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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632622/negative-and-positive-control-ranges-in-the-bacterial-reverse-mutation-test-jems-bms-collaborative-study
#1
Masayuki Kato, Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Toshiro Fukushima, Yasuyoshi Miura, Takumi Awogi, Shigetomo Hikosaka, Kumiko Kawakami, Madoka Nakajima, Masato Nakamura, Hajime Sui, Kumiko Watanabe, Atsushi Hakura
A large-scale study was conducted by multiple laboratories affiliated with the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society and the Bacterial Mutagenicity Study Group to investigate possible proficiency indicators for the bacterial reverse mutation test with a preincubation procedure. Approximately 30 laboratories generated negative and positive control count data and dose-response curves of the positive control articles for the bacterial reverse mutation test, with assays conducted annually from 2013 to 2016. Overall, the majority of the negative and positive control counts for Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA , with and without S9 mix, were within the range of the means ±2× standard deviation...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632621/measurement-of-8-hydroxyguanine-as-an-oxidative-stress-biomarker-in-saliva-by-hplc-ecd
#2
Kazuaki Kawai, Hiroshi Kasai, Yun-Shan Li, Yuya Kawasaki, Shintaro Watanabe, Masanori Ohta, Toru Honda, Hiroshi Yamato
Introduction: Oxidative stress leads to many kinds of diseases. Currently, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is widely measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. There is a specific advantage if saliva can be used as the sample to measure the oxidative stress biomarker, because saliva is much easier to collect than urine. In this study, we investigated the measurement of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHGua) as an oxidative stress marker in saliva, by a column switching HPLC system equipped with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD)...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556374/correlation-between-the-results-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-chromosomal-damage-tests-in-consideration-of-exposure-levels-of-test-chemicals
#3
Eiji Yamamura, Chinami Aruga, Shigeharu Muto, Nobuyuki Baba, Yoshifumi Uno
Introduction: We examined the correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests by using in-house data of 18 pharmaceutical candidates that showed positive results in the in vitro chromosomal aberration or micronucleus test using CHL/IU cells, and quantitatively analyzed them especially in regard to exposure levels of the compounds. Findings: Eight compounds showed that the exposure levels [maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and AUC0-24h ] were comparable with or higher than the in vitro exposure levels [the lowest effective (positive) concentration (LEC) and AUCvitro  = LEC (μg/mL) × treatment time (h)]...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445426/the-effect-of-different-methods-and-image-analyzers-on-the-results-of-the-in-vivo-comet-assay
#4
Takahiro Kyoya, Rika Iwamoto, Yuko Shimanura, Megumi Terada, Shuichi Masuda
Introduction: The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer)...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339978/increase-of-somatic-cell-mutations-in-oxidative-damage-sensitive-drosophila
#5
Ryota Koike, Tomoyo Uchiyama, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Tomoe Negishi
Background: Oxidative damage is an important genotoxic source for almost all organisms. To efficiently detect mutations induced by oxidative damage, we previously developed a urate-null Drosophila strain. Using this Drosophila strain, we showed the mutagenic activity of environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and the herbicide paraquat, which are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we examined the mutagenic activities of carcinogenic mutagens that are considered to cause mutations by adduct formation, alkylation, or crosslinking of cellular DNA in the oxidative damage-sensitive Drosophila to evaluate how the oxidative damage induced by these mutagens is involved in causing mutations...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339977/necessity-for-retrospective-evaluation-of-past-positive-chemicals-in-in-vitro-chromosomal-aberration-tests-using-recommended-cytotoxicity-indices
#6
Hiroshi Honda, Yurika Fujita, Toshio Kasamatsu, Anne Fuchs, Rolf Fautz, Osamu Morita
We have demonstrated that retrospective evaluation of existing data of in vitro chromosomal aberration test using the new cytotoxicity indices RICC (relative increase in cell count) or RPD (relative population doubling) reduces the false-positive rate. We have constructed an algorithm to predict the likelihood that past-positive results would differ when retested accordingly. Here, we emphasize the importance of reviewing existing in vitro chromosomal aberration test results. The present Letter not only supports the rediscovery of potentially useful chemicals excluded from further development as a result of misclassification due to in vitro false-positive results, but also contributes to the development of a precise Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model by providing an appropriate training data-set...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339976/detection-of-dioxin-induced-demethylation-of-mouse-cyp1a1-gene-promoter-by-a-new-labeling-method-for-short-dna-fragments-possessing-5-methylcytosine-at-the-end
