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Conservation Physiology

Amelia M Weissman, John W Mandelman, David B Rudders, James A Sulikowski
Capture and handling stress studies are considered a primary research priority, particularly for species and fisheries where discard rates are high, and/or for overfished stocks and species of concern. Lophius americanus , a commercially valuable finfish in New England, constitutes the second highest bycatch species within the sea scallop dredge fishery. Despite its commercial importance, no data exists on the capture and handling stress of monkfish for any gear type. Given these shortcomings, our goals were to evaluate the stress response of monkfish captured in scallop dredge gear by evaluating physical, behavioural and physiological responses to scallop fishing practices...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Bryan W Brooks
Pharmaceuticals are routinely reported in the environment, which indicates an increasingly urban water cycle and highlights a global megatrend. Physicochemical properties and intrinsic biological activity of medicines routinely differ from conventional organic contaminants; thus, diverging applicability domains often challenge environmental chemistry and toxicology computational tools and biological assays originally developed to address historical chemical stressors. Because pharmacology and toxicology information is more readily available for these contaminants of emerging concern than other chemicals in the environment, and many drug targets are conserved across species, leveraging mammalian drug discovery, safety testing and clinical pharmacology information appears useful to define environmental risks and to design less hazardous industrial chemicals...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Catharine J Cook, Chris C Wilson, Gary Burness
The environment an organism experiences during early development can impact its physiology and survival later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if temperatures experienced at embryonic life stages of brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) affected mass and routine metabolic rate (RMR) of a subsequent life stage (free-swimming fry). As part of this, we assessed the contributions and importance of hierarchical levels of biological organization [ancestral type (native vs. hatchery-introgressed), population, and family] to variability in mass and RMR of fry...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Duncan Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Dominique Lapointe, Michael S Cooperman, Lauren J Chapman, Timothy D Clark, Adalberto L Val, Marcio S Ferreira, John S Balirwa, Dismas Mbabazi, Matthew Mwanja, Limhong Chhom, Lee Hannah, Les Kaufman, Anthony P Farrell, Steven J Cooke
Equatorial fishes, and the critically important fisheries based on them, are thought to be at-risk from climate warming because the fishes have evolved in a relatively aseasonal environment and possess narrow thermal tolerance windows that are close to upper thermal limits. We assessed survival, growth, aerobic performance and critical thermal maxima (CTmax) following acute and 21 d exposures to temperatures up to 4°C higher than current maxima for six species of freshwater fishes indigenous to tropical countries and of importance for human consumption...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Fritz Geiser, Clare Stawski, Anna C Doty, Christine E Cooper, Julia Nowack
Although wildfires are increasing globally, available information on how mammals respond behaviourally and physiologically to fires is scant. Despite a large number of ecological studies, often examining animal diversity and abundance before and after fires, the reasons as to why some species perform better than others remain obscure. We examine how especially small mammals, which generally have high rates of energy expenditure and food requirements, deal with fires and post-fire conditions. We evaluate whether mammalian torpor, characterised by substantial reductions in body temperature, metabolic rate and water loss, plays a functional role in survival of mammals impacted by fires...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Nikole E Freeman, Amy E M Newman
Feather corticosterone measurement is becoming a widespread tool for assessing avian physiology. Corticosterone is deposited into feathers during growth and provides integrative and retrospective measures of an individual's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Although researchers across disciplines have been measuring feather corticosterone for the past decade, there are still many issues with the extraction and measurement of corticosterone from feathers. In this paper, we provide several directives for refining the methodology for feather hormone analysis...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Talisin T Hammond, Zoe A Au, Allison C Hartman, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of species, facing stressors ranging from habitat degradation and pollution to disease and overexploitation. Stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) provide one quantitative metric of stress, and developing non-invasive methods for measuring GCs in amphibians would clarify how diverse environmental stressors impact individual health in this taxonomic group. Saliva is an advantageous matrix for quantifying GCs, as it is sampled less invasively than plasma while still detecting both baseline and acute elevation of GCs within a short timeframe...
