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Conservation Physiology

Charlie Huveneers, Yuuki Y Watanabe, Nicholas L Payne, Jayson M Semmens
Anthropogenic activities are dramatically changing marine ecosystems. Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and has the potential to modify the natural environment and behaviour of the species it targets. Here, we used a novel method to assess the effects of wildlife tourism on the activity of white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ). High frequency three-axis acceleration loggers were deployed on ten white sharks for a total of ~9 days. A combination of multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that the increased number of strong accelerations and vertical movements when sharks are interacting with cage-diving operators result in an overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) ~61% higher compared with other times when sharks are present in the area where cage-diving occurs...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Taryn D Laubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Katherine M Graham, Cecilia J Langhorne, Carrie K Vance, Scott T Willard, Andrew J Kouba
Establishing captive breeding populations of amphibians is an important conservation strategy to safeguard against ongoing declines of wild populations and provide broodstock for reintroduction programs. The endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF) has never naturally reproduced in captivity and requires breeding intervention to sustain the population. Methods for inducing ovulation in female DGFs using hormone therapies have not been evaluated. To address this need, we tested four exogenous hormone treatments to induce ovulation in DGFs ( n = 11/treatment), including: treatment (A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa); (B) GnRHa with dopamine antagonist metoclopramide hydrochloride; (C) GnRHa and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and (D) GnRHa with hCG following two low hCG priming doses...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Camille J Macnaughton, Colin Kovachik, Colin Charles, Eva C Enders
Temperature preference for various fishes has often been used as a proxy of optimal temperature for growth and metabolism due to the ease of obtaining preferred temperature zones in laboratory experiments. Several laboratory designs and methods have been proposed to examine preferred temperature zones, however, differences between them (i.e. thermal gradients vs. static temperatures in chambers and duration of acclimation/experimental periods) have led to varying measurements, precluding comparisons between experiments, species and/or life-stages...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sean Tomlinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Anika Brüning, Werner Kloas, Torsten Preuer, Franz Hölker
Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sean Tomlinson, Jodie L Rummer, Kevin R Hultine, Steven J Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sofia Jain-Schlaepfer, Eric Fakan, Jodie L Rummer, Stephen D Simpson, Mark I McCormick
Human generated noise is changing the natural underwater soundscapes worldwide. The most pervasive sources of underwater anthropogenic noise are motorboats, which have been found to negatively affect several aspects of fish biology. However, few studies have examined the effects of noise on early life stages, especially the embryonic stage, despite embryo health being critical to larval survival and recruitment. Here, we used a novel setup to monitor heart rates of embryos from the staghorn damselfish ( Amblyglyphidodon curacao ) in shallow reef conditions, allowing us to examine the effects of in situ boat noise in context with real-world exposure...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Chris N Glover
Ecological risk assessments principally rely on simplified metrics of organismal sensitivity that do not consider mechanism or biological traits. As such, they are unable to adequately extrapolate from standard laboratory tests to real-world settings, and largely fail to account for the diversity of organisms and environmental variables that occur in natural environments. However, an understanding of how stressors influence organism health can compensate for these limitations. Mechanistic knowledge can be used to account for species differences in basal biological function and variability in environmental factors, including spatial and temporal changes in the chemical, physical and biological milieu...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Edison A Díaz-Álvarez, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros, Erick de la Barrera
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is the third largest cause of global biodiversity loss, with rates that have more than doubled over the past century. This is especially threatening for tropical regions where the deposition may soon exceed 25 kg of N ha-1 year-1 , well above the threshold for physiological damage of 12-20 kg of N ha-1 year-1 , depending on plant species and nitrogenous compound. It is thus urgent to monitor these regions where the most diverse biotas occur. However, most studies have been conducted in Europe, the USA and recently in China...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Gretchen N Newberry, David L Swanson
Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk ( Chordeiles minor ) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Lisa M Komoroske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
R M Santymire, M B Manjerovic, A Sacerdote-Velat
Amphibians have been declining in both diversity and abundance due in large part to habitat degradation and the prevalence of emerging diseases. Although stressors can suppress the immune system, affecting an individual's health and susceptibility to pathogens, established methods for directly collecting stress hormones are not suitable for rapid field use or for use on threatened and endangered species. To overcome these challenges, we are developing an innovative method to collect and measure amphibian glucocorticoid secretions using non-invasive dermal swabs...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sofia Jain-Schlaepfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Nicole I Stacy, Karen A Bjorndal, Justin R Perrault, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten
Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin ) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin ) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin ) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread and increasing environmental pollutant with known negative impacts on animal physiology and development. Physiological effects could occur through sleep disruption and deprivation, but this is difficult to quantify, especially in small developing birds. Sleep loss can potentially be quantified by using oxalate, a biomarker for sleep debt in adult humans and rats. We examined the effect of ALAN on oxalate in free-living developing great tits ( Parus major ) as effects during early-life could have long-lasting and irreversible consequences...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Gregory A Lewbart, John A Griffioen, Alison Savo, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos Ortega, Andrea Loyola, Sarah Roberts, George Schaaf, David Steinberg, Steven B Osegueda, Michael G Levy, Diego Páez-Rosas
As part of a planned introduction of captive Galapagos tortoises ( Chelonoidis chathamensis ) to the San Cristóbal highland farms, our veterinary team performed thorough physical examinations and health assessments of 32 tortoises. Blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV), total solids (TS), white blood cell count (WBC) differential, estimated WBC and a biochemistry panel including lactate. In some cases not all of the values were obtainable but most of the tortoises have full complements of results...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Joanna L Kershaw, Catherine H Botting, Andrew Brownlow, Ailsa J Hall
Mammalian adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as an endocrine organ involved in the regulation of a number of metabolic processes and pathways. It responds to signals from different hormone systems and the central nervous system, and expresses a variety of protein factors with important paracrine and endocrine functions. This study presents a first step towards the systematic analysis of the protein content of cetacean adipose tissue, the blubber, in order to investigate the kinds of proteins present and their relative abundance...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Yanxia Pan, Jianmin Chu, Hongxiao Yang
The coastal herbs Glehnia littoralis have been domesticated as traditional medicines for many centuries. The domestication may have caused changes or declines of cultivated G. littoralis (CGL) relative to wild G. littoralis (WGL). By comparing fruit properties of CGL and WGL, we tested the hypothesis that domesticated G. littoralis have suffered major declines, and human cultivation cannot be sufficient to conserve this species. We collected fruits of CGL and WGL in the Shandong peninsula, China, and compared their buoyancy in seawater, germination potential after seawater immersion, and thousand-grain weights...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Marc Cattet, Gordon B Stenhouse, John Boulanger, David M Janz, Luciene Kapronczai, Jon E Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser
Although combining genetic and endocrine data from non-invasively collected hair samples has potential to improve the conservation of threatened mammals, few studies have evaluated this opportunity. In this study, we determined if steroid hormone (testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol) concentration profiles in 169 hair samples collected from free-ranging brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) could be used to accurately discriminate between immature and adult bears within each sex. Because hair samples were acquired opportunistically, we also needed to establish if interactions between hormones and several non-hormone factors (ordinal day, year, contact method, study area) were associated with age class...
2018: Conservation Physiology
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