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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#1
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074113/genetic-polymorphisms-of-human-cytochrome-p450-cyp1a1-in-an-egyptian-population-and-tobacco-induced-lung-cancer
#2
Nada Ezzeldin, Dalia El-Lebedy, Amira Darwish, Ahmed El-Bastawisy, Mirhane Hassan, Shereen Abd El-Aziz, Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Amal Saad-Hussein
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 helps detoxify the potential carcinogens in tobacco smoke, it was reported that polymorphisms in the coding gene result in variation in the expression and activity levels which alter metabolism and clearance of carcinogens and therefore modify cancer risk. In this work, we aimed to identify CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms associated with lung cancer in Egyptian population and to examine the interaction effect with Tobacco smoking in modulating disease risk...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074112/isolation-and-characterization-of-antimutagenic-components-of-glycyrrhiza-aspera-against-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea
#3
Keiko Inami, Yusuke Mine, Jin Tatsuzaki, Chihiro Mori, Masataka Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: A powdered ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza aspera root exhibits antimutagenic activity against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) based on the Ames assay with Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The aim of this study was to identify the antimutagenic components of the powdered ethanolic extract of G. aspera root. RESULTS: The powdered ethanolic extract of G. aspera root was sequentially suspended in n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, and each solvent soluble fraction and the residue were assayed for antimutagenic activity against MNU in S...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074111/absence-of-in-vivo-mutagenicity-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-in-single-intratracheal-instillation-study-using-f344-gpt-delta-rats
#4
Katsuyoshi Horibata, Akiko Ukai, Akio Ogata, Dai Nakae, Hiroshi Ando, Yoshikazu Kubo, Akemichi Nagasawa, Katsuhiro Yuzawa, Masamitsu Honma
INTRODUCTION: It is known that fibrous particles of micrometer length, such as carbon nanotubes, which have same dimensions as asbestos, are carcinogenic. Carcinogenicity of nanomaterials is strongly related to inflammatory reactions; however, the genotoxicity mechanism(s) is unclear. Indeed, inconsistent results on genotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been shown in several reports. Therefore, we analyzed the in vivo genotoxicity induced by an intratracheal instillation of straight MWCNTs in rats using a different test system-the Pig-a gene mutation assay-that can reflect the genotoxicity occurring in the bone marrow...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980700/mutations-induced-by-8-hydroxyguanine-8-oxo-7-8-dihydroguanine-a-representative-oxidized-base-in-mammalian-cells
#5
REVIEW
Tetsuya Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kamiya
Guanine oxidation occurs in both DNA and the cellular nucleotide pool, and one of the major products is 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine). The mutagenic potentials of this oxidized base have been examined in various experimental systems. In this review, we summarize the mutagenicity of the base in mammalian cells. We also describe the effects of specialized DNA polymerases, DNA repair proteins, and nucleotide pool sanitization enzymes.
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512524/acknowledgement-to-reviewers
#6
Takashi Yagi
The editors of Genes and Environment would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume XXXVII (2015).
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050219/nitrative-and-oxidative-dna-damage-in-infection-related-carcinogenesis-in-relation-to-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Shosuke Kawanishi, Shiho Ohnishi, Ning Ma, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Mariko Murata
Infection and chronic inflammation have been recognized as important factors for carcinogenesis. Under inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from inflammatory and epithelial cells, and result in the formation of oxidative and nitrative DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine. The DNA damage can cause mutations and has been implicated in inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that various infectious agents are carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1), including bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980699/development-and-progress-for-three-decades-in-umu-test-systems
#8
REVIEW
Yoshimitsu Oda
Umu test have been widely used to predict the detection and assessment of DNA- damaging chemicals in environmental genotoxicity field for three decades. This test system is more useful with respect to simplicity, sensitivity, rapidity, and reproducibility. A review of the literature on the development of the umu test is presented in this article. The contents of this article are included a description of numerous data using the umu test. This test have been fully evaluated and used in many directions. Different genetically engineered umu systems introducing bacterial and rat or human drug metabolizing enzymes into the umu tester strains, have been successfully established and are considered as useful tools for genotoxicity assays to study the mechanisms of biotransformation in chemical carcinogenesis...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980698/in-the-beginning-when-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-was-established
#9
Takashi Sugimura
Upon the commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the journal, "Genes and Environment", the history of sciences on environmental mutagens in Japan was reviewed.
