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Conservation Physiology

Kim Birnie-Gauvin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Alejandro A Fernández Ajó, Kathleen E Hunt, Marcela Uhart, Victoria Rowntree, Mariano Sironi, Carina F Marón, Matias Di Martino, C Loren Buck
Baleen tissue accumulates stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GC) as it grows, along with other adrenal, gonadal and thyroid hormones. The hormones are deposited in a linear fashion such that a single plate of baleen allows retrospective assessment and evaluation of long-term trends in the whales' physiological condition. In whale calves, a single piece of baleen contains hormones deposited across the lifespan of the animal, with the tip of the baleen representing prenatally grown baleen. This suggests that baleen recovered from stranded carcasses of whale calves could be used to examine lifetime patterns of stress physiology...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rose Upton, Simon Clulow, Michael J Mahony, John Clulow
Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate class globally based on recent rates of decline and extinction. Sperm cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies have the potential to help manage small and threatened populations and prevent extinctions. There are a growing number of reports of recovery of amphibian sperm after cryopreservation, but relatively few published reports of amphibian embryos generated from frozen sperm developing beyond metamorphosis to the adult stage and achieving sexual maturation...
2018: Conservation Physiology
S E Hernandez, A L S Strona, N O Leiner, G Suzán, M C Romano
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of environmental (dry versus wet season) and individual (sex, body mass and reproductive status) factors in the levels of faecal cortisol metabolites (FGCs) in Gracilinanus agilis faecal samples as an index of stress levels in this species; as well as its association with abundance of Eimeria spp, as an indicator of immunocompetence against parasites. Our study found that FGCFGCs are a reliable indicator of adrenal activity in G. agilis . We found that FGCFGCs increase considerably by environmental stressors like the dry season...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Randall Arguedas, David Steinberg, Gregory A Lewbart, Diane Deresienski, Kenneth J Lohmann, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos A Valle
The San Cristóbal lava lizard, Microlophus bivittatus , is one of nine species of lava lizards endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. No information presently exists about baseline health parameters for any of these species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 47 lizards (25 males and 22 females) captured at two locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for total CO2 , lactate, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose and haemoglobin...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Chelsey L Nieman, Andrew L Oppliger, Caroline C McElwain, Suzanne M Gray
Increasing anthropogenic turbidity is among the most prevalent disturbances in freshwater ecosystems, through increases in sedimentary deposition as well as the rise of nutrient-induced algal blooms. Changes to the amount and color of light underwater as a result of elevated turbidity are likely to disrupt the visual ecology of fishes that rely on vision to survive and reproduce; however, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying visual responses to turbidity is lacking. First, we aimed to determine the visual detection threshold, a measure of visual sensitivity, of two ecologically and economically important Lake Erie fishes, the planktivorous forage fish, emerald shiner ( Notropis atherinoides ), and a primary predator, the piscivorous walleye ( Sander vitreus ), under sedimentary and algal turbidity...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Christine E Cooper, Philip C Withers, Suzanne L Munns, Fritz Geiser, William A Buttemer
Identifying spatial patterns in the variation of physiological traits that occur within and between species is a fundamental goal of comparative physiology. There has been a focus on identifying and explaining this variation at broad taxonomic scales, but more recently attention has shifted to examining patterns of intra-specific physiological variation. Here we examine geographic variation in the physiology of brushtail possums ( Trichosurus ), widely distributed Australian marsupials, and discuss how pertinent intra-specific variation may be to conservation physiology...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Laura Adamovicz, Katie Leister, John Byrd, Christopher A Phillips, Matthew C Allender
Sustainable wildlife populations depend on healthy individuals, and the approach to determine wellness of individuals is multifaceted. Blood gas analysis serves as a useful adjunctive diagnostic test for health assessment, but it is uncommonly applied to terrestrial reptiles. This study established reference intervals for venous blood gas panels in free-living eastern box turtles ( Terrapene carolina carolina , N = 102) from Illinois and Tennessee, and modeled the effects of environmental and physiologic parameters on each blood gas analyte...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Molly C McCormley, Cory D Champagne, Jared S Deyarmin, Alicia P Stephan, Daniel E Crocker, Dorian S Houser, Jane I Khudyakov
Understanding the physiological response of marine mammals to anthropogenic stressors can inform marine ecosystem conservation strategies. Stress stimulates the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and synthesis of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, which increase energy substrate availability while suppressing energy-intensive processes. Exposure to repeated stressors can potentially affect an animal's ability to respond to and recover from subsequent challenges. To mimic repeated activation of the HPA axis by environmental stressors (or challenges), we administered adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to free-ranging juvenile northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris ; n = 7) once daily for 4 days...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Carlos A Valle, Catalina Ulloa, Diane Deresienski, Cristina Regalado, Juan-Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Garcia, Britta Denise Hardesty, Alice Skehel, Gregory A Lewbart
