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Conservation Physiology

Brittany E Davis, Lisa M Komoroske, Matthew J Hansen, Jamilynn B Poletto, Emily N Perry, Nathan A Miller, Sean M Ehlman, Sarah G Wheeler, Andrew Sih, Anne E Todgham, Nann A Fangue
California's coastal ecosystems are forecasted to undergo shifting ocean conditions due to climate change, some of which may negatively impact recreational and commercial fish populations. To understand if fish populations have the capacity to respond to multiple stressors, it is critical to examine interactive effects across multiple biological scales, from cellular metabolism to species interactions. This study examined the effects of CO2 -acidification and hypoxia on two naturally co-occurring species, juvenile rockfish (genus Sebastes) and a known predator, cabezon ( Scorpaenichthys marmoratus )...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Madison Acker, Gabriela Mastromonaco, Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde
Hair cortisol analysis has been used to quantify hormone levels in circulation in several mammal species. Hair remains stable for decades or centuries, allowing researchers to use archived hair samples to investigate hormone levels that span long time periods. However, several studies have found that intra-individual variability, driven by the body region from which a sample is derived, confounds measurements of systemic glucocorticoid hormone concentrations. In addition, the external application of chemical agents to hair can remove or concentrate molecules of interest...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Alison M Haynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian populations the world over are under threat of extinction, with as many as 40% of assessed species listed as threatened under IUCN Red List criteria (a significantly higher proportion than other vertebrate group). Amongst the key threats to amphibian species is the emergence of novel infectious diseases, which have been implicated in the catastrophic amphibian population declines and extinctions seen in many parts of the world. The recent emergence of these diseases coincides with increased ambient levels of ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) due to anthropogenic thinning of the Earth's protective ozone layer, raising questions about potential interactions between UVBR exposure and disease in amphibians...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde, Zvia Mazal, Claire M Jardine, Jeffrey Gagnon
Urban landscapes have well-known effects on wildlife populations. Many species of urban wildlife feed on anthropogenic food wastes, and little is known regarding the sub-lethal physiological consequences of this novel diet. We use samples from three populations of raccoons to test the hypothesis that access to anthropogenic food waste will lead to elevated body mass, blood glucose and serum leptin. Each population varied in their presumed access to food waste. We found that raccoons from the site with the highest presumed access to food waste were significantly heavier and had significantly higher levels of glycated serum protein (GSP, a marker of elevated blood glucose)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rob van Treuren, Noor Bas, Jan Kodde, Steven P C Groot, Chris Kik
Genebanks aim to optimize their storage conditions in order to postpone seed ageing as long as possible. As most genebanks have a relatively short life history, empirical data about seed longevity during ex situ storage are almost absent. Based on seed characteristics, theoretical predictions indicate that cereal seeds can be stored without substantial loss of viability for time periods exceeding 100 years, even under temperatures of a few degrees above zero. Here we present the results of a germination study in wheat and barley, comparing genebank seed samples maintained at different temperatures for 23-33 years...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Matthew J Hansen, Dennis E Cocherell, Steven J Cooke, Paul H Patrick, Michael Sills, Nann A Fangue
Exploiting species-specific behavioural responses of fish to light is an increasingly promising technique to reduce the entrainment or impingement of fish that results from the diversion of water for human activities, such as hydropower or irrigation. Whilst there is some evidence that white light can be an effective deterrent for Chinook salmon smolts, the results have been mixed. There is a need to test the response of fish to different spectra and strobing frequencies to improve deterrent performance. We tested the movement and spatial response of groups of four fish to combinations of light-emitting diode (LED) spectra (red, green, blue and white light) during the day and night, and strobing frequencies (constant and 2Hz) during the day, using innovative LED technology intended as a behavioural guidance device for use in the field...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sarah E Diamond, Lacy D Chick, Abe Perez, Stephanie A Strickler, Crystal Zhao
Because cities contain high levels of impervious surfaces and diminished buffering effects of vegetation cover, urbanized environments can warm faster over the day and exhibit more rapid warming over space due to greater thermal heterogeneity in these environments. Whether organismal physiologies can adapt to these more rapid spatio-temporal changes in temperature rise within cities is unknown, and exploring these responses can inform not only how plastic and evolutionary mechanisms shape organismal physiologies, but also the potential for organisms to cope with urban development...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Kimberly Maute, Kristine French, Sarah Legge, Lee Astheimer, Stephen Garnett
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cov025.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cov025.].
2018: Conservation Physiology
Logan Pallin, Jooke Robbins, Nicholas Kellar, Martine Bérubé, Ari Friedlaender
Baleen whales have few identifiable external indicators of pregnancy state, making it challenging to study essential aspects of their biology and population dynamics. Pregnancy status in other marine mammals has been determined by measuring progesterone concentrations from a variety of sample matrices, but logistical constraints have limited such studies in free-swimming baleen whales. We use an extensive blubber sample archive and associated calving history data to retrospectively identify samples that correspond to pregnant females and develop a progesterone-based pregnancy test for humpback whales...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love, Kevin R Hultine, Steven J Cooke
For over a century, physiological tools and techniques have been allowing researchers to characterize how organisms respond to changes in their natural environment and how they interact with human activities or infrastructure. Over time, many of these techniques have become part of the conservation physiology toolbox, which is used to monitor, predict, conserve, and restore plant and animal populations under threat. Here, we provide a summary of the tools that currently comprise the conservation physiology toolbox...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Christine L Madliger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Esther Tarszisz, Sean Tomlinson, Mark E Harrison, Helen C Morrogh-Bernard, Adam J Munn
Fauna-mediated ecosystem service provision (e.g. seed dispersal) can be difficult to quantify and predict because it is underpinned by the shifting niches of multiple interacting organisms. Such interactions are especially complex in tropical ecosystems, including endangered peat forests of Central Borneo, a biodiversity hot spot and home to the critically endangered orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii ). We combined studies of the digestive physiology of captive orangutans in Australia with detailed field studies of wild orangutans in the Natural Laboratory of Peat-Swamp Forest of Sabangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia...
2018: Conservation Physiology
David Costantini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Charlie Huveneers, Yuuki Y Watanabe, Nicholas L Payne, Jayson M Semmens
Anthropogenic activities are dramatically changing marine ecosystems. Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and has the potential to modify the natural environment and behaviour of the species it targets. Here, we used a novel method to assess the effects of wildlife tourism on the activity of white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ). High frequency three-axis acceleration loggers were deployed on ten white sharks for a total of ~9 days. A combination of multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that the increased number of strong accelerations and vertical movements when sharks are interacting with cage-diving operators result in an overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) ~61% higher compared with other times when sharks are present in the area where cage-diving occurs...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Taryn D Laubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Katherine M Graham, Cecilia J Langhorne, Carrie K Vance, Scott T Willard, Andrew J Kouba
Establishing captive breeding populations of amphibians is an important conservation strategy to safeguard against ongoing declines of wild populations and provide broodstock for reintroduction programs. The endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF) has never naturally reproduced in captivity and requires breeding intervention to sustain the population. Methods for inducing ovulation in female DGFs using hormone therapies have not been evaluated. To address this need, we tested four exogenous hormone treatments to induce ovulation in DGFs ( n = 11/treatment), including: treatment (A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa); (B) GnRHa with dopamine antagonist metoclopramide hydrochloride; (C) GnRHa and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and (D) GnRHa with hCG following two low hCG priming doses...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Camille J Macnaughton, Colin Kovachik, Colin Charles, Eva C Enders
Temperature preference for various fishes has often been used as a proxy of optimal temperature for growth and metabolism due to the ease of obtaining preferred temperature zones in laboratory experiments. Several laboratory designs and methods have been proposed to examine preferred temperature zones, however, differences between them (i.e. thermal gradients vs. static temperatures in chambers and duration of acclimation/experimental periods) have led to varying measurements, precluding comparisons between experiments, species and/or life-stages...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sean Tomlinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Anika Brüning, Werner Kloas, Torsten Preuer, Franz Hölker
Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon...
2018: Conservation Physiology
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