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822323/inhibitory-effect-of-actinidia-arguta-on-mutagenesis-inflammation-and-two-stage-mouse-skin-tumorigenesis
#10
Mari Nishimura, Yuma Okimasu, Naoko Miyake, Misako Tada, Ryoko Hida, Tomoe Negishi, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Actinidia arguta, known as sarunashi in Japan, is a vine tree native to east-Asia, including Japan, that produces small fruit rich in anthocyanins, catechins, vitamin C, chlorophyll, beta-carotene and other polyphenols. RESULTS: Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of the juice of A. arguta (arguta-juice) toward the mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using the Ames test, and antioxidant activity of arguta-juice as determined using a free radical scavenging assay...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822322/selective-enhancing-effect-of-metal-ions-on-mutagenicity
#11
Nobuyoshi Fujii, Shigemitsu Yano, Kenji Takeshita
BACKGROUND: We investigated the enhancing effect of metal ions on several mutagens and examined their mechanism of action. We performed the Ames tests on six mutagens, i.e., 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), quercetin, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA), benzo[a]pyrene, and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole, in the presence of five metal ions: Ca(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II). RESULTS: Cu(II) enhanced the mutagenicity of only 4NQO and reduced the mutagenicity of the other mutagens...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822321/genotoxicity-assessment-of-4-methylimidazole-regulatory-perspectives
#12
Takeshi Morita, Chikako Uneyama
4-Methylimidazole (4-MI) is formed as a result of the Maillard reaction process, and therefore is found in many foods and beverages. It is also found in soft drinks (i.e., cola) as a by-product in the production of some caramel colors. NTP bioassays revealed clear evidence of lung carcinogenicity of 4-MI in male and female mice, but not in rats and then IARC classified 4-MI as group 2B carcinogen. Genotoxicity studies with 4-MI were negative in the Ames tests and in the erythrocyte micronucleus tests with mice or rats...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733886/structural-chromosome-aberrations-cause-swelling-of-the-nucleus
#13
Kenji Takeshita, Hiroaki I Ogawa, Toshinari Maeda
BACKGROUND: Carcinogens are known to cause swelling of the mammalian cell nucleus. However, the mechanism of the swelling and its toxicological significance have not been fully elucidated. Since nuclear swelling (NS hereafter) has been frequently observed in chromosomal aberration (CA hereafter) tests (in vitro), the relationship between NS and CAs was investigated in this study. RESULTS: In a short-term CA test using the fibroblast CHL cell line, the appearance of NS increased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to six types of clastogens (mitomycin C, methyl methane sulfonate, 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine, benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide monohydrate, and 9,10-dimethyl-2-benzanthracene), and a strong correlation was found between NS (%) and CAs (%) at each dosage...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733885/the-micronucleus-test-most-widely-used-in-vivo-genotoxicity-test
#14
Makoto Hayashi
Genotoxicity is commonly evaluated during the chemical safety assessment together with other toxicological endpoints. The micronucleus test is always included in many genotoxic test guidelines for long time in many classes of chemicals, e.g., pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural chemicals, food additives. Although the trend of the safety assessment of chemicals faces to animal welfare and in vitro systems are more welcome than the in vivo systems, the in vivo test systems are paid more attention in the field of genotoxicity because of its weight of evidence...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588157/mutagenic-consequences-of-cytosine-alterations-site-specifically-embedded-in-the-human-genome
#15
Akira Sassa, Yuki Kanemaru, Nagisa Kamoshita, Masamitsu Honma, Manabu Yasui
INTRODUCTION: Cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides often undergo various types of modification, such as methylation, deamination, and halogenation. These types of modifications can be pro-mutagenic and can contribute to the formation of mutational hotspots in cells. To analyze mutations induced by DNA modifications in the human genome, we recently developed a system for tracing DNA adducts in targeted mutagenesis (TATAM). In this system, a modified/damaged base is site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes in human lymphoblastoid cells...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588156/contribution-to-regulatory-science-and-a-next-challenge-of-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-jems
#16
Yoshifumi Uno
Many members of The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) have significantly contributed to guidelines on chemical genotoxicity. The guidelines have been useful for the hazard identification and risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals. However, risk assessors and developers of drugs and other commercial products might eliminate beneficial chemicals from further development simply based on positive results of genotoxicity testing. Experts in the field of genotoxicity should better characterize the biological significance of genotoxicants and more correctly assess human risk...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482301/collaborative-studies-in-toxicogenomics-in-rodent-liver-in-jems%C3%A2-mms-a-useful-application-of-principal-component-analysis-on-toxicogenomics
#17
REVIEW
Chie Furihata, Takashi Watanabe, Takayoshi Suzuki, Shuichi Hamada, Madoka Nakajima
Toxicogenomics is a rapidly developing discipline focused on the elucidation of the molecular and cellular effects of chemicals on biological systems. As a collaborative study group of Toxicogenomics/JEMS·MMS, we conducted studies on hepatocarcinogens in rodent liver in which 100 candidate marker genes were selected to discriminate genotoxic hepatocarcinogens from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. Differential gene expression induced by 13 chemicals were examined using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), including eight genotoxic hepatocarcinogens [o-aminoazotoluene, chrysene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, dimethylnitrosamine, dipropylnitrosamine and ethylnitrosourea (ENU)], four non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens [carbon tetrachloride, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), phenobarbital and trichloroethylene] and a non-genotoxic non-hepatocarcinogen [ethanol]...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482300/oral-environment-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Yasusei Kudo, Hidesuke Tada, Natsumi Fujiwara, Yoshiko Tada, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Yoichiro Miyake, Naozumi Ishimaru
Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375797/what-causes-human-cancer-approaches-from-the-chemistry-of-dna-damage
#19
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kasai
To prevent human cancers, environmental mutagens must be identified. A common mechanism of carcinogenesis is DNA damage, and thus it is quite possible that environmental mutagens can be trapped as adducts by DNA components. It is also important to identify new types of DNA damaging reactions and clarify their mechanisms. In this paper, I will provide typical examples of our efforts to identify DNA damage by environmental agents, from chemistry-based studies. 1) Oxidative DNA damage: 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, 8-oxodG) was discovered during a structural study of DNA modifications caused in vitro by heating glucose, which was used as a model of cooked foods...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375796/cancer-in-japan-prevalence-prevention-and-the-role-of-heterocyclic-amines-in-human-carcinogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Minako Nagao, Shoichiro Tsugane
In this article, three topics are being studied in order to understand the present state of cancer in Japan. First, the statistics on cancer mortality indicates that the mortality from cancer in young individuals has been decreasing during the last 50 years, although the total mortality from cancer has been steadily and steeply increasing. Second, epidemiological analyses of cancer causes in Japan indicated that 50 % of cancer cases are preventable, and that prevention of infection and refraining from tobacco smoking will reduce cancer mortality by about 40 %...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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