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Conservation Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928974/the-influence-of-water-temperature-on-sockeye-salmon-heart-rate-recovery-following-simulated-fisheries-interactions
#1
Tanya S Prystay, Erika J Eliason, Michael J Lawrence, Melissa Dick, Jacob W Brownscombe, David A Patterson, Glenn T Crossin, Scott G Hinch, Steven J Cooke
Selective harvest policies have been implemented in North America to enhance the conservation of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) stocks, which has led to an increase in the capture and release of fish by all fishing sectors. Despite the immediate survival benefits, catch-and-release results in capture stress, particularly at high water temperatures, and this can result in delayed post-release mortality minutes to days later. The objective of this study was to evaluate how different water temperatures influenced heart rate disturbance and recovery of wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) following fisheries interactions (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852518/erratum-heavy-with-child-pregnancy-status-and-stable-isotope-ratios-as-determined-from-biopsies-of-humpback-whales
#2
Casey T Clark, Alyson H Fleming, John Calambokidis, Nicholas M Kellar, Camryn D Allen, Krista N Catelani, Michelle Robbins, Nicole E Beaulieu, Debbie Steel, James T Harvey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cow050.].
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852517/the-costs-of-being-big-in-a-warmer-world
#3
Lisa M Komoroske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852516/compatibility-of-preparatory-procedures-for-the-analysis-of-cortisol-concentrations-and-stable-isotope-%C3%AE-13-c-%C3%AE-15-n-ratios-a-test-on-brown-bear-hair
#4
Agnieszka Sergiel, Keith A Hobson, David M Janz, Marc Cattet, Nuria Selva, Luciene Kapronczai, Chantel Gryba, Andreas Zedrosser
The measurement of naturally occurring glucocorticoids and stable isotopes of several elements has gained importance in wildlife studies in recent decades and opened a myriad of ecological applications. Cortisol and stable isotopes equilibrate in animal tissues over periods of integration related to the growth rate of the tissue, providing information reflecting systemic cortisol secretion and dietary intake. Sample preparation shares the common step of first cleaning the sample of external contamination. However, it is not well understood how different solvents used in sample preparation affect isotopic and cortisol values, and whether it is safe to follow the same procedures for both measures to optimize analyses of the same sample...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852515/the-effects-of-elevated-temperature-and-ocean-acidification-on-the-metabolic-pathways-of-notothenioid-fish
#5
Laura A Enzor, Evan M Hunter, Sean P Place
The adaptations used by notothenioid fish to combat extreme cold may have left these fish poorly poised to deal with a changing environment. As such, the expected environmental perturbations brought on by global climate change have the potential to significantly affect the energetic demands and subsequent cellular processes necessary for survival. Despite recent lines of evidence demonstrating that notothenioid fish retain the ability to acclimate to elevated temperatures, the underlying mechanisms responsible for temperature acclimation in these fish remain largely unknown...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852514/capture-severity-infectious-disease-processes-and-sex-influence-post-release-mortality-of-sockeye-salmon-bycatch
#6
Amy K Teffer, Scott G Hinch, Kristi M Miller, David A Patterson, Anthony P Farrell, Steven J Cooke, Arthur L Bass, Petra Szekeres, Francis Juanes
Bycatch is a common occurrence in heavily fished areas such as the Fraser River, British Columbia, where fisheries target returning adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) en route to spawning grounds. The extent to which these encounters reduce fish survival through injury and physiological impairment depends on multiple factors including capture severity, river temperature and infectious agents. In an effort to characterize the mechanisms of post-release mortality and address fishery and managerial concerns regarding specific regulations, wild-caught Early Stuart sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were exposed to either mild (20 s) or severe (20 min) gillnet entanglement and then held at ecologically relevant temperatures throughout their period of river migration (mid-late July) and spawning (early August)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852513/can-local-adaptation-explain-varying-patterns-of-herbivory-tolerance-in-a-recently-introduced-woody-plant-in-north-america