The great frigatebird, Fregata minor , is a widely distributed seabird native to the Galápagos archipelago. Haematology and blood chemistry parameters have been published for this species but not from the San Cristóbal and North Seymour great frigatebird breeding colonies. Analyses were run on blood samples drawn from 25 great frigatebirds captured by hand at their nests at Punta Pitt on San Cristóbal Island and 30 birds on North Seymour Island, Galápagos Islands. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near immediate field results for pH, pO2 , pCO2 , TCO2 , HCO3- , haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), ionized calcium (iCa), creatinine, urea nitrogen, anion gap and glucose...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Brittany E Davis, Lisa M Komoroske, Matthew J Hansen, Jamilynn B Poletto, Emily N Perry, Nathan A Miller, Sean M Ehlman, Sarah G Wheeler, Andrew Sih, Anne E Todgham, Nann A Fangue
California's coastal ecosystems are forecasted to undergo shifting ocean conditions due to climate change, some of which may negatively impact recreational and commercial fish populations. To understand if fish populations have the capacity to respond to multiple stressors, it is critical to examine interactive effects across multiple biological scales, from cellular metabolism to species interactions. This study examined the effects of CO2 -acidification and hypoxia on two naturally co-occurring species, juvenile rockfish (genus Sebastes) and a known predator, cabezon ( Scorpaenichthys marmoratus )...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Madison Acker, Gabriela Mastromonaco, Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde
Hair cortisol analysis has been used to quantify hormone levels in circulation in several mammal species. Hair remains stable for decades or centuries, allowing researchers to use archived hair samples to investigate hormone levels that span long time periods. However, several studies have found that intra-individual variability, driven by the body region from which a sample is derived, confounds measurements of systemic glucocorticoid hormone concentrations. In addition, the external application of chemical agents to hair can remove or concentrate molecules of interest...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Alison M Haynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian populations the world over are under threat of extinction, with as many as 40% of assessed species listed as threatened under IUCN Red List criteria (a significantly higher proportion than other vertebrate group). Amongst the key threats to amphibian species is the emergence of novel infectious diseases, which have been implicated in the catastrophic amphibian population declines and extinctions seen in many parts of the world. The recent emergence of these diseases coincides with increased ambient levels of ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) due to anthropogenic thinning of the Earth's protective ozone layer, raising questions about potential interactions between UVBR exposure and disease in amphibians...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde, Zvia Mazal, Claire M Jardine, Jeffrey Gagnon
Urban landscapes have well-known effects on wildlife populations. Many species of urban wildlife feed on anthropogenic food wastes, and little is known regarding the sub-lethal physiological consequences of this novel diet. We use samples from three populations of raccoons to test the hypothesis that access to anthropogenic food waste will lead to elevated body mass, blood glucose and serum leptin. Each population varied in their presumed access to food waste. We found that raccoons from the site with the highest presumed access to food waste were significantly heavier and had significantly higher levels of glycated serum protein (GSP, a marker of elevated blood glucose)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rob van Treuren, Noor Bas, Jan Kodde, Steven P C Groot, Chris Kik
Genebanks aim to optimize their storage conditions in order to postpone seed ageing as long as possible. As most genebanks have a relatively short life history, empirical data about seed longevity during ex situ storage are almost absent. Based on seed characteristics, theoretical predictions indicate that cereal seeds can be stored without substantial loss of viability for time periods exceeding 100 years, even under temperatures of a few degrees above zero. Here we present the results of a germination study in wheat and barley, comparing genebank seed samples maintained at different temperatures for 23-33 years...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Matthew J Hansen, Dennis E Cocherell, Steven J Cooke, Paul H Patrick, Michael Sills, Nann A Fangue
Exploiting species-specific behavioural responses of fish to light is an increasingly promising technique to reduce the entrainment or impingement of fish that results from the diversion of water for human activities, such as hydropower or irrigation. Whilst there is some evidence that white light can be an effective deterrent for Chinook salmon smolts, the results have been mixed. There is a need to test the response of fish to different spectra and strobing frequencies to improve deterrent performance. We tested the movement and spatial response of groups of four fish to combinations of light-emitting diode (LED) spectra (red, green, blue and white light) during the day and night, and strobing frequencies (constant and 2Hz) during the day, using innovative LED technology intended as a behavioural guidance device for use in the field...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sarah E Diamond, Lacy D Chick, Abe Perez, Stephanie A Strickler, Crystal Zhao
Because cities contain high levels of impervious surfaces and diminished buffering effects of vegetation cover, urbanized environments can warm faster over the day and exhibit more rapid warming over space due to greater thermal heterogeneity in these environments. Whether organismal physiologies can adapt to these more rapid spatio-temporal changes in temperature rise within cities is unknown, and exploring these responses can inform not only how plastic and evolutionary mechanisms shape organismal physiologies, but also the potential for organisms to cope with urban development...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Kimberly Maute, Kristine French, Sarah Legge, Lee Astheimer, Stephen Garnett
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cov025.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cov025.].
2018: Conservation Physiology
Logan Pallin, Jooke Robbins, Nicholas Kellar, Martine Bérubé, Ari Friedlaender
Baleen whales have few identifiable external indicators of pregnancy state, making it challenging to study essential aspects of their biology and population dynamics. Pregnancy status in other marine mammals has been determined by measuring progesterone concentrations from a variety of sample matrices, but logistical constraints have limited such studies in free-swimming baleen whales. We use an extensive blubber sample archive and associated calving history data to retrospectively identify samples that correspond to pregnant females and develop a progesterone-based pregnancy test for humpback whales...
2018: Conservation Physiology
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