2018: Conservation Physiology
David S Jachowski, Matthew J Kauffman, Brett R Jesmer, Hall Sawyer, Joshua J Millspaugh
Rapid climate and human land-use change may limit the ability of long-distance migratory herbivores to optimally track or 'surf' high-quality forage during spring green-up. Understanding how anthropogenic and environmental stressors influence migratory movements is of critical importance because of their potential to cause a mismatch between the timing of animal movements and the emergence of high-quality forage. We measured stress hormones (fecal glucocorticoid metabolites; FGMs) to test hypotheses about the effects of high-quality forage tracking, human land-use and use of stopover sites on the physiological state of individuals along a migratory route...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Zhan Li, Yue Gao, Cheng Lin, Ronghui Pan, Wenguang Ma, Yunye Zheng, Yajing Guan, Jin Hu
The preservation of seed viability and quality in storage is an important trait both for commercial and germplasm usage. To better explore potential mechanisms of tobacco seed deterioration, seed packed in cloth bag (C) and vacuum bag (V) were stored under room temperature (RT) and low temperature (LT, 18°C), and sampled periodically for laboratory testing. Seed stored in low temperature with vacuum bag (LT/V) owned the highest seed vigour after 25 months of storage and in room temperature with cloth bag (RT/C) lost seed vigour and germination ability after 20-month storage...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Ian A Bouyoucos, Ornella C Weideli, Serge Planes, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Jodie L Rummer
Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect shark populations from targeted fisheries, but resident shark populations may remain exposed to stressors like capture as bycatch and environmental change. Populations of young sharks that rely on shallow coastal habitats, e.g. as nursery areas, may be at risk of experiencing these stressors. The purpose of this study was to characterize various components of the physiological stress response of neonatal reef sharks following exposure to an exhaustive challenge under relevant environmental conditions...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Leesa M Keogh, Aimee J Silla, Michael S McFadden, Phillip G Byrne
Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant capacity and are considered to play an important role in vertebrate growth and development. However, evidence for their beneficial effects remains limited, possibly because very few studies have tested for dose effects across different life stages. The present study investigated the effect of various doses of dietary beta-carotene supplements on the growth and development of larval and post-metamorphic Booroolong frogs ( Litoria booroolongensis ). Larval and post-metamorphic basal diets (containing 0...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Elettra Leo, Flemming T Dahlke, Daniela Storch, Hans-O Pörtner, Felix C Mark
Atlantic herring ( Clupea harengus ) is a benthic spawner, therefore its eggs are prone to encounter different water conditions during embryonic development, with bottom waters often depleted of oxygen and enriched in CO2 . Some Atlantic herring spawning grounds are predicted to be highly affected by ongoing Ocean Acidification and Warming with water temperature increasing by up to +3°C and CO2 levels reaching ca. 1000 μatm (RCP 8.5). Although many studies investigated the effects of high levels of CO2 on the embryonic development of Atlantic herring, little is known about the combination of temperature and ecologically relevant levels of CO2 ...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Kathleen E Hunt, Nadine S J Lysiak, Cory J D Matthews, Carley Lowe, Alejandro Fernández Ajó, Danielle Dillon, Cornelia Willing, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Steven H Ferguson, Michael J Moore, C Loren Buck
Male baleen whales have long been suspected to have annual cycles in testosterone, but due to difficulty in collecting endocrine samples, little direct evidence exists to confirm this hypothesis. Potential influences of stress or adrenal stress hormones (cortisol, corticosterone) on male reproduction have also been difficult to study. Baleen has recently been shown to accumulate steroid hormones during growth, such that a single baleen plate contains a continuous, multi-year retrospective record of the whale's endocrine history...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Kim Birnie-Gauvin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Alejandro A Fernández Ajó, Kathleen E Hunt, Marcela Uhart, Victoria Rowntree, Mariano Sironi, Carina F Marón, Matias Di Martino, C Loren Buck
Baleen tissue accumulates stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GC) as it grows, along with other adrenal, gonadal and thyroid hormones. The hormones are deposited in a linear fashion such that a single plate of baleen allows retrospective assessment and evaluation of long-term trends in the whales' physiological condition. In whale calves, a single piece of baleen contains hormones deposited across the lifespan of the animal, with the tip of the baleen representing prenatally grown baleen. This suggests that baleen recovered from stranded carcasses of whale calves could be used to examine lifetime patterns of stress physiology...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rose Upton, Simon Clulow, Michael J Mahony, John Clulow
Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate class globally based on recent rates of decline and extinction. Sperm cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies have the potential to help manage small and threatened populations and prevent extinctions. There are a growing number of reports of recovery of amphibian sperm after cryopreservation, but relatively few published reports of amphibian embryos generated from frozen sperm developing beyond metamorphosis to the adult stage and achieving sexual maturation...
2018: Conservation Physiology
S E Hernandez, A L S Strona, N O Leiner, G Suzán, M C Romano
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of environmental (dry versus wet season) and individual (sex, body mass and reproductive status) factors in the levels of faecal cortisol metabolites (FGCs) in Gracilinanus agilis faecal samples as an index of stress levels in this species; as well as its association with abundance of Eimeria spp, as an indicator of immunocompetence against parasites. Our study found that FGCFGCs are a reliable indicator of adrenal activity in G. agilis . We found that FGCFGCs increase considerably by environmental stressors like the dry season...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Randall Arguedas, David Steinberg, Gregory A Lewbart, Diane Deresienski, Kenneth J Lohmann, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos A Valle
The San Cristóbal lava lizard, Microlophus bivittatus , is one of nine species of lava lizards endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. No information presently exists about baseline health parameters for any of these species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 47 lizards (25 males and 22 females) captured at two locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for total CO2 , lactate, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose and haemoglobin...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Chelsey L Nieman, Andrew L Oppliger, Caroline C McElwain, Suzanne M Gray
Increasing anthropogenic turbidity is among the most prevalent disturbances in freshwater ecosystems, through increases in sedimentary deposition as well as the rise of nutrient-induced algal blooms. Changes to the amount and color of light underwater as a result of elevated turbidity are likely to disrupt the visual ecology of fishes that rely on vision to survive and reproduce; however, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying visual responses to turbidity is lacking. First, we aimed to determine the visual detection threshold, a measure of visual sensitivity, of two ecologically and economically important Lake Erie fishes, the planktivorous forage fish, emerald shiner ( Notropis atherinoides ), and a primary predator, the piscivorous walleye ( Sander vitreus ), under sedimentary and algal turbidity...
2018: Conservation Physiology
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