#7
Hisaka Kurita, Toshiki Aiba, Toshiyuki Saito, Seiichiroh Ohsako
Environmental factors stimulate alteration of DNA methylation level. Investigation of the genome-wide DNA methylation status is important for environmental health studies. We here designed a genomic DNA amplification and labeling protocol using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HinP1 I. This method can specifically amplify genomic DNA fragments possessing methyl-CpG at the end. The fragments are a relatively short size and dominantly located on CpG-islands. By using the samples prepared by this method, a dioxin-induced change in the methylation level of the mouse Cyp1a1 promoter was successfully evaluated using oligonucleotide probes covalently bound onto a glass plate...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213342/unique-molecular-mechanisms-for-maintenance-and-alteration-of-genetic-information-in-the-budding-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
REVIEW
Sayoko Ito-Harashima, Takashi Yagi
The high-fidelity transmission of genetic information is crucial for the survival of organisms, the cells of which have the ability to protect DNA against endogenous and environmental agents, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), ionizing radiation, and various chemical compounds. The basis of protection mechanisms has been evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans; however, each organism often has a specialized mode of regulation that uses different sets of machineries, particularly in lower eukaryotes...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213341/ciapex2-and-cip0-candidates-of-ap-endonucleases-in-ciona-intestinalis-have-3-5-exonuclease-activity-and-contribute-to-protection-against-oxidative-stress
#9
Masafumi Funakoshi, Daisuke Nambara, Yuichiro Hayashi, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are one of the most frequent DNA lesions. AP sites inhibit transcription and DNA replication, and induce cell death. AP endonucleases are key enzymes in AP site repair. Several types of AP endonucleases have been reported, such as AP endonuclease 2 (APEX2) and ribosomal protein P0 (P0). However, it is not known how the functions and roles differ among AP endonucleases. To clarify the difference of roles among AP endonucleases, we conducted biochemical analysis focused on APEX2 and P0 homologues in Ciona intestinalis ...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118866/estimation-of-the-effects-of-heavy-asian-dust-on-respiratory-function-by-definition-type
#10
Jun Kurai, Masanari Watanabe, Hisashi Noma, Kyoko Iwata, Jumpei Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Sano, Yuji Tohda, Eiji Shimizu
Background: The adverse effects of Asian dust (AD) on health have been demonstrated in earlier studies, but there is no standardized definition for heavy-AD. This study aimed to examine which definition of heavy-AD has the most adverse effect on respiratory function. Methods: One-hundred-and-thirty-seven adults with asthma, and 384 school children self-measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). The four definitions of heavy-AD are: (1) the definition provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), (2) daily median AD particle level ≥ 0...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118865/protective-effects-of-tea-polyphenols-and-%C3%AE-carotene-against-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-mutation-and-oxidative-stress-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Isha Nagpal, Suresh K Abraham
Background: The commonly consumed antioxidants β-carotene and tea polyphenols were used to assess their protective effects against γ-radiation induced sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) mutation and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster . Third instar larvae and adult males of wild-type Oregon-K (ORK) were fed on test agents for 24 and 72 h respectively before exposure to 10Gy γ-irradiation. The treated/control flies were used to assess the induction of SLRLs. We also evaluated antioxidant properties of these phytochemicals in the third instar larvae...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021869/a-perspective-of-genes-and-environment-for-the-development-of-environmental-mutagen-research-in-asia
#12
EDITORIAL
Takashi Yagi
Two years have passed since the Japanese Environmental Society (JEMS) made the official journal Genes and Environment (G&E) open access. Current subjects on environmental mutagen research to further advance this field are described herein, and the roles of JEMS and G&E are discussed. Various important subjects are being investigated in current research fields such as severe environmental pollution in Asian countries; the identification of new hazardous substances and elucidation of mutation mechanisms using newly developed techniques; the development of new genotoxicity assays including in silico predictions using information technology and artificial intelligence as well as bioassays...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878859/radioprotective-activity-of-blackcurrant-extract-evaluated-by-in-vitro-micronucleus-and-gene-mutation-assays-in-tk6-human-lymphoblastoid-cells
#13
Ayumi Yamamoto, Tokuhisa Hirouchi, Saori Kawamorita, Kana Nakashima, Atena Sugiyama, Yoji Kato
