Three mutations are unreported and were found to be novel polymorphisms for diabetic disease...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350824/arsenic-and-smokeless-tobacco-induce-genotoxicity-sperm-abnormality-as-well-as-oxidative-stress-in-mice-in-vivo
#20
Samrat Das, Puja Upadhaya, Sarbani Giri
BACKGROUND: Arsenic, a naturally occurring metalloid is a well-known water contaminant which causes a wide range of serious adverse health effects including cancer upon long-term exposure. Recent studies have shown high arsenic contamination in the ground water of North Eastern states of India including Southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco consumption locally known as "sadagura" is one of the most prevalent life style habit in southern Assam. The present study was undertaken in mice test system in vivo...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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