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Pathogens & Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853753/elevated-circulating-concentrations-of-interferon-gamma-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#1
Moises A Huaman, George S Deepe, Carl J Fichtenbaum
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been associated with increased immune activation. We assessed circulating concentrations of interferon-gamma in persons with LTBI. METHODS: We used the 2011-2012 National Health Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to identify adults with and without LTBI by QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) results. Non-LTBI persons were 1:1 age-, gender-, and race-matched to LTBI persons using propensity scores. We compared the plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma measured from the unstimulated, negative control QFT tube between LTBI and non-LTBI persons...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709126/epitope-capsid-incorporation-new-effective-approach-for-vaccine-development-for-chagas-disease
#2
Qiana L Matthews, Anitra L Farrow, Girish Rachakonda, Linlin Gu, Pius Nde, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Siddharth Pratap, Shruti S Sakhare, Steffanie Sabbaj, Maria F Lima, Fernando Villalta
BACKGROUND: Previously we reported that a hexon-modified adenovirus (Ad) vector containing the invasive neutralizing epitope of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) trypomastigote gp83 (Ad5-gp83) provided immunoprotection against T. cruzi infection. The purpose of this work was to design an improved vaccine for T. cruzi using a novel epitope capsid incorporation strategy. Thus, we evaluated the immunoprotection raised by co-immunization with Ad5-gp83 and an Ad vector containing an epitope (ASP-M) of the T...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294212/hepatitis-delta-virus-detected-in-salivary-glands-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients-and-recapitulates-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-like-phenotype-in-vivo
#3
Melodie L Weller, Matthew R Gardener, Zoe C Bogus, Michael A Smith, Elisa Astorri, Drew G Michael, Donald A Michael, Changyu Zheng, Peter D Burbelo, Zhennan Lai, Paul A Wilson, William Swaim, Beverly Handelman, Sandra A Afione, Michele Bombardieri, John A Chiorini
BACKGROUND: Low-level, chronic viral infections have been suspect in the development of select autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Multiple studies have shown stimulation of antiviral response pathways in pSS tissues suggestive of a viral infection. Yet, with this data in hand, a causal link between a viral infection and development of pSS had not been identified. Therefore, a study was designed to further define the viral landscape within pSS-affected salivary gland tissue to identify potential viral-mediated triggers in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease...
May 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819062/reconstitution-of-peripheral-t-cells-by-tissue-derived-ccr4-central-memory-cells-following-hiv-1-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Yolanda D Mahnke, Kipper Fletez-Brant, Irini Sereti, Mario Roederer
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy induces clinical benefits to HIV-1 infected individuals, which can be striking in those with progressive disease. Improved survival and decreased incidence of opportunistic infections go hand in hand with a suppression of the plasma viral load, an increase in peripheral CD4(+) T-cell counts, as well as a reduction in the activation status of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. METHODS: We investigated T-cell dynamics during ART by polychromatic flow cytometry in total as well as in HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in patients with advanced disease...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819061/use-of-dried-blood-spots-to-elucidate-full-length-transmitted-founder-hiv-1-genomes
#5
Jesus F Salazar-Gonzalez, Maria G Salazar, Damien C Tully, Colin B Ogilvie, Gerald H Learn, Todd M Allen, Sonya L Heath, Paul Goepfert, Katharine J Bar
BACKGROUND: Identification of HIV-1 genomes responsible for establishing clinical infection in newly infected individuals is fundamental to prevention and pathogenesis research. Processing, storage, and transportation of the clinical samples required to perform these virologic assays in resource-limited settings requires challenging venipuncture and cold chain logistics. Here, we validate the use of dried-blood spots (DBS) as a simple and convenient alternative to collecting and storing frozen plasma...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774521/fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-after-transrectal-biopsy-of-the-prostate-in-the-veterans-affairs-healthcare-system
#6
Elie A Saade, Nuntra Suwantarat, Trina F Zabarsky, Brigid Wilson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP) in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668294/intimate-partner-violence-is-associated-with-increased-cd4-t-cell-activation-among-hiv-negative-high-risk-women
