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Conservation Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833749/endocrine-and-metabolic-impacts-of-warming-aquatic-habitats-differential-responses-between-recently-isolated-populations-of-a-eurythermal-desert-pupfish
#1
Sean C Lema, Michelle I Chow, Emily J Resner, Alex A Westman, Darran May, Andrew H Dittman, Kristin M Hardy
Temperatures of inland aquatic habitats are increasing with climate change, and understanding how fishes respond physiologically to thermal stress will be crucial for identifying species most susceptible to these changes. Desert fishes may be particularly vulnerable to rising temperatures because many species occupy only a fraction of their historical range and occur in habitats with already high temperatures. Here, we examined endocrine and metabolic responses to elevated temperature in Amargosa pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766156/conservation-physiology-of-marine-fishes-state-of-the-art-and-prospects-for-policy
#2
David J McKenzie, Michael Axelsson, Denis Chabot, Guy Claireaux, Steven J Cooke, Richard A Corner, Gudrun De Boeck, Paolo Domenici, Pedro M Guerreiro, Bojan Hamer, Christian Jørgensen, Shaun S Killen, Sjannie Lefevre, Stefano Marras, Basile Michaelidis, Göran E Nilsson, Myron A Peck, Angel Perez-Ruzafa, Adriaan D Rijnsdorp, Holly A Shiels, John F Steffensen, Jon C Svendsen, Morten B S Svendsen, Lorna R Teal, Jaap van der Meer, Tobias Wang, Jonathan M Wilson, Rod W Wilson, Julian D Metcalfe
The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766155/gill-structural-change-in-response-to-turbidity-has-no-effect-on-the-oxygen-uptake-of-a-juvenile-sparid-fish
#3
H Cumming, N A Herbert
Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766154/erratum-condition-dependent-migratory-behaviour-of-endangered-atlantic-salmon-smolts-moving-through-an-inland-sea
#4
Glenn T Crossin, Bruce G Hatcher, Shelley Denny, Kim Whoriskey, Michael Orr, Alicia Penney, Frederick G Whoriskey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cow018.].
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766153/physiological-stress-response-reflex-impairment-and-delayed-mortality-of-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus-exposed-to-simulated-fisheries-stressors
#5
Montana F McLean, Kyle C Hanson, Steven J Cooke, Scott G Hinch, David A Patterson, Taylor L Nettles, Matt K Litvak, Glenn T Crossin
White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766152/understanding-invasion-history-and-predicting-invasive-niches-using-genetic-sequencing-technology-in-australia-case-studies-from-cucurbitaceae-and-boraginaceae
#6
Razia S Shaik, Xiaocheng Zhu, David R Clements, Leslie A Weston
Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766151/coloured-ornamental-traits-could-be-effective-and-non-invasive-indicators-of-pollution-exposure-for-wildlife
#7
Natalia Lifshitz, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Growth in human populations causes habitat degradation for other species, which is usually gauged by physical changes to landscapes. Corresponding habitat degradation to air and water is also common, but its effects on individuals can be difficult to detect until they result in the decline or disappearance of populations. More proactive measures of pollution usually combine abiotic samples of soil, water or air with invasive sampling of expendable species, but this approach sometimes creates ethical dilemmas and has limited application for threatened species...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766150/maximal-oxygen-consumption-increases-with-temperature-in-the-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-through-increased-heart-rate-and-arteriovenous-extraction
#8
Débora Claësson, Tobias Wang, Hans Malte
Global warming results in increasing water temperature, which may represent a threat to aquatic ectotherms. The rising temperature affects ecology through physiology, by exerting a direct limiting effect on the individual. The mechanism controlling individual thermal tolerance is still elusive, but some evidence shows that the heart plays a central role, and that insufficient transport of oxygen to the respiring tissues may determine the thermal tolerance of animals. In this study, the influence of the heart in thermal limitation was investigated by measurements of aerobic scope in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) together with measurements of cardiac output during rest and activity...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766149/heavy-with-child-pregnancy-status-and-stable-isotope-ratios-as-determined-from-biopsies-of-humpback-whales
#9
Casey T Clark, Alyson H Fleming, John Calambokidis, Nicholas M Kellar, Camryn D Allen, Krista N Catelani, Michelle Robbins, Nicole E Beaulieu, Debbie Steel, James T Harvey
Understanding reproductive rates of wild animal populations is crucially important for management and conservation. Assessing pregnancy status of free-ranging cetaceans has historically been difficult; however, recent advances in analytical techniques have allowed the diagnosis of pregnancy from small samples of blubber tissue. The primary objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to test the efficacy of blubber progesterone assays as a tool for diagnosing pregnancy in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae); (ii) to estimate the pregnancy rate of humpback whales in Monterey Bay, California; and (iii) to investigate the relationship between stable isotopes and reproductive status of these whales...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757239/employing-individual-measures-of-baseline-glucocorticoids-as-population-level-conservation-biomarkers-considering-within-individual-variation-in-a-breeding-passerine
#10
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757238/costs-of-locomotion-in-polar-bears-when-do-the-costs-outweigh-the-benefits-of-chasing-down-terrestrial-prey
#11
Linda J Gormezano, Scott R McWilliams, David T Iles, Robert F Rockwell
Trade-offs between locomotory costs and foraging gains are key elements in determining constraints on predator-prey interactions. One intriguing example involves polar bears pursuing snow geese on land. As climate change forces polar bears to spend more time ashore, they may need to expend more energy to obtain land-based food. Given that polar bears are inefficient at terrestrial locomotion, any extra energy expended to pursue prey could negatively impact survival. However, polar bears have been regularly observed engaging in long pursuits of geese and other land animals, and the energetic worth of such behaviour has been repeatedly questioned...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757237/coping-with-heat-behavioural-and-physiological-responses-of-savanna-elephants-in-their-natural-habitat
#12
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757236/salinity-tolerances-of-two-australian-freshwater-turtles-chelodina-expansa-and-emydura-macquarii-testudinata-chelidae
#13
Deborah S Bower, David M Scheltinga, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Craig E Franklin, Arthur Georges
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the physiological responses of two Australian freshwater chelid turtles, Emydura macquarii and Chelodina expansa, exposed to freshwater (0‰) and brackish water (15‰, representing a hyperosmotic environment)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757235/pass-the-salt-physiological-consequences-of-ecologically-relevant-hyposmotic-exposure-in-juvenile-gummy-sharks-mustelus-antarcticus-and-school-sharks-galeorhinus-galeus
#14
Andrea J Morash, Sara R C Mackellar, Louise Tunnah, David A Barnett, Kilian M Stehfest, Jayson M Semmens, Suzanne Currie
Estuarine habitats are frequently used as nurseries by elasmobranch species for their protection and abundant resources; however, global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of environmental challenges in these estuaries that may negatively affect elasmobranch physiology. Hyposmotic events are particularly challenging for marine sharks that osmoconform, and species-specific tolerances are not well known. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of an acute (48 h) ecologically relevant hyposmotic event (25...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752321/the-use-of-%C3%AE-or-%C3%AE-blockers-to-ameliorate-the-chronic-stress-of-captivity-in-the-house-sparrow-passer-domesticus
#15
Clare Parker Fischer, L Michael Romero
When wild animals are brought into captivity for the first time, they frequently develop chronic stress symptoms. Animals can develop glucocorticoid dysregulation or changes in the sympathetic nervous system over the course of the first week in captivity. By blocking the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine using α- or β-blockers, we hoped to reduce the degree of chronic stress symptoms exhibited by newly captured house sparrows. We measured corticosterone, heart rate and heart rate variability in 24 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) over the first week of captivity...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729982/feather-corticosterone-levels-are-related-to-age-and-future-body-condition-but-not-to-subsequent-fitness-in-a-declining-migratory-songbird
#16
Than J Boves, Graham D Fairhurst, Clark S Rushing, David A Buehler
In migratory species, breeding and non-breeding locations are geographically separate, yet the effects of conditions from one stage may carry over to affect a subsequent stage. Ideally, to understand the mechanisms and implications of 'carry-over effects', one would need to follow individuals throughout the year, quantify potential environmental causal factors and physiological mediators during multiple life-history stages, and measure downstream fitness. Owing to current limitations of tracking technology, this is impossible for small, long-distance migrants, so indirect methods to characterize carry-over effects are required...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729981/impact-of-ocean-acidification-on-the-hypoxia-tolerance-of-the-woolly-sculpin-clinocottus-analis
#17
Joshua R Hancock, Sean P Place
As we move into the Anthropocene, organisms inhabiting marine environments will continue to face growing challenges associated with changes in ocean pH (ocean acidification), dissolved oxygen (dead zones) and temperature. These factors, in combination with naturally variable environments such as the rocky intertidal zone, may create extreme physiological challenges for organisms that are already performing near their biological limits. Although numerous studies have examined the impacts of climate-related stressors on intertidal animals, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms driving adaptation to ocean acidification and how this may alter organism interactions, particularly in marine vertebrates...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729980/adaptive-capacity-at-the-northern-front-sockeye-salmon-behaviourally-thermoregulate-during-novel-exposure-to-warm-temperatures
#18
Jonathan B Armstrong, Eric J Ward, Daniel E Schindler, Peter J Lisi
As climate change increases maximal water temperatures, behavioural thermoregulation may be crucial for the persistence of coldwater fishes, such as salmonids. Although myriad studies have documented behavioural thermoregulation in southern populations of salmonids, few if any have explored this phenomenon in northern populations, which are less likely to have an evolutionary history of heat stress, yet are predicted to experience substantial warming. Here, we treated a rare heat wave as a natural experiment to test whether wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the northern extent of their primary range (60° latitude) can thermoregulate in response to abnormally high thermal conditions...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729979/physiologically-grounded-metrics-of-model-skill-a-case-study-estimating-heat-stress-in-intertidal-populations
#19
Nicole E Kish, Brian Helmuth, David S Wethey
Models of ecological responses to climate change fundamentally assume that predictor variables, which are often measured at large scales, are to some degree diagnostic of the smaller-scale biological processes that ultimately drive patterns of abundance and distribution. Given that organisms respond physiologically to stressors, such as temperature, in highly non-linear ways, small modelling errors in predictor variables can potentially result in failures to predict mortality or severe stress, especially if an organism exists near its physiological limits...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668081/early-exposure-to-ultraviolet-b-radiation-decreases-immune-function-later-in-life
#20
Emma Ceccato, Rebecca L Cramp, Frank Seebacher, Craig E Franklin
Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species...
2016: Conservation Physiology
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