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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338768/collaborative-study-of-thresholds-for-mutagens-proposal-of-a-typical-protocol-for-detection-of-hormetic-responses-in-cytotoxicity-tests
#1
Shizuyo Sutou, Akiko Koeda, Kana Komatsu, Toshiyuki Shiragiku, Hiroshi Seki, Kohji Yamakage, Takeru Niitsuma, Toshiyuki Kudo, Akihiro Wakata
Background: According to the linear no-threshold model (LNT), even the smallest amount of radiation is hazardous. Although the LNT is not based on solid data, this hypothesis has been applied to mutagens and carcinogens. As a result, it has been postulated that there are no thresholds for these chemicals. To demonstrate negativity by experiments is practically impossible, because negative data may leave behind the possibility that additional data might make the resolution power high enough to change negativity to positivity...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186535/comparison-of-structures-among-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-grxs-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Mohnad Abdalla, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Aadil Yousif
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) comprise a group of glutathione (GSH)-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes that respond to oxidative stress and sustain redox homeostasis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grx has a similar interaction patterns through its residues between the residues and the environment. The glutaredoxin domain covers 100% of the entire mature Grx1 and Grx8, while the glutaredoxin domain covers ~ 52% of the entire mature Grx6 and Grx7, which have approximately 74 additional amino acids in their N-terminal regions, whereas Grx3 and Grx4 have two functional domains: glutaredoxin and thioredoxin...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151062/mutagenic-properties-of-dimethylaniline-isomers-in-mice-as-evaluated-by-comet-micronucleus-and-transgenic-mutation-assays
#3
Arihiro Kohara, Mariko Matsumoto, Akihiko Hirose, Makoto Hayashi, Masamitsu Honma, Takayoshi Suzuki
Background: The carcinogenic potential of dimethylaniline (DMA) isomers in rodents and humans has been previously reported, and there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of 2,6-DMA in experimental animals. The target organ of carcinogenesis of 2,6-DMA is the nasal cavity. In the current study, six DMA isomers, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4- and 3,5-DMA, were evaluated for mutagenic properties. Results: Male ddY mice (3/group) were treated intragastrically (i...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123389/structure-analysis-of-yeast-glutaredoxin-grx6-protein-produced-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Mohnad Abdalla, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Amr Ahmed El-Arabey, Raihan Mo, T I M Dafaalla, Hamed I Hamouda, Eijaz Ahmed Bhat, Annoor Awadasseid, Hassan Abdellha Ahmed Ali
Background: Grx6 is a yeast Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum protein involved in iron-sulfur binding that belongs to monothiol glutaredoxin-protein family. Grx6 has been biochemically characterized previously. Grx6 contains a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-136). Depending on the active-site sequences, Grxs can be classified to classic dithiol Grxs with a CXXC motif known as classes II and monothiol Grxs with a CXXS motif known as classes I, and Grx6 belongs to the class I with a CSYS motif...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069278/simultaneous-and-absolute-quantification-of-nucleoside-triphosphates-using-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Shun Matsuda, Toshihiko Kasahara
Background: Nucleoside triphosphates participate in fundamental cellular processes as building blocks of DNA and RNA, energy carriers, and cofactors in enzymatic reactions, and their balance is tightly regulated. Here, we established a simultaneous and absolute quantification method for eight nucleoside triphosphates using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Our method was successfully applied to the extract of human acute myeloid leukemia Molm-13 cells...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061958/correction-to-new-insight-for-metformin-against-bladder-cancer
#6
Amr Ahmed El-Arabey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s41021-017-0074-z.].
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026883/ozone-augments-interleukin-8-production-induced-by-ambient-particulate-matter
#7
Jun Kurai, Kunishige Onuma, Hiroyuki Sano, Futoshi Okada, Masanari Watanabe
Background: Experimental and controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated additive effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on health. A few epidemiological studies have suggested that ambient particulate matter components are important for the combined effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on health. However, few studies have examined whether ozone changes the effects of ambient particulate matter on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this study, the influence of ozone on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to ambient particulate matter was evaluated...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881475/does-the-prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-alter-dna-methylation-levels-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-an-analysis-using-a-high-sensitivity-methylome-technique
#8
Toshiki Aiba, Toshiyuki Saito, Akiko Hayashi, Shinji Sato, Harunobu Yunokawa, Toru Maruyama, Wataru Fujibuchi, Seiichiroh Ohsako
Background: There is still considerable debate about the effects of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) an endocrine disrupter at low doses. Recently, many studies using animal models have shown that prenatal BPA exposure induces behavioral and neuronal disorders due to epigenetic changes in the brain. However, striking evidence of epigenomic changes has to be shown. Methods: To investigate whether low-dose BPA exposure in the fetal stage can alter CpG methylation levels in the central nervous system, the hippocampus of the inbred C57BL/6 J mouse as the target tissue was collected to detect alterations in CpG methylation levels using a highly sensitive method of genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, methylated site display-amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSD-AFLP)...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881474/greetings-from-the-new-regime
#9
EDITORIAL
Masami Yamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785231/advantages-of-evaluating-%C3%AE-h2ax-induction-in-non-clinical-drug-development
#10
REVIEW
Shigeki Motoyama, Akira Takeiri, Kenji Tanaka, Asako Harada, Kaori Matsuzaki, Junko Taketo, Saori Matsuo, Etsuko Fujii, Masayuki Mishima
γH2AX, the phosphorylated form of a histone variant H2AX at Ser 139, is already widely used as a biomarker to research the fundamental biology of DNA damage and repair and to assess the risk of environmental chemicals, pollutants, radiation, and so on. It is also beginning to be used in the early non-clinical stage of pharmaceutical drug development as an in vitro tool for screening and for mechanistic studies on genotoxicity. Here, we review the available information on γH2AX-based test systems that can be used to develop drugs and present our own experience of practically applying these systems during the non-clinical phase of drug development...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632622/negative-and-positive-control-ranges-in-the-bacterial-reverse-mutation-test-jems-bms-collaborative-study
#11
Masayuki Kato, Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Toshiro Fukushima, Yasuyoshi Miura, Takumi Awogi, Shigetomo Hikosaka, Kumiko Kawakami, Madoka Nakajima, Masato Nakamura, Hajime Sui, Kumiko Watanabe, Atsushi Hakura
A large-scale study was conducted by multiple laboratories affiliated with the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society and the Bacterial Mutagenicity Study Group to investigate possible proficiency indicators for the bacterial reverse mutation test with a preincubation procedure. Approximately 30 laboratories generated negative and positive control count data and dose-response curves of the positive control articles for the bacterial reverse mutation test, with assays conducted annually from 2013 to 2016. Overall, the majority of the negative and positive control counts for Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA , with and without S9 mix, were within the range of the means ±2× standard deviation...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632621/measurement-of-8-hydroxyguanine-as-an-oxidative-stress-biomarker-in-saliva-by-hplc-ecd
#12
Kazuaki Kawai, Hiroshi Kasai, Yun-Shan Li, Yuya Kawasaki, Shintaro Watanabe, Masanori Ohta, Toru Honda, Hiroshi Yamato
Introduction: Oxidative stress leads to many kinds of diseases. Currently, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is widely measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. There is a specific advantage if saliva can be used as the sample to measure the oxidative stress biomarker, because saliva is much easier to collect than urine. In this study, we investigated the measurement of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHGua) as an oxidative stress marker in saliva, by a column switching HPLC system equipped with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD)...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556374/correlation-between-the-results-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-chromosomal-damage-tests-in-consideration-of-exposure-levels-of-test-chemicals
#13
Eiji Yamamura, Chinami Aruga, Shigeharu Muto, Nobuyuki Baba, Yoshifumi Uno
Introduction: We examined the correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests by using in-house data of 18 pharmaceutical candidates that showed positive results in the in vitro chromosomal aberration or micronucleus test using CHL/IU cells, and quantitatively analyzed them especially in regard to exposure levels of the compounds. Findings: Eight compounds showed that the exposure levels [maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and AUC0-24h ] were comparable with or higher than the in vitro exposure levels [the lowest effective (positive) concentration (LEC) and AUCvitro  = LEC (μg/mL) × treatment time (h)]...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445426/the-effect-of-different-methods-and-image-analyzers-on-the-results-of-the-in-vivo-comet-assay
#14
Takahiro Kyoya, Rika Iwamoto, Yuko Shimanura, Megumi Terada, Shuichi Masuda
Introduction: The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer)...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339978/increase-of-somatic-cell-mutations-in-oxidative-damage-sensitive-drosophila
#15
Ryota Koike, Tomoyo Uchiyama, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Tomoe Negishi
Background: Oxidative damage is an important genotoxic source for almost all organisms. To efficiently detect mutations induced by oxidative damage, we previously developed a urate-null Drosophila strain. Using this Drosophila strain, we showed the mutagenic activity of environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and the herbicide paraquat, which are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we examined the mutagenic activities of carcinogenic mutagens that are considered to cause mutations by adduct formation, alkylation, or crosslinking of cellular DNA in the oxidative damage-sensitive Drosophila to evaluate how the oxidative damage induced by these mutagens is involved in causing mutations...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339977/necessity-for-retrospective-evaluation-of-past-positive-chemicals-in-in-vitro-chromosomal-aberration-tests-using-recommended-cytotoxicity-indices
#16
Hiroshi Honda, Yurika Fujita, Toshio Kasamatsu, Anne Fuchs, Rolf Fautz, Osamu Morita
We have demonstrated that retrospective evaluation of existing data of in vitro chromosomal aberration test using the new cytotoxicity indices RICC (relative increase in cell count) or RPD (relative population doubling) reduces the false-positive rate. We have constructed an algorithm to predict the likelihood that past-positive results would differ when retested accordingly. Here, we emphasize the importance of reviewing existing in vitro chromosomal aberration test results. The present Letter not only supports the rediscovery of potentially useful chemicals excluded from further development as a result of misclassification due to in vitro false-positive results, but also contributes to the development of a precise Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model by providing an appropriate training data-set...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339976/detection-of-dioxin-induced-demethylation-of-mouse-cyp1a1-gene-promoter-by-a-new-labeling-method-for-short-dna-fragments-possessing-5-methylcytosine-at-the-end
#17
Hisaka Kurita, Toshiki Aiba, Toshiyuki Saito, Seiichiroh Ohsako
Environmental factors stimulate alteration of DNA methylation level. Investigation of the genome-wide DNA methylation status is important for environmental health studies. We here designed a genomic DNA amplification and labeling protocol using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HinP1 I. This method can specifically amplify genomic DNA fragments possessing methyl-CpG at the end. The fragments are a relatively short size and dominantly located on CpG-islands. By using the samples prepared by this method, a dioxin-induced change in the methylation level of the mouse Cyp1a1 promoter was successfully evaluated using oligonucleotide probes covalently bound onto a glass plate...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213342/unique-molecular-mechanisms-for-maintenance-and-alteration-of-genetic-information-in-the-budding-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
REVIEW
Sayoko Ito-Harashima, Takashi Yagi
The high-fidelity transmission of genetic information is crucial for the survival of organisms, the cells of which have the ability to protect DNA against endogenous and environmental agents, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), ionizing radiation, and various chemical compounds. The basis of protection mechanisms has been evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans; however, each organism often has a specialized mode of regulation that uses different sets of machineries, particularly in lower eukaryotes...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213341/ciapex2-and-cip0-candidates-of-ap-endonucleases-in-ciona-intestinalis-have-3-5-exonuclease-activity-and-contribute-to-protection-against-oxidative-stress
#19
Masafumi Funakoshi, Daisuke Nambara, Yuichiro Hayashi, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are one of the most frequent DNA lesions. AP sites inhibit transcription and DNA replication, and induce cell death. AP endonucleases are key enzymes in AP site repair. Several types of AP endonucleases have been reported, such as AP endonuclease 2 (APEX2) and ribosomal protein P0 (P0). However, it is not known how the functions and roles differ among AP endonucleases. To clarify the difference of roles among AP endonucleases, we conducted biochemical analysis focused on APEX2 and P0 homologues in Ciona intestinalis ...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118866/estimation-of-the-effects-of-heavy-asian-dust-on-respiratory-function-by-definition-type
#20
Jun Kurai, Masanari Watanabe, Hisashi Noma, Kyoko Iwata, Jumpei Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Sano, Yuji Tohda, Eiji Shimizu
Background: The adverse effects of Asian dust (AD) on health have been demonstrated in earlier studies, but there is no standardized definition for heavy-AD. This study aimed to examine which definition of heavy-AD has the most adverse effect on respiratory function. Methods: One-hundred-and-thirty-seven adults with asthma, and 384 school children self-measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). The four definitions of heavy-AD are: (1) the definition provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), (2) daily median AD particle level ≥ 0...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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