#7
Ameeta S Kalokhe, Chris C Ibegbu, Surinder P Kaur, Rama R Amara, Mary E Kelley, Carlos Del Rio, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Biological pathways mediating the link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and increased HIV risk remain unexplored. We hypothesized that IPV-induced stress negatively affects HIV systemic immune defenses and aimed to evaluate whether IPV was associated with immune profiles linked to HIV susceptibility: CD4 activation and diminished regulatory T-cell (Treg) frequency. METHODS: Seventy-five HIV-negative high-risk women were surveyed regarding their IPV experience...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668293/a-cure-for-hiv-infection-not-in-my-lifetime-or-just-around-the-corner
#8
Michael M Lederman, Paula M Cannon, Judith S Currier, Carl H June, Hans Peter Kiem, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Sharon R Lewin, David M Margolis, Joseph M McCune, John W Mellors, Timothy W Schacker, Rafick P Sekaly, Pablo Tebas, Bruce D Walker, Daniel C Douek
With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding "a cure." The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635417/natural-killer-cell-diversity-in-viral-infection-why-and-how-much
#9
Catherine A Blish
Natural killer cells are a diverse group of innate lymphocytes that are specialized to rapidly respond to cancerous or virus-infected cells. NK cell function is controlled by the integration of signals from activating and inhibitory receptors expressed at the cell surface. Variegated expression patterns of these activating and inhibitory receptors at the single cell level leads to a highly diverse NK cell repertoire. Here I review the factors that influence NK cell repertoire diversity and its functional consequences for our ability to fight viruses...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500282/rosuvastatin-decreases-intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-i-fabp-but-does-not-alter-zonulin-or-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-levels-in-hiv-infected-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Nicholas T Funderburg, Morgan Boucher, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Danielle Labbato, Bruce I Kinley, Grace A McComsey
INTRODUCTION: Altered gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and subsequent microbial translocation may contribute to immune activation in HIV infection. We have reported that rosuvastatin improved several markers of immune activation in HIV+ participants, but the effect of statin treatment on markers of GI barrier dysfunction is unknown. METHODS: SATURN-HIV is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the effect of rosuvastatin (10mg/daily) on markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and immune activation in ART-treated patients...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500281/interferons-and-hiv-infection-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#11
Netanya S Utay, Daniel C Douek
Whether type I interferons (IFNs) hinder or facilitate HIV disease progression is controversial. Type I IFNs induce the production of restriction factors that protect against mucosal HIV/SIV acquisition and limit virus replication once systemic infection is established. However, type I IFNs also increase systemic immune activation, a predictor of poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery and progression to AIDS, and facilitate production and recruitment of target CD4(+) T cells. In addition, type I IFNs induce CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis and limit antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430032/defining-hiv-and-siv-reservoirs-in-lymphoid-tissues
#12
Claire Deleage, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Gregory Del Prete, David R Morcock, Xing Pei Hao, Michael Piatak, Julian Bess, Jodi L Anderson, Katherine E Perkey, Cavan Reilly, Joseph M McCune, Ashley T Haase, Jeffrey D Lifson, Timothy W Schacker, Jacob D Estes
A primary obstacle to an HIV-1 cure is long-lived viral reservoirs, which must be eliminated or greatly reduced. Cure strategies have largely focused on monitoring changes in T cell reservoirs in peripheral blood (PB), even though the lymphoid tissues (LT) are primary sites for viral persistence. To track and discriminate viral reservoirs within tissue compartments we developed a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach to detect vRNA, including vRNA+ cells and viral particles ("RNAscope"), vDNA+ cells ("DNAscope") and combined vRNA and vDNA with immunohistochemistry to detect and phenotype active and latently infected cells in the same tissue section...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284578/addressing-future-epidemics-historical-human-rights-lessons-from-the-aids-pandemic-understanding-human-rights-lessons-from-the-early-aids-pandemic-can-aid-policy-makers-in-addressing-future-epidemics-of-infectious-diseases
#13
Ambar Mehta, Thomas C Quinn
INTRODUCTION: The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
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