INTRODUCTION: Blackcurrant (Ribs nigrum L.) is a classical fruit that has long been used to prepare juice, jam, liqueur, and sometimes medicines in Europe. Previously, we reported a genome defense effect by the antioxidative activity of several types of blackcurrant extracts (BCEs) in yeast and human cell gene mutation assays. In this study, we determined if BCE exerted radioprotective activity against DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, and gene mutations in the TK6 human lymphoblastoid cell line...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781714/generation-repair-and-replication-of-guanine-oxidation-products
#14
REVIEW
Katsuhito Kino, Masayo Hirao-Suzuki, Masayuki Morikawa, Akane Sakaga, Hiroshi Miyazawa
Guanine is the most readily oxidized of the four DNA bases, and guanine oxidation products cause G:C-T:A and G:C-C:G transversions through DNA replication. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) causes G:C-T:A transversions but not G:C-C:G transversions, and is more readily oxidized than guanine. This review covers four major findings. (i) 2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz) is produced from guanine and 8-oxoG under various oxidative conditions. Guanine is incorporated opposite Oz by DNA polymerases, except REV1...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680509/association-between-transported-asian-dust-and-outdoor-fungal-concentration-during-winter-in-a-rural-area-of-western-japan
#15
Kyoko Iwata, Masanari Watanabe, Jun Kurai, Naoto Burioka, Sachiko Nakamoto, Degejirihu Hantan, Eiji Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Recently, Asian dust (AD) has become a serious health problem and several studies have clearly proven that AD can aggravate asthma. However, it remains unclear as to which components of AD have a strong effect on the asthma exacerbation caused by AD exposure. Outdoor fungi can increase emergency department visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation and can aggravate asthma symptoms. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the relationship between AD and outdoor fungi and determining the potential of fungi to cause airborne particulate matter (PM)-related inflammatory responses...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680508/further-evidence-for-the-association-of-cyp2d6-4-gene-polymorphism-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#16
Anwarullah, Muhammad Aslam, Mazhar Badshah, Rashda Abbasi, Aneesa Sultan, Kafaitullah Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Jakob von Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental risk factors play an important role for the susceptibility to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). It was hypothesized that a splice variant of the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*4 allele) is associated with PD because it alters the ability to metabolize toxins and in particular neurotoxins. CYP2D6 codes for the drug metabolizing enzyme debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase. The CYP2D6*4 variant results in an undetectable enzyme activity and consequently in a reduction in metabolism of some toxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608870/erratum-to-genes-and-environment-vol-39
#17
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s41021-016-0051-y.].
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580039/giemsa-stained-pseudo-micronuclei-in-rat-skin-treated-with-vitamin-d3-analog-pefcalcitol
#18
Akira Takeiri, Kenji Tanaka, Asako Harada, Kaori Matsuzaki, Mariko Yano, Shigeki Motoyama, Chie Katoh, Masayuki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Pefcalcitol, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD3), is an anti-psoriatic drug candidate that is designed to achieve much higher pharmacological effects, such as keratinocyte differentiation, than those of VD3, with fewer side effects. Genotoxicity of the compound was evaluated in a rat skin micronucleus (MN) test. RESULTS: In the rat skin MN test, pefcalcitol showed positive when specimens were stained with Giemsa, whereas neither an in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHL cells nor an in vivo bone marrow MN test in rats indicated clastogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469735/effect-of-physicochemical-character-differences-on-the-genotoxic-potency-of-kaolin
#19
Tatsuya Kato, Tatsushi Toyooka, Yuko Ibuki, Shuichi Masuda, Masatoshi Watanabe, Yukari Totsuka
BACKGROUND: Kaolin is white clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4, and many varieties of kaolins having different crystal structures are utilized in industrial, cosmetic and medical fields. To evaluate the effect of physicochemical character differences on the genotoxicity of kaolin, two types of kaolin, kaolin-S with smooth, sphere-shaped crystals, and kaolin-P with clusters of thin pseudohexagonal plates, were used in the study. RESULTS: ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with the kaolins (0...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405246/modulation-of-benzo-a-pyrene-dna-adduct-formation-by-cyp1-inducer-and-inhibitor
#20
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Masanobu Kawanishi, Takashi Yagi
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-studied pro-carcinogen that is metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) has been considered to play a central role in the activation step, which is essential for the formation of DNA adducts. This enzyme is strongly induced by many different chemical agents, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Therefore, AhR activators are suspected to have the potential to aggravate the toxicity of BaP through the induction of CYP1A1...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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