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Conservation Physiology

Cyril Portugues, Jose Luis Crespo-Picazo, Daniel García-Párraga, Jordi Altimiras, Teresa Lorenzo, Alicia Borque-Espinosa, Andreas Fahlman
Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O2 treatment (HBOT)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Heather D Veilleux, Jennifer M Donelson, Philip L Munday
Reproduction in marine fish is generally tightly linked with water temperature. Consequently, when adults are exposed to projected future ocean temperatures, reproductive output of many species declines precipitously. Recent research has shown that in the common reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, step-wise exposure to higher temperatures over two generations (parents: +1.5°C, offspring: +3.0°C) can improve reproductive output in the F2 generation compared to F2 fish that have experienced the same high temperatures over two generations (F1 parents: +3...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Louis Hunninck, Iris H Ringstad, Craig R Jackson, Roel May, Frode Fossøy, Kenneth Uiseb, Werner Killian, Eivin Røskaft
The conservation of the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) is of prime importance for many African countries. Interactions between elephants and humans are known to induce stress and thereby have the potential to affect elephants' fitness. In Namibia, anthropogenic disturbances are increasing due to increasing human population size and development, particularly near protected areas, such as national parks. In this study, we investigated elephant stress levels in relation to their land use, specifically their protection status, comparing elephants within Etosha National Park in Namibia with elephants residing outside the park...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Adam F Parlin, José Pedro S do Amaral, John Kelly Dougherty, M Henry H Stevens, Paul J Schaeffer
Environmental conditions may affect individual physiological processes that influence short-term performance and ultimately growth, survival and reproduction. As such, habitats selected by animals must provide suitable and adequate resources. Ectothermic species are highly dependent on climatic conditions and ambient temperatures that dictate body temperature regulation and in turn physiological processes. We investigated the thermoregulatory performance, habitat selection, and movements of an ectothermic vertebrate, the Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) to assess the importance of thermoregulatory physiology in habitat selection...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Phillipa Beale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Diana J R Lafferty, Alexander V Kumar, Sarah Whitcher, Klaus Hackländer, L Scott Mills
Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations are used increasingly as a non-invasive measure to index physiological stress experienced by diverse taxa. However, FGM may not be evenly distributed throughout a faecal mass or faecal pellet group. Moreover, within-sample variation in FGM measurements associated with different sampling and/or processing techniques is rarely reported despite potentially having important implications for inferring stress levels in free-ranging wildlife. Using a captive collection of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), we (i) assessed repeatability of FGM measurements (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Kim Birnie-Gauvin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Dawn M Zimmerman, Mark A Mitchell
The preservation of spermatozoa is an important tool used in conservation programs to increase the genetic diversity of threatened and endangered species. Although routinely used to manage conservation programs for higher vertebrates, there have been limited attempts to establish reproductive assistance programs for tortoises. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for collecting and characterizing semen in Testudinidae. Semen was collected from 13/16 (81.2%, 95% CI: 62-100) adult male leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis) via electroejaculation under propofol anesthesia...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Kathleen E Hunt, Nadine S Lysiak, Jooke Robbins, Michael J Moore, Rosemary E Seton, Leigh Torres, C Loren Buck
Recent studies have demonstrated that some hormones are present in baleen powder from bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) whales. To test the potential generalizability of this technique for studies of stress and reproduction in large whales, we sought to determine whether all major classes of steroid and thyroid hormones are detectable in baleen, and whether these hormones are detectable in other mysticetes. Powdered baleen samples were recovered from single specimens of North Atlantic right, bowhead, blue (Balaenoptera [B...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Malthe Hvas, Egil Karlsbakk, Stig Mæhle, Daniel William Wright, Frode Oppedal
The parasitic amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD), a serious problem in seawater salmonid aquaculture globally. Other finfish species are also infected and infection events may be associated with periods of unusual high temperatures. Currently little is known about the impact of AGD on wild fish, but in a time with global warming and increasing aquaculture production this potential threat could be on the rise. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of infected fish is therefore warranted...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Michael J Sheriff, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes
The Earth's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate and, as ecologists, we are challenged with the difficult task of predicting how individuals and populations will respond to climate-induced changes to local and global ecosystems. Although we are beginning to understand some of the responses to changing seasonality, the physiological mechanisms that may drive these responses remain unknown. Using long-term data comparing two nearby populations (<20 km apart) of free-living arctic ground squirrels in northern Alaska, we have previously shown that the timing of spring snowmelt greatly influences their phenology of hibernation and reproduction in a population and site-specific manner...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Umihiko Hoshijima, Juliet M Wong, Gretchen E Hofmann
The Antarctic pteropod, Limacina helicina antarctica, is a dominant member of the zooplankton in the Ross Sea and supports the vast diversity of marine megafauna that designates this region as an internationally protected area. Here, we observed the response of respiration rate to abiotic stressors associated with global change-environmentally relevant temperature treatments (-0.8°C, 4°C) and pH treatments reflecting current-day and future modeled extremes (8.2, 7.95 and 7.7 pH at -0.8°C; 8.11, 7.95 and 7...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Natalie Sopinka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Tamzin A Blewett, Dustin Newton, Shannon L Flynn, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss, Trevor J Hamilton
Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a non-essential metal ubiquitous in the environment due to industrial processes. However, little is known regarding the ability of Cd(2+) to impact the behaviour of aquatic animals in receiving environments. Green shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were exposed to waterborne Cd(2+) [control (no Cd(2+)), low (0.30 μmol/L), medium (3.3 μmol/L) and high (63 μmol/L)], for 24 h, then, crabs were placed in an open field and shelter test to determine potential changes in locomotion and preference for shelter...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Anne E Storey, Morag G Ryan, Michelle G Fitzsimmons, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Linda S Takahashi, Gregory J Robertson, Sabina I Wilhelm, Donald W McKay, Gene R Herzberg, Frances K Mowbray, Luke MacMillan, Carolyn J Walsh
Seabird parents use a conservative breeding strategy that favours long-term survival over intensive parental investment, particularly under harsh conditions. Here, we examine whether variation in several physiological indicators reflects the balance between parental investment and survival in common murres (Uria aalge) under a wide range of foraging conditions. Blood samples were taken from adults during mid-chick rearing from 2007 to 2014 and analysed for corticosterone (CORT, stress hormone), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BUTY, lipid metabolism reflecting ongoing mass loss), and haematocrit (reflecting blood oxygen capacity)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
James W Rivers, Jennifer L Houtz, Matthew G Betts, Brent M Horton
Many species that use or require early-successional forest are of conservation concern, including a number of songbirds that have experienced long-term population declines. In this study, our initial goal was to test whether herbicide application intensity was linked to offspring sex ratio in the White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys), a species that requires early-successional forest within forested landscapes. However, a rapid and accurate method using direct PCR to sex a large sample of birds (n > 1000 individuals) was unavailable, so our secondary goal was to develop a new approach for rapidly determine offspring sex...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Valerie C Pence, Linda R Finke, Mary F Chaiken
Ex situ conservation is critical for hedging against the loss of plant diversity. For those species (exceptional species) that cannot be conserved long-term in standard seed banks, alternative methods are required, often involving in vitro culture and cryopreservation, or storage in liquid nitrogen. Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii is a federally threatened perennial native to Utah and Arizona. It is classified as an exceptional species, because it produces few seeds, and, thus, in vitro propagation and cryopreservation were investigated as tools for its propagation and preservation...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Juliette Di Francesco, Nora Navarro-Gonzalez, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Stephanie Peacock, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Matilde Tomaselli, Tracy Davison, Anja Carlsson, Susan Kutz
Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are increasingly subject to multiple new stressors associated with unprecedented climate change and increased anthropogenic activities across much of their range. Hair may provide a measurement of stress hormones (glucocorticoids) over periods of weeks to months. We developed a reliable method to quantify cortisol in the qiviut (wooly undercoat) of muskoxen using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We then applied this technique to determine the natural variability in qiviut cortisol levels among 150 wild muskoxen, and to assess differences between sexes, seasons and years of collection...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Tanya S Prystay, Erika J Eliason, Michael J Lawrence, Melissa Dick, Jacob W Brownscombe, David A Patterson, Glenn T Crossin, Scott G Hinch, Steven J Cooke
Selective harvest policies have been implemented in North America to enhance the conservation of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) stocks, which has led to an increase in the capture and release of fish by all fishing sectors. Despite the immediate survival benefits, catch-and-release results in capture stress, particularly at high water temperatures, and this can result in delayed post-release mortality minutes to days later. The objective of this study was to evaluate how different water temperatures influenced heart rate disturbance and recovery of wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) following fisheries interactions (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Casey T Clark, Alyson H Fleming, John Calambokidis, Nicholas M Kellar, Camryn D Allen, Krista N Catelani, Michelle Robbins, Nicole E Beaulieu, Debbie Steel, James T Harvey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cow050.].
2017: Conservation Physiology
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