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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213342/unique-molecular-mechanisms-for-maintenance-and-alteration-of-genetic-information-in-the-budding-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
REVIEW
Sayoko Ito-Harashima, Takashi Yagi
The high-fidelity transmission of genetic information is crucial for the survival of organisms, the cells of which have the ability to protect DNA against endogenous and environmental agents, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), ionizing radiation, and various chemical compounds. The basis of protection mechanisms has been evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans; however, each organism often has a specialized mode of regulation that uses different sets of machineries, particularly in lower eukaryotes...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213341/ciapex2-and-cip0-candidates-of-ap-endonucleases-in-ciona-intestinalis-have-3-5-exonuclease-activity-and-contribute-to-protection-against-oxidative-stress
#2
Masafumi Funakoshi, Daisuke Nambara, Yuichiro Hayashi, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are one of the most frequent DNA lesions. AP sites inhibit transcription and DNA replication, and induce cell death. AP endonucleases are key enzymes in AP site repair. Several types of AP endonucleases have been reported, such as AP endonuclease 2 (APEX2) and ribosomal protein P0 (P0). However, it is not known how the functions and roles differ among AP endonucleases. To clarify the difference of roles among AP endonucleases, we conducted biochemical analysis focused on APEX2 and P0 homologues in Ciona intestinalis...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118866/estimation-of-the-effects-of-heavy-asian-dust-on-respiratory-function-by-definition-type
#3
Jun Kurai, Masanari Watanabe, Hisashi Noma, Kyoko Iwata, Jumpei Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Sano, Yuji Tohda, Eiji Shimizu
Background: The adverse effects of Asian dust (AD) on health have been demonstrated in earlier studies, but there is no standardized definition for heavy-AD. This study aimed to examine which definition of heavy-AD has the most adverse effect on respiratory function. Methods: One-hundred-and-thirty-seven adults with asthma, and 384 school children self-measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). The four definitions of heavy-AD are: (1) the definition provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), (2) daily median AD particle level ≥ 0...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118865/protective-effects-of-tea-polyphenols-and-%C3%AE-carotene-against-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-mutation-and-oxidative-stress-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Isha Nagpal, Suresh K Abraham
Background: The commonly consumed antioxidants β-carotene and tea polyphenols were used to assess their protective effects against γ-radiation induced sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) mutation and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae and adult males of wild-type Oregon-K (ORK) were fed on test agents for 24 and 72 h respectively before exposure to 10Gy γ-irradiation. The treated/control flies were used to assess the induction of SLRLs. We also evaluated antioxidant properties of these phytochemicals in the third instar larvae...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021869/a-perspective-of-genes-and-environment-for-the-development-of-environmental-mutagen-research-in-asia
#5
EDITORIAL
Takashi Yagi
Two years have passed since the Japanese Environmental Society (JEMS) made the official journal Genes and Environment (G&E) open access. Current subjects on environmental mutagen research to further advance this field are described herein, and the roles of JEMS and G&E are discussed. Various important subjects are being investigated in current research fields such as severe environmental pollution in Asian countries; the identification of new hazardous substances and elucidation of mutation mechanisms using newly developed techniques; the development of new genotoxicity assays including in silico predictions using information technology and artificial intelligence as well as bioassays...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878859/radioprotective-activity-of-blackcurrant-extract-evaluated-by-in-vitro-micronucleus-and-gene-mutation-assays-in-tk6-human-lymphoblastoid-cells
#6
Ayumi Yamamoto, Tokuhisa Hirouchi, Saori Kawamorita, Kana Nakashima, Atena Sugiyama, Yoji Kato
INTRODUCTION: Blackcurrant (Ribs nigrum L.) is a classical fruit that has long been used to prepare juice, jam, liqueur, and sometimes medicines in Europe. Previously, we reported a genome defense effect by the antioxidative activity of several types of blackcurrant extracts (BCEs) in yeast and human cell gene mutation assays. In this study, we determined if BCE exerted radioprotective activity against DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, and gene mutations in the TK6 human lymphoblastoid cell line...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781714/generation-repair-and-replication-of-guanine-oxidation-products
#7
REVIEW
Katsuhito Kino, Masayo Hirao-Suzuki, Masayuki Morikawa, Akane Sakaga, Hiroshi Miyazawa
