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Conservation Physiology

Gretchen N Newberry, David L Swanson
Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk ( Chordeiles minor ) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Lisa M Komoroske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
R M Santymire, M B Manjerovic, A Sacerdote-Velat
Amphibians have been declining in both diversity and abundance due in large part to habitat degradation and the prevalence of emerging diseases. Although stressors can suppress the immune system, affecting an individual's health and susceptibility to pathogens, established methods for directly collecting stress hormones are not suitable for rapid field use or for use on threatened and endangered species. To overcome these challenges, we are developing an innovative method to collect and measure amphibian glucocorticoid secretions using non-invasive dermal swabs...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sofia Jain-Schlaepfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Nicole I Stacy, Karen A Bjorndal, Justin R Perrault, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten
Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin ) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin ) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin ) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread and increasing environmental pollutant with known negative impacts on animal physiology and development. Physiological effects could occur through sleep disruption and deprivation, but this is difficult to quantify, especially in small developing birds. Sleep loss can potentially be quantified by using oxalate, a biomarker for sleep debt in adult humans and rats. We examined the effect of ALAN on oxalate in free-living developing great tits ( Parus major ) as effects during early-life could have long-lasting and irreversible consequences...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Gregory A Lewbart, John A Griffioen, Alison Savo, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos Ortega, Andrea Loyola, Sarah Roberts, George Schaaf, David Steinberg, Steven B Osegueda, Michael G Levy, Diego Páez-Rosas
As part of a planned introduction of captive Galapagos tortoises ( Chelonoidis chathamensis ) to the San Cristóbal highland farms, our veterinary team performed thorough physical examinations and health assessments of 32 tortoises. Blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV), total solids (TS), white blood cell count (WBC) differential, estimated WBC and a biochemistry panel including lactate. In some cases not all of the values were obtainable but most of the tortoises have full complements of results...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Joanna L Kershaw, Catherine H Botting, Andrew Brownlow, Ailsa J Hall
Mammalian adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as an endocrine organ involved in the regulation of a number of metabolic processes and pathways. It responds to signals from different hormone systems and the central nervous system, and expresses a variety of protein factors with important paracrine and endocrine functions. This study presents a first step towards the systematic analysis of the protein content of cetacean adipose tissue, the blubber, in order to investigate the kinds of proteins present and their relative abundance...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Yanxia Pan, Jianmin Chu, Hongxiao Yang
The coastal herbs Glehnia littoralis have been domesticated as traditional medicines for many centuries. The domestication may have caused changes or declines of cultivated G. littoralis (CGL) relative to wild G. littoralis (WGL). By comparing fruit properties of CGL and WGL, we tested the hypothesis that domesticated G. littoralis have suffered major declines, and human cultivation cannot be sufficient to conserve this species. We collected fruits of CGL and WGL in the Shandong peninsula, China, and compared their buoyancy in seawater, germination potential after seawater immersion, and thousand-grain weights...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Marc Cattet, Gordon B Stenhouse, John Boulanger, David M Janz, Luciene Kapronczai, Jon E Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser
Although combining genetic and endocrine data from non-invasively collected hair samples has potential to improve the conservation of threatened mammals, few studies have evaluated this opportunity. In this study, we determined if steroid hormone (testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol) concentration profiles in 169 hair samples collected from free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) could be used to accurately discriminate between immature and adult bears within each sex. Because hair samples were acquired opportunistically, we also needed to establish if interactions between hormones and several non-hormone factors (ordinal day, year, contact method, study area) were associated with age class...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Candace L Williams, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Darrell L Sparks, Andrew J Kouba, Scott T Willard, Garret Suen, Ashli E Brown
Mammalian herbivores have developed numerous adaptations to utilize their plant-based diets including a modified gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and symbiosis with a GIT microbiota that plays a major role in digestion and the maintenance of host health. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a herbivorous carnivore that lacks the specialized GIT common to other herbivores but still relies on microorganisms for survival on its almost entirely bamboo diet. The GIT microbiota is of further importance in young red pandas, as high cub mortality is problematic and has been attributed to failure to meet nutritional requirements...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Samantha M McCann, Georgia K Kosmala, Matthew J Greenlees, Richard Shine
Physiological plasticity may facilitate invasion of novel habitats; but is such plasticity present in all populations of the invader or is it elicited only by specific climatic challenges? In cold-climate areas of Australia, invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) can rapidly acclimate to cool conditions. To investigate whether this physiological plasticity is found in all invasive cane toads or is only seen in cool climates, we measured the acclimation ability of toads from across Australia and the island of Hawai'i...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Louis Hunninck, Iris H Ringstad, Craig R Jackson, Roel May, Frode Fossøy, Kenneth Uiseb, Werner Killian, Rupert Palme, Eivin Røskaft
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cox067.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cox067.].
