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Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders

Donita I Bylski-Austrow, David L Glos, Anne C Bonifas, Max F Carvalho, Matthew C Coombs, Peter F Sturm
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatments for early onset scoliosis (EOS) correct curvatures and improve respiratory function but involve many complications. A distractible, or 'growing rod,' implant construct that is more flexible than current metal rod systems may sufficiently correct curves in small children and reduce complications due to biomechanical factors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine ranges of motion (ROM) after implantation of simulated growing rod constructs with a range of clinically relevant structural properties...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Federico Balagué, Ferran Pellisé
This broad narrative review addresses the relationship between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and back pain. AIS can be responsible for low back pain, particularly major cases. However, a linear relationship between back pain and the magnitude of the deformity cannot be expected for any individual patient. A large number of juvenile patients can remain pain-free. The long-term prognosis is rather benign for many cases and thus a tailored approach to the individual patient seems mandatory. The level of evidence available does not allow stringent recommendations for any of the disorders included in this review...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Prudence Wing Hang Cheung, Vivian Tam, Victor Yu Leong Leung, Dino Samartzis, Kenneth Man-Chee Cheung, Keith Dip-Kei Luk, Jason Pui Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy is a common cause of lumbar spinal stenosis and is thought to be degeneration-driven. Developmental spinal stenosis (DSS) is characterized by pre-existing narrowed spinal canals and is likely a developmental problem that occurs in childhood. In these cases, the LF may demonstrate different characteristics as compared to degeneration-driven stenosis. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between histological changes of LF and canal size...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Jeffrey L Gum, Leah Y Carreon, Jacob M Buchowski, Lawrence G Lenke, Steven D Glassman
BACKGROUND: Increased awareness regarding the importance of the sagittal spinal profile has led to more aggressive correction of sagittal malalignment. The utilization trends of pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for sagittal plane correction in spinal deformity surgery have not been well characterized. METHODS: A commercially available database (PearlDiver, Inc) was queried for both Private Payor and 5 % Medicare claims from 2008 to 2011. Revision and clarification of the coding guidelines for PSO were introduced in 2008...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Antonia Matamalas, Elisabetta D'Agata, Judith Sanchez-Raya, Juan Bago
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of trunk deformity by physicians in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) has been considered an important part of clinical practice. Different methods to quantify the severity of trunk deformity by external observation have been reported. A valid tool to evaluate patients' perception of trunk deformity, the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), is hereby validated for use by physicians (TAPS-Phy). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with non-surgically treated IS...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
William F Lavelle, Andy A Beltran, Allen L Carl, Richard L Uhl, Khalid Hesham, Stephen A Albanese
BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of patients undergoing extensive fusions for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have conflicting results. Moskowitz found uninstrumented scoliosis fusion patients had similar back pain as a normal age matched population. Recently, long-term outcomes of patients with Harrington rod instrumentation were reviewed and found similar functional outcome scores to non-scoliosis patients, with trending toward worse outcomes when fusions extended to L4. Our study examined long-term functional outcomes of patients treated with Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) instrumentation and determined whether distal level of instrumented fusion (L4 and L5) correlate with increased back pain or lower functional level...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Elias Diarbakerli, Anna Grauers, Hans Möller, Allan Abbott, Paul Gerdhem
BACKGROUND: Little is known about physical activity levels in individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. The aim of this study was to describe the level of physical activity in adolescents with and without idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-nine adolescents, median (25th, 75th percentile) age 16.0 (14.4, 17.6) with idiopathic scoliosis and 58 randomly recruited population-based individuals without scoliosis aged 14.6 (12.8, 16.3) participated. The 239 idiopathic scoliosis patients consisted of 88 untreated, 43 previously braced, 36 with ongoing brace-treatment and 72 surgically treated individuals...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Traci Schwieger, Shelly Campo, Keli R Steuber, Stuart L Weinstein, Sato Ashida
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that healthcare providers frequently fail to adequately address patients' health information needs. Therefore, it is not surprising that patients or parents of a sick child are seeking health information on the internet, in particular in online support groups (OSGs). In order to improve our understanding of the unmet health information needs of families dealing with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), this study assessed and compared the types of information that adolescents and parents are seeking in OSGs...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Rebecca J Crawford, Thomas Volken, Stephanie Valentin, Markus Melloh, James M Elliott