#7
Randall W Long, Susan E Bush, Kevin C Grady, David S Smith, Daniel L Potts, Carla M D'Antonio, Tom L Dudley, Shannon D Fehlberg, John F Gaskin, Edward P Glenn, Kevin R Hultine
Patterns of woody-plant mortality have been linked to global-scale environmental changes, such as extreme drought, heat stress, more frequent and intense fires, and episodic outbreaks of insects and pathogens. Although many studies have focussed on survival and mortality in response to specific physiological stresses, little attention has been paid to the role of genetic heritability of traits and local adaptation in influencing patterns of plant mortality, especially in non-native species. Tamarix spp. is a dominant, non-native riparian tree in western North America that is experiencing dieback in some areas of its range due to episodic herbivory by the recently introduced northern tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852512/down-the-rabbit-hole-how-complex-do-eco-physiological-models-need-to-be
#8
Sean Tomlinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852511/what-if-you-can-t-sense-your-enemy%C3%A2-and-your-enemy-is-an-invasive-predator
#9
Jodie L Rummer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852510/conservation-at-a-slow-pace-terrestrial-gastropods-facing-fast-changing-climate
#10
Annegret Nicolai, Armelle Ansart
The climate is changing rapidly, and terrestrial ectotherms are expected to be particularly vulnerable to changes in temperature and water regime, but also to an increase in extreme weather events in temperate regions. Physiological responses of terrestrial gastropods to climate change are poorly studied. This is surprising, because they are of biodiversity significance among litter-dwelling species, playing important roles in ecosystem function, with numerous species being listed as endangered and requiring efficient conservation management...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852509/a-right-whale-pootree-classification-trees-of-faecal-hormones-identify-reproductive-states-in-north-atlantic-right-whales-eubalaena-glacialis
#11
Peter Corkeron, Rosalind M Rolland, Kathleen E Hunt, Scott D Kraus
Immunoassay of hormone metabolites extracted from faecal samples of free-ranging large whales can provide biologically relevant information on reproductive state and stress responses. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis Müller 1776) are an ideal model for testing the conservation value of faecal metabolites. Almost all North Atlantic right whales are individually identified, most of the population is sighted each year, and systematic survey effort extends back to 1986. North Atlantic right whales number <500 individuals and are subject to anthropogenic mortality, morbidity and other stressors, and scientific data to inform conservation planning are recognized as important...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852508/physiology-can-contribute-to-better-understanding-management-and-conservation-of-coral-reef-fishes
#12
Björn Illing, Jodie L Rummer
Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852507/conservation-physiology-and-the-quest-for-a-good-anthropocene
#13
Christine L Madliger, Craig E Franklin, Kevin R Hultine, Mark van Kleunen, Robert J Lennox, Oliver P Love, Jodie L Rummer, Steven J Cooke
It has been proposed that we are now living in a new geological epoch known as the Anthropocene, which is specifically defined by the impacts that humans are having on the Earth's biological diversity and geology. Although the proposal of this term was borne out of an acknowledgement of the negative changes we are imparting on the globe (e.g. climate change, pollution, coastal erosion, species extinctions), there has recently been action amongst a variety of disciplines aimed at achieving a 'good Anthropocene' that strives to balance societal needs and the preservation of the natural world...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852506/energy-metabolism-in-mobile-wild-sampled-sharks-inferred-by-plasma-lipids
#14
Austin J Gallagher, Rachel A Skubel, Heidi R Pethybridge, Neil Hammerschlag
Evaluating how predators metabolize energy is increasingly useful for conservation physiology, as it can provide information on their current nutritional condition. However, obtaining metabolic information from mobile marine predators is inherently challenging owing to their relative rarity, cryptic nature and often wide-ranging underwater movements. Here, we investigate aspects of energy metabolism in four free-ranging shark species (n = 281; blacktip, bull, nurse, and tiger) by measuring three metabolic parameters [plasma triglycerides (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA) and cholesterol (CHOL)] via non-lethal biopsy sampling...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852505/non-invasive-endocrine-monitoring-indicates-seasonal-variations-in-gonadal-hormone-metabolites-in-dholes-cuon-alpinus
