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Pathogens & Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217763/impact-of-tigecycline-versus-other-antibiotics-on-the-fecal-metabolome-and-on-colonization-resistance-to-clostridium-difficile-in-mice
#1
Robin L P Jump, David Kraft, Kelly Hurless, Alex Polinkovsky, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: The glycylcycline antibiotic tigecycline may have a relatively low propensity to promote Clostridium difficile infection in part because it causes less disruption of the indigenous intestinal microbiota than other broad-spectrum antibiotics. We used a mouse model to compare the effects of tigecycline versus other commonly used antibiotics on colonization resistance to C. difficile and on the metabolic functions of the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: To assess in vivo colonization resistance to C...
January 18, 2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603782/socioeconomic-determinants-of-cipro-floxacin-resistant-shigella-infections-in-bangladeshi-children
#2
Randon J Gruninger, Russell A Johnson, Sumon K Das, Eric J Nelson, Emily S Spivak, John R Contreras, A S G Faruque, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Shigella species (spp.) are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. METHODS: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580437/lower-baseline-germinal-center-activity-and-preserved-th1-immunity-are-associated-with-hepatitis-b-vaccine-response-in-treated-hiv-infection
#3
Robert M Paris, Lucimar G Milagres, Eirini Moysi, Jason F Okulicz, Brian K Agan, Anu Ganesan, Constantinos Petrovas, Richard A Koup
BACKGROUND: Why HIV-infected individuals have poor responses to standard dose and schedule hepatitis B virus immunization is not well understood. METHODS: We compared the serologic and cellular immune profiles of treated HIV-infected individuals with similar durations of infection and preserved CD4 counts (> 350 cells/microliter) by hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) response before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Similar levels of immune activation and plasma cytokine profile were found between non-responders and responders...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529995/celebrating-more-than-a-century-of-research-on-antibodies-affirmation-through-negation-via-complex-formation
#4
Neil S Greenspan
In this brief commentary, I highlight the remarkable properties of antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins) revealed by more than 100 years of biomedical research. Since antibodies can be elicited through one or another means against almost any molecule or macromolecule, the universe of antibodies represents a sort of molecular mirror for the totality of molecules that make life possible. Consequently, as recounted below, antibodies play a role in almost every aspect of medicine and biomedical research.
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503671/hiv-hcv-co-infection-liver-disease-progression-and-age-related-igf-1-decline
#5
Jeffrey Quinn, Jacquie Astemborski, Shruti H Mehta, Gregory D Kirk, David L Thomas, Ashwin Balagopal
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that persons co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) had liver disease stages similar to HIV-uninfected individuals who were approximately 10 years older. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) levels have long been known to decline with advancing age in humans and non-humans alike. We examined whether HIV infection affects the expected decline in IGF-1 in persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and if that alteration in IGF-1 decline contributes to the link between HIV, aging, and liver disease progression...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428984/a-comparison-of-molecular-typing-methods-applied-to-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-hsp60-sequencing-rep-pcr-and-mlst
#6
Roberto A Viau, Lee M Kiedrowski, Barry N Kreiswirth, Mark Adams, Federico Perez, Dror Marchaim, Dubert M Guerrero, Keith S Kaye, Latania K Logan, Maria Virginia Villegas, Robert A Bonomo
Molecular typing using repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR) and hsp60 sequencing were applied to a collection of diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates. To determine the most practical method for reference laboratories, we analyzed 71 E. cloacae complex isolates from sporadic and outbreak occurrences originating from 4 geographic areas. While rep-PCR was more discriminating, hsp60 sequencing provided a broader and a more objective geographical tracking method similar to multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317034/european-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroups-are-associated-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-infection
#7
David C Samuels, Asha R Kallianpur, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, Scott Letendre, Donald Franklin, Igor Grant, Todd Hulgan
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are ancestry-related patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with differential mitochondrial function in model systems, neurodegenerative diseases in HIV-negative populations, and chronic complications of HIV infection, including neurocognitive impairment. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups are associated with neuroinflammation in HIV-infected adults. METHODS: CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) is a US-based observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174759/-infectious-supercarelessness-in-discussing-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#8
Neil S Greenspan
Many bacterial pathogens are exhibiting resistance to increasing numbers of antibiotics making it much more challenging to treat the infections caused by these microbes. In many reports in the media and perhaps even in discussions among physicians and biomedical scientists, these bacteria are frequently referred to as "bugs" with the prefix "super" appended. This terminology has a high potential to elicit unjustified inferences and fails to highlight the broader evolutionary context. Understanding the full range of biological and evolutionary factors that influence the spread and outcomes of infections is critical to formulating effective individual therapies and public health interventions...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164171/diminished-cd103-%C3%AE-e%C3%AE-7-expression-on-resident-t-cells-from-the-female-genital-tract-of-hiv-positive-women
#9
David C Moylan, Paul A Goepfert, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Michael S Saag, Holly E Richter, Jiri Mestecky, Steffanie Sabbaj
BACKGROUND: Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). METHODS: Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L-CCR7-CD103(+)CD69(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. RESULTS: We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004038/increasing-rates-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-blood-and-urine-of-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-and-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#10
Christopher G Hauck, Pearlie P Chong, Melissa B Miller, Katarzyna Jamieson, Jason P Fine, Matthew C Foster, Thomas C Shea, David van Duin
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics have been shown to reduce mortality and the number of febrile episodes when used as prophylaxis during neutropenia. Prior studies suggest that prophylaxis may result in increasing rates of FQ resistance. Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility trends in Escherichia coli isolated from blood and urine cultures were evaluated over a 16-year period during which prophylaxis was initiated in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplants. Non-susceptibility rates increased after the introduction of prophylaxis, with yearly non-susceptibility rates rising from 30%-33% to 40%-88% in blood isolates...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853753/elevated-circulating-concentrations-of-interferon-gamma-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Moises A Huaman, George S Deepe, Carl J Fichtenbaum
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been associated with increased immune activation. We assessed circulating concentrations of interferon-gamma in persons with LTBI. METHODS: We used the 2011-2012 National Health Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to identify adults with and without LTBI by QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) results. Non-LTBI persons were 1:1 age-, gender-, and race-matched to LTBI persons using propensity scores. We compared the plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma measured from the unstimulated, negative control QFT tube between LTBI and non-LTBI persons...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709126/epitope-capsid-incorporation-new-effective-approach-for-vaccine-development-for-chagas-disease
#12
Qiana L Matthews, Anitra L Farrow, Girish Rachakonda, Linlin Gu, Pius Nde, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Siddharth Pratap, Shruti S Sakhare, Steffanie Sabbaj, Maria F Lima, Fernando Villalta
BACKGROUND: Previously we reported that a hexon-modified adenovirus (Ad) vector containing the invasive neutralizing epitope of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) trypomastigote gp83 (Ad5-gp83) provided immunoprotection against T. cruzi infection. The purpose of this work was to design an improved vaccine for T. cruzi using a novel epitope capsid incorporation strategy. Thus, we evaluated the immunoprotection raised by co-immunization with Ad5-gp83 and an Ad vector containing an epitope (ASP-M) of the T...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294212/hepatitis-delta-virus-detected-in-salivary-glands-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients-and-recapitulates-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-like-phenotype-in-vivo
#13
Melodie L Weller, Matthew R Gardener, Zoe C Bogus, Michael A Smith, Elisa Astorri, Drew G Michael, Donald A Michael, Changyu Zheng, Peter D Burbelo, Zhennan Lai, Paul A Wilson, William Swaim, Beverly Handelman, Sandra A Afione, Michele Bombardieri, John A Chiorini
BACKGROUND: Low-level, chronic viral infections have been suspect in the development of select autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Multiple studies have shown stimulation of antiviral response pathways in pSS tissues suggestive of a viral infection. Yet, with this data in hand, a causal link between a viral infection and development of pSS had not been identified. Therefore, a study was designed to further define the viral landscape within pSS-affected salivary gland tissue to identify potential viral-mediated triggers in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease...
May 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217762/clinical-application-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assays-for-the-prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-countries-with-low-incidence
#14
Christoph Lange, Anna M Mandalakas, Barbara Kalsdorf, Claudia M Denkinger, Martina Sester
Despite global efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) the estimated number of people who developed TB worldwide increased to an all-time record of more than 10 million in 2015. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the global incidence of TB to less than 100 cases per million by 2035, cannot be reached unless TB prevention is markedly improved. There is a need for an improved vaccine that better protects individuals who are exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis from infection and active disease compared to the current M...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819062/reconstitution-of-peripheral-t-cells-by-tissue-derived-ccr4-central-memory-cells-following-hiv-1-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Yolanda D Mahnke, Kipper Fletez-Brant, Irini Sereti, Mario Roederer
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy induces clinical benefits to HIV-1 infected individuals, which can be striking in those with progressive disease. Improved survival and decreased incidence of opportunistic infections go hand in hand with a suppression of the plasma viral load, an increase in peripheral CD4(+) T-cell counts, as well as a reduction in the activation status of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. METHODS: We investigated T-cell dynamics during ART by polychromatic flow cytometry in total as well as in HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in patients with advanced disease...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819061/use-of-dried-blood-spots-to-elucidate-full-length-transmitted-founder-hiv-1-genomes
#16
Jesus F Salazar-Gonzalez, Maria G Salazar, Damien C Tully, Colin B Ogilvie, Gerald H Learn, Todd M Allen, Sonya L Heath, Paul Goepfert, Katharine J Bar
BACKGROUND: Identification of HIV-1 genomes responsible for establishing clinical infection in newly infected individuals is fundamental to prevention and pathogenesis research. Processing, storage, and transportation of the clinical samples required to perform these virologic assays in resource-limited settings requires challenging venipuncture and cold chain logistics. Here, we validate the use of dried-blood spots (DBS) as a simple and convenient alternative to collecting and storing frozen plasma...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774521/fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-after-transrectal-biopsy-of-the-prostate-in-the-veterans-affairs-healthcare-system
#17
Elie A Saade, Nuntra Suwantarat, Trina F Zabarsky, Brigid Wilson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP) in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668294/intimate-partner-violence-is-associated-with-increased-cd4-t-cell-activation-among-hiv-negative-high-risk-women
#18
Ameeta S Kalokhe, Chris C Ibegbu, Surinder P Kaur, Rama R Amara, Mary E Kelley, Carlos Del Rio, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Biological pathways mediating the link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and increased HIV risk remain unexplored. We hypothesized that IPV-induced stress negatively affects HIV systemic immune defenses and aimed to evaluate whether IPV was associated with immune profiles linked to HIV susceptibility: CD4 activation and diminished regulatory T-cell (Treg) frequency. METHODS: Seventy-five HIV-negative high-risk women were surveyed regarding their IPV experience...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668293/a-cure-for-hiv-infection-not-in-my-lifetime-or-just-around-the-corner
#19
Michael M Lederman, Paula M Cannon, Judith S Currier, Carl H June, Hans Peter Kiem, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Sharon R Lewin, David M Margolis, Joseph M McCune, John W Mellors, Timothy W Schacker, Rafick P Sekaly, Pablo Tebas, Bruce D Walker, Daniel C Douek
With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding "a cure." The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635417/natural-killer-cell-diversity-in-viral-infection-why-and-how-much
#20
Catherine A Blish
Natural killer cells are a diverse group of innate lymphocytes that are specialized to rapidly respond to cancerous or virus-infected cells. NK cell function is controlled by the integration of signals from activating and inhibitory receptors expressed at the cell surface. Variegated expression patterns of these activating and inhibitory receptors at the single cell level leads to a highly diverse NK cell repertoire. Here I review the factors that influence NK cell repertoire diversity and its functional consequences for our ability to fight viruses...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
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