BACKGROUND: The spinal column including its vertebrae and disks has been well examined and extensively reported in relation to age-aggregated degeneration. In contrast, paravertebral muscles are poorly represented in describing normative degeneration. Increasing evidence points to the importance of paravertebral muscle quality in low back health, and their potential as a modifiable factor in low back pain (LBP). Studies examining normative decline of paravertebral muscles are needed to advance the field's etiological understanding...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Hagit Berdishevsky, Victoria Ashley Lebel, Josette Bettany-Saltikov, Manuel Rigo, Andrea Lebel, Axel Hennes, Michele Romano, Marianna Białek, Andrzej M'hango, Tony Betts, Jean Claude de Mauroy, Jacek Durmala
In recent decades, there has been a call for change among all stakeholders involved in scoliosis management. Parents of children with scoliosis have complained about the so-called "wait and see" approach that far too many doctors use when evaluating children's scoliosis curves between 10° and 25°. Observation, Physiotherapy Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) and bracing for idiopathic scoliosis during growth are all therapeutic interventions accepted by the 2011 International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT)...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Prudence Wing Hang Cheung, Carlos King Ho Wong, Dino Samartzis, Keith Dip Kei Luk, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam, Kenneth Man Chee Cheung, Jason Pui Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Scoliosis is a common spinal deformity that occurs often during adolescence. Previous studies suggested that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients can have various aspects of their lives being affected, due to disease presentation and/or treatment received. It is important to define a reliable instrument based on which the affected patients' health-related quality of life can be assessed. This study aims to assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the EuroQoL 5-dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L) in Chinese patients with AIS...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Adrian Gardner, Anna Price, Fiona Berryman, Paul Pynsent
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13013-016-0068-9.].
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Dino Samartzis, Prakasam Kalluri, Jean Herman, John P Lubicky, Francis H Shen
BACKGROUND: It has been propagated that patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) exhibit "clinical triad" findings (CTFs), known as a short neck, low posterior hairline, and limited cervical range of motion (ROM). However, the literature has noted that up to 50 % of KFS cases may not present with such findings and the reasoning behind such assertions remains speculative. As such, the following study addressed the association between CTFs to that of congenitally-fused cervical segments and other risk factors in KFS patients...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Marcelo Wajchenberg, Nelson Astur, Michel Kanas, Délio Eulálio Martins
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a frequent disease but its etiology remains unknown. Gender prevalence in females is already known and there are many suggested hypotheses to explain its origin and manifestation, like associated neurologic, muscular and connective tissue disorders. Literature reports have tried to analyze disease prevalence in selected populations, possible ways of inheritance, related genes location and their polymorphisms, which may play a role in the development of the deformity...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Martin Matthews, Suzanne Blandford, Jonathan Marsden, Jennifer Freeman
BACKGROUND: To date the main treatment approach for neuropathic onset scoliosis has utilised thoracic lumbar sacral orthoses (TLSO) to stabilize the spine and enable stable sitting. Dynamic elastomeric fabric orthoses (DEFOs) may achieve both of these aims if used as an early intervention. Due to a lack of evidence in this area, a retrospective audit of case notes was undertaken to understand current orthotic practice investigating the usage, outcomes and clinical characteristics of treated children with neuropathic onset scoliosis...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Yong-Ping Zheng, Timothy Tin-Yan Lee, Kelly Ka-Lee Lai, Benjamin Hon-Kei Yip, Guang-Quan Zhou, Wei-Wei Jiang, James Chung-Wai Cheung, Man-Sang Wong, Bobby King-Wah Ng, Jack Chun-Yiu Cheng, Tsz-Ping Lam
BACKGROUND: Radiographic evaluation for patients with scoliosis using Cobb method is the current gold standard, but radiography has radiation hazards. Several groups have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D ultrasound for the evaluation of scoliosis. Ultrasound imaging is radiation-free, comparatively more accessible, and inexpensive. However, a reliable and valid 3D ultrasound system ready for clinical scoliosis assessment has not yet been reported. Scolioscan is a newly developed system targeted for scoliosis assessment in clinics by using coronal images of spine generated by a 3D ultrasound volume projection imaging method...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Leah Y Carreon, Casey L Smith, John R Dimar, Steven D Glassman
BACKGROUND: Radiographic parameters to evaluate the cervical spine in adult deformity using 36-inch films have been proposed. While 36-inch films are used to evaluate spinal deformity, dedicated cervical films are more commonly used to evaluate cervical spine pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine correlations between sagittal measures from a dedicated cervical spine radiographs and 36-inch spine radