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Conservation Physiology

Natalie Sopinka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Tamzin A Blewett, Dustin Newton, Shannon L Flynn, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss, Trevor J Hamilton
Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a non-essential metal ubiquitous in the environment due to industrial processes. However, little is known regarding the ability of Cd(2+) to impact the behaviour of aquatic animals in receiving environments. Green shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were exposed to waterborne Cd(2+) [control (no Cd(2+)), low (0.30 μmol/L), medium (3.3 μmol/L) and high (63 μmol/L)], for 24 h, then, crabs were placed in an open field and shelter test to determine potential changes in locomotion and preference for shelter...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Anne E Storey, Morag G Ryan, Michelle G Fitzsimmons, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Linda S Takahashi, Gregory J Robertson, Sabina I Wilhelm, Donald W McKay, Gene R Herzberg, Frances K Mowbray, Luke MacMillan, Carolyn J Walsh
Seabird parents use a conservative breeding strategy that favours long-term survival over intensive parental investment, particularly under harsh conditions. Here, we examine whether variation in several physiological indicators reflects the balance between parental investment and survival in common murres (Uria aalge) under a wide range of foraging conditions. Blood samples were taken from adults during mid-chick rearing from 2007 to 2014 and analysed for corticosterone (CORT, stress hormone), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BUTY, lipid metabolism reflecting ongoing mass loss), and haematocrit (reflecting blood oxygen capacity)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
James W Rivers, Jennifer L Houtz, Matthew G Betts, Brent M Horton
Many species that use or require early-successional forest are of conservation concern, including a number of songbirds that have experienced long-term population declines. In this study, our initial goal was to test whether herbicide application intensity was linked to offspring sex ratio in the White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys), a species that requires early-successional forest within forested landscapes. However, a rapid and accurate method using direct PCR to sex a large sample of birds (n > 1000 individuals) was unavailable, so our secondary goal was to develop a new approach for rapidly determine offspring sex...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Valerie C Pence, Linda R Finke, Mary F Chaiken
Ex situ conservation is critical for hedging against the loss of plant diversity. For those species (exceptional species) that cannot be conserved long-term in standard seed banks, alternative methods are required, often involving in vitro culture and cryopreservation, or storage in liquid nitrogen. Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii is a federally threatened perennial native to Utah and Arizona. It is classified as an exceptional species, because it produces few seeds, and, thus, in vitro propagation and cryopreservation were investigated as tools for its propagation and preservation...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Juliette Di Francesco, Nora Navarro-Gonzalez, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Stephanie Peacock, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Matilde Tomaselli, Tracy Davison, Anja Carlsson, Susan Kutz
Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are increasingly subject to multiple new stressors associated with unprecedented climate change and increased anthropogenic activities across much of their range. Hair may provide a measurement of stress hormones (glucocorticoids) over periods of weeks to months. We developed a reliable method to quantify cortisol in the qiviut (wooly undercoat) of muskoxen using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We then applied this technique to determine the natural variability in qiviut cortisol levels among 150 wild muskoxen, and to assess differences between sexes, seasons and years of collection...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Tanya S Prystay, Erika J Eliason, Michael J Lawrence, Melissa Dick, Jacob W Brownscombe, David A Patterson, Glenn T Crossin, Scott G Hinch, Steven J Cooke
Selective harvest policies have been implemented in North America to enhance the conservation of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) stocks, which has led to an increase in the capture and release of fish by all fishing sectors. Despite the immediate survival benefits, catch-and-release results in capture stress, particularly at high water temperatures, and this can result in delayed post-release mortality minutes to days later. The objective of this study was to evaluate how different water temperatures influenced heart rate disturbance and recovery of wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) following fisheries interactions (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Casey T Clark, Alyson H Fleming, John Calambokidis, Nicholas M Kellar, Camryn D Allen, Krista N Catelani, Michelle Robbins, Nicole E Beaulieu, Debbie Steel, James T Harvey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cow050.].
2017: Conservation Physiology
Lisa M Komoroske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Agnieszka Sergiel, Keith A Hobson, David M Janz, Marc Cattet, Nuria Selva, Luciene Kapronczai, Chantel Gryba, Andreas Zedrosser
The measurement of naturally occurring glucocorticoids and stable isotopes of several elements has gained importance in wildlife studies in recent decades and opened a myriad of ecological applications. Cortisol and stable isotopes equilibrate in animal tissues over periods of integration related to the growth rate of the tissue, providing information reflecting systemic cortisol secretion and dietary intake. Sample preparation shares the common step of first cleaning the sample of external contamination. However, it is not well understood how different solvents used in sample preparation affect isotopic and cortisol values, and whether it is safe to follow the same procedures for both measures to optimize analyses of the same sample...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Laura A Enzor, Evan M Hunter, Sean P Place
The adaptations used by notothenioid fish to combat extreme cold may have left these fish poorly poised to deal with a changing environment. As such, the expected environmental perturbations brought on by global climate change have the potential to significantly affect the energetic demands and subsequent cellular processes necessary for survival. Despite recent lines of evidence demonstrating that notothenioid fish retain the ability to acclimate to elevated temperatures, the underlying mechanisms responsible for temperature acclimation in these fish remain largely unknown...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Amy K Teffer, Scott G Hinch, Kristi M Miller, David A Patterson, Anthony P Farrell, Steven J Cooke, Arthur L Bass, Petra Szekeres, Francis Juanes
Bycatch is a common occurrence in heavily fished areas such as the Fraser River, British Columbia, where fisheries target returning adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) en route to spawning grounds. The extent to which these encounters reduce fish survival through injury and physiological impairment depends on multiple factors including capture severity, river temperature and infectious agents. In an effort to characterize the mechanisms of post-release mortality and address fishery and managerial concerns regarding specific regulations, wild-caught Early Stuart sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were exposed to either mild (20 s) or severe (20 min) gillnet entanglement and then held at ecologically relevant temperatures throughout their period of river migration (mid-late July) and spawning (early August)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Randall W Long, Susan E Bush, Kevin C Grady, David S Smith, Daniel L Potts, Carla M D'Antonio, Tom L Dudley, Shannon D Fehlberg, John F Gaskin, Edward P Glenn, Kevin R Hultine
Patterns of woody-plant mortality have been linked to global-scale environmental changes, such as extreme drought, heat stress, more frequent and intense fires, and episodic outbreaks of insects and pathogens. Although many studies have focussed on survival and mortality in response to specific physiological stresses, little attention has been paid to the role of genetic heritability of traits and local adaptation in influencing patterns of plant mortality, especially in non-native species. Tamarix spp. is a dominant, non-native riparian tree in western North America that is experiencing dieback in some areas of its range due to episodic herbivory by the recently introduced northern tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Sean Tomlinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Jodie L Rummer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
Annegret Nicolai, Armelle Ansart
The climate is changing rapidly, and terrestrial ectotherms are expected to be particularly vulnerable to changes in temperature and water regime, but also to an increase in extreme weather events in temperate regions. Physiological responses of terrestrial gastropods to climate change are poorly studied. This is surprising, because they are of biodiversity significance among litter-dwelling species, playing important roles in ecosystem function, with numerous species being listed as endangered and requiring efficient conservation management...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Peter Corkeron, Rosalind M Rolland, Kathleen E Hunt, Scott D Kraus
Immunoassay of hormone metabolites extracted from faecal samples of free-ranging large whales can provide biologically relevant information on reproductive state and stress responses. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis Müller 1776) are an ideal model for testing the conservation value of faecal metabolites. Almost all North Atlantic right whales are individually identified, most of the population is sighted each year, and systematic survey effort extends back to 1986. North Atlantic right whales number <500 individuals and are subject to anthropogenic mortality, morbidity and other stressors, and scientific data to inform conservation planning are recognized as important...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Björn Illing, Jodie L Rummer
Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Christine L Madliger, Craig E Franklin, Kevin R Hultine, Mark van Kleunen, Robert J Lennox, Oliver P Love, Jodie L Rummer, Steven J Cooke
It has been proposed that we are now living in a new geological epoch known as the Anthropocene, which is specifically defined by the impacts that humans are having on the Earth's biological diversity and geology. Although the proposal of this term was borne out of an acknowledgement of the negative changes we are imparting on the globe (e.g. climate change, pollution, coastal erosion, species extinctions), there has recently been action amongst a variety of disciplines aimed at achieving a 'good Anthropocene' that strives to balance societal needs and the preservation of the natural world...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Austin J Gallagher, Rachel A Skubel, Heidi R Pethybridge, Neil Hammerschlag
Evaluating how predators metabolize energy is increasingly useful for conservation physiology, as it can provide information on their current nutritional condition. However, obtaining metabolic information from mobile marine predators is inherently challenging owing to their relative rarity, cryptic nature and often wide-ranging underwater movements. Here, we investigate aspects of energy metabolism in four free-ranging shark species (n = 281; blacktip, bull, nurse, and tiger) by measuring three metabolic parameters [plasma triglycerides (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA) and cholesterol (CHOL)] via non-lethal biopsy sampling...
2017: Conservation Physiology
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