Guanine is the most readily oxidized of the four DNA bases, and guanine oxidation products cause G:C-T:A and G:C-C:G transversions through DNA replication. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) causes G:C-T:A transversions but not G:C-C:G transversions, and is more readily oxidized than guanine. This review covers four major findings. (i) 2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz) is produced from guanine and 8-oxoG under various oxidative conditions. Guanine is incorporated opposite Oz by DNA polymerases, except REV1...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680509/association-between-transported-asian-dust-and-outdoor-fungal-concentration-during-winter-in-a-rural-area-of-western-japan
#8
Kyoko Iwata, Masanari Watanabe, Jun Kurai, Naoto Burioka, Sachiko Nakamoto, Degejirihu Hantan, Eiji Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Recently, Asian dust (AD) has become a serious health problem and several studies have clearly proven that AD can aggravate asthma. However, it remains unclear as to which components of AD have a strong effect on the asthma exacerbation caused by AD exposure. Outdoor fungi can increase emergency department visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation and can aggravate asthma symptoms. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the relationship between AD and outdoor fungi and determining the potential of fungi to cause airborne particulate matter (PM)-related inflammatory responses...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680508/further-evidence-for-the-association-of-cyp2d6-4-gene-polymorphism-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#9
Anwarullah, Muhammad Aslam, Mazhar Badshah, Rashda Abbasi, Aneesa Sultan, Kafaitullah Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Jakob von Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental risk factors play an important role for the susceptibility to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). It was hypothesized that a splice variant of the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*4 allele) is associated with PD because it alters the ability to metabolize toxins and in particular neurotoxins. CYP2D6 codes for the drug metabolizing enzyme debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase. The CYP2D6*4 variant results in an undetectable enzyme activity and consequently in a reduction in metabolism of some toxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608870/erratum-to-genes-and-environment-vol-39
#10
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s41021-016-0051-y.].
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580039/giemsa-stained-pseudo-micronuclei-in-rat-skin-treated-with-vitamin-d3-analog-pefcalcitol
#11
Akira Takeiri, Kenji Tanaka, Asako Harada, Kaori Matsuzaki, Mariko Yano, Shigeki Motoyama, Chie Katoh, Masayuki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Pefcalcitol, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD3), is an anti-psoriatic drug candidate that is designed to achieve much higher pharmacological effects, such as keratinocyte differentiation, than those of VD3, with fewer side effects. Genotoxicity of the compound was evaluated in a rat skin micronucleus (MN) test. RESULTS: In the rat skin MN test, pefcalcitol showed positive when specimens were stained with Giemsa, whereas neither an in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHL cells nor an in vivo bone marrow MN test in rats indicated clastogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469735/effect-of-physicochemical-character-differences-on-the-genotoxic-potency-of-kaolin
#12
Tatsuya Kato, Tatsushi Toyooka, Yuko Ibuki, Shuichi Masuda, Masatoshi Watanabe, Yukari Totsuka
BACKGROUND: Kaolin is white clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4, and many varieties of kaolins having different crystal structures are utilized in industrial, cosmetic and medical fields. To evaluate the effect of physicochemical character differences on the genotoxicity of kaolin, two types of kaolin, kaolin-S with smooth, sphere-shaped crystals, and kaolin-P with clusters of thin pseudohexagonal plates, were used in the study. RESULTS: ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with the kaolins (0...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405246/modulation-of-benzo-a-pyrene-dna-adduct-formation-by-cyp1-inducer-and-inhibitor
#13
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Masanobu Kawanishi, Takashi Yagi
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-studied pro-carcinogen that is metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) has been considered to play a central role in the activation step, which is essential for the formation of DNA adducts. This enzyme is strongly induced by many different chemical agents, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Therefore, AhR activators are suspected to have the potential to aggravate the toxicity of BaP through the induction of CYP1A1...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373898/evaluation-of-in-vivo-mutagenesis-for-assessing-the-health-risk-of-air-pollutants
#14
REVIEW
Yasunobu Aoki