2018: Conservation Physiology
Jeff C Clements, Carla Hicks, Réjan Tremblay, Luc A Comeau
Pre-spawning blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) appear sensitive to elevated temperature and robust to elevated pCO2; however, the effects of these stressors soon after investing energy into spawning remain unknown. Furthermore, while studies suggest that elevated pCO2 affects the byssal attachment strength of Mytilus trossulus from southern latitudes, pCO2 and temperature impacts on the byssus strength of other species at higher latitudes remain undocumented. In a 90 day laboratory experiment, we exposed post-spawning adult blue mussels (M...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Bruna Furlan Polegato, Eveline Dos Santos Zanetti, José Maurício Barbanti Duarte
The marsh deer is an endangered species from the marshlands of central South America. This study aimed to characterize certain aspects of the reproductive physiology of marsh deer hinds, including the duration and fecal progestins profile of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and post-partum periods, and evaluate the effect of cloprostenol administration on this species. The experimental group consisted of six females and one fertile male marsh deer. During monitoring of the estrous cycle, the fresh fecal samples were collected daily and, during pregnancy, they were collected twice weekly...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Cyril Portugues, Jose Luis Crespo-Picazo, Daniel García-Párraga, Jordi Altimiras, Teresa Lorenzo, Alicia Borque-Espinosa, Andreas Fahlman
Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O2 treatment (HBOT)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Heather D Veilleux, Jennifer M Donelson, Philip L Munday
Reproduction in marine fish is generally tightly linked with water temperature. Consequently, when adults are exposed to projected future ocean temperatures, reproductive output of many species declines precipitously. Recent research has shown that in the common reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, step-wise exposure to higher temperatures over two generations (parents: +1.5°C, offspring: +3.0°C) can improve reproductive output in the F2 generation compared to F2 fish that have experienced the same high temperatures over two generations (F1 parents: +3...
2018: Conservation Physiology
W Maartin Strauss, Robyn S Hetem, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney, Haley D O'Brien, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller
Some mammals have the ability to lower their hypothalamic temperature below that of carotid arterial blood temperature, a process termed selective brain cooling. Although the requisite anatomical structure that facilitates this physiological process, the carotid rete, is present in members of the Cetartiodactyla, Felidae and Canidae, the carotid rete is particularly well developed in the artiodactyls, e.g. antelopes, cattle, sheep and goats. First described in the domestic cat, the seemingly obvious function initially attributed to selective brain cooling was that of protecting the brain from thermal damage...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Louis Hunninck, Iris H Ringstad, Craig R Jackson, Roel May, Frode Fossøy, Kenneth Uiseb, Werner Killian, Eivin Røskaft
The conservation of the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) is of prime importance for many African countries. Interactions between elephants and humans are known to induce stress and thereby have the potential to affect elephants' fitness. In Namibia, anthropogenic disturbances are increasing due to increasing human population size and development, particularly near protected areas, such as national parks. In this study, we investigated elephant stress levels in relation to their land use, specifically their protection status, comparing elephants within Etosha National Park in Namibia with elephants residing outside the park...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Adam F Parlin, José Pedro S do Amaral, John Kelly Dougherty, M Henry H Stevens, Paul J Schaeffer
Environmental conditions may affect individual physiological processes that influence short-term performance and ultimately growth, survival and reproduction. As such, habitats selected by animals must provide suitable and adequate resources. Ectothermic species are highly dependent on climatic conditions and ambient temperatures that dictate body temperature regulation and in turn physiological processes. We investigated the thermoregulatory performance, habitat selection, and movements of an ectothermic vertebrate, the Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) to assess the importance of thermoregulatory physiology in habitat selection...
2017: Conservation Physiology
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