#15
Jaruwan Khonmee, Suvichai Rojanasthien, Chatchote Thitaram, Jureerat Sumretprasong, Anurut Aunsusin, Chawin Chaisongkram, Nucharin Songsasen
To date, there is no information on reproductive endocrinology of dholes (Cuon alpinus). The objectives of the present study were as follows: (i) to characterize longitudinal profiles of gonadal steroids; and (ii) to examine the relationship between gonadal hormones and sexual behaviours in dholes. Three breeding pairs and two bachelor males were included in the study. Among these, four animals (2 males and 2 females; 4 years old) were imported from The Netherlands to Thailand 3 months before the study onset; the remaining individuals (3 males and 1 female; 5-7 years old) were native born...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852504/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-influences-on-standard-metabolic-rates-of-three-species-of-australian-otariid
#16
Monique A Ladds, David J Slip, Robert G Harcourt
The study of marine mammal energetics can shed light on how these animals might adapt to changing environments. Their physiological potential to adapt will be influenced by extrinsic factors, such as temperature, and by intrinsic factors, such as sex and reproduction. We measured the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of males and females of three Australian otariid species (two Australian fur seals, three New Zealand fur seals and seven Australian sea lions). Mean SMR ranged from 0.47 to 1.05 l O2 min(-1), which when adjusted for mass was from 5...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835844/polar-bears-experience-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-response-to-food-deprivation-and-reduced-activity-in-winter-and-summer
#17
John P Whiteman, Henry J Harlow, George M Durner, Eric V Regehr, Bryan C Rourke, Manuel Robles, Steven C Amstrup, Merav Ben-David
When reducing activity and using stored energy during seasonal food shortages, animals risk degradation of skeletal muscles, although some species avoid or minimize the resulting atrophy while experiencing these conditions during hibernation. Polar bears may be food deprived and relatively inactive during winter (when pregnant females hibernate and hunting success declines for other demographic groups) as well as summer (when sea ice retreats from key foraging habitats). We investigated muscle atrophy in samples of biceps femoris collected from free-ranging polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) throughout their annual cycle...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835843/foraging-for-fast-food-the-changing-diets-of-wildlife
#18
Essie M Rodgers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835842/how-experimental-biology-and-ecology-can-support-evidence-based-decision-making-in-conservation-avoiding-pitfalls-and-enabling-application
#19
Steven J Cooke, Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Robert J Lennox, Jessica J Taylor, Trina Rytwinski, Jodie L Rummer, Craig E Franklin, Joseph R Bennett, Neal R Haddaway
Policy development and management decisions should be based upon the best available evidence. In recent years, approaches to evidence synthesis, originating in the medical realm (such as systematic reviews), have been applied to conservation to promote evidence-based conservation and environmental management. Systematic reviews involve a critical appraisal of evidence, but studies that lack the necessary rigour (e.g. experimental, technical and analytical aspects) to justify their conclusions are typically excluded from systematic reviews or down-weighted in terms of their influence...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835841/swimming-performance-in-juvenile-shortnose-sturgeon-acipenser-brevirostrum-the-influence-of-time-interval-and-velocity-increments-on-critical-swimming-tests
#20
Adam T Downie, James D Kieffer
The most utilized method to measure swimming performance of fishes has been the critical swimming speed (UCrit) test. In this test, the fish is forced to swim against an incrementally increasing flow of water until fatigue. Before the water velocity is increased, the fish swims at the water velocity for a specific, pre-arranged time interval. The magnitude of the velocity increments and the time interval for each swimming period can vary across studies making the comparison between and within species difficult...
2017: Conservation Physiology
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