Various kind of chemical substances, including man-made chemical products and unintended products, are emitted to ambient air. Some of these substances have been shown to be mutagenic and therefore to act as a carcinogen in humans. National pollutant inventories (e.g., Pollutant Release and Transfer Registration in Japan) have estimated release amounts of man-made chemical products, but a major concern is the release of suspended particulate matter containing potent mutagens, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds generated by the combustion of fossil fuel, which are not estimated by PRTR system...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373897/new-insight-for-metformin-against-bladder-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Amr Ahmed El-Arabey
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated that bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world, with 430,000 new cases and 165,000 deaths in 2012. Bladder cancer represents the fourth most common cancer in men and ninth most common cancer in women. It is the second most prevalent cancer in men 60 years of age or older in United States. Looking further down, continuing advancements in cancer research could potentially offer more choices for clinician and patient with longer survival and better quality of life...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265305/the-10th-anniversary-of-the-publication-of-genes-and-environment-memoir-of-establishing-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-and-a-proposal-for-a-new-collaborative-study-on-mutagenic-hormesis
#16
Shizuyo Sutou
The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) was established in 1972 by 147 members, 11 of whom are still on the active list as of May 1, 2016. As one of them, I introduce some historic topics here. These include 1) establishment of JEMS, 2) the issue of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(3-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), 3) the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS) and its achievements, and 4) the Collaborative Study Group of the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) and its achievements. In addition to these historic matters, some of which are still ongoing, a new collaborative study is proposed on adaptive response or hormesis by mutagens...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265304/tumor-augmenting-effects-of-gestational-arsenic-exposure-on-f1-and-f2-in-mice
#17
REVIEW
Keiko Nohara, Takehiro Suzuki, Kazuyuki Okamura, Junya Matsushita, Shota Takumi
The consequences of early-life exposure to chemicals in the environment are emerging concerns. Chronic exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic has been known to cause various adverse health effects, including cancers, in humans. On the other hand, animal studies by Dr. M. Waalkes' group reported that arsenite exposure of pregnant F0 females, only from gestational day 8 to 18, increased hepatic tumors in the F1 (arsenite-F1) males of C3H mice, whose males tend to develop spontaneous hepatic tumors later in life...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250868/evolution-of-genotoxicity-test-methods-in-japan
#18
Toshio Sofuni
The evolution of methods to assess genotoxicity of test compounds is thought to be one of the important subjects in The Japanese Environmental and Mutagen Society (JEMS). In 1970, the Ministry of Education of Japan (at that time) organized a research group (Organizer: Y. Tazima, National Institute of Genetics), and started a systematic research on the genotoxic effects induced by chemical substances. Considering the importance of this issue through the outcomes of the research group, JEMS was established in 1972, and President Tazima organized the 1st annual meeting in the August in Tokyo with the participation of experts in this field working in national institutes, universities and others in Japan...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174618/transgenic-rat-models-for-mutagenesis-and-carcinogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Takehiko Nohmi, Kenichi Masumura, Naomi Toyoda-Hokaiwado
Rats are a standard experimental animal for cancer bioassay and toxicological research for chemicals. Although the genetic analyses were behind mice, rats have been more frequently used for toxicological research than mice. This is partly because they live longer than mice and induce a wider variety of tumors, which are morphologically similar to those in humans. The body mass is larger than mice, which enables to take samples from organs for studies on pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics. In addition, there are a number of chemicals that exhibit marked species differences in the carcinogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163803/estrogen-and-stress-induced-dna-damage-in-breast-cancer-and-chemoprevention-with-dietary-flavonoid
#20
REVIEW
Michiko T Yasuda, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Kayoko Shimoi
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed female cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Multiple factors are responsible for breast cancer and heritable factors have received much attention. DNA damage in breast cancer is induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol, daily social/psychological stressors, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). DNA damage induced by estrogen and stress is an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of breast cancer and is now recognized as a critical provision for chemoprevention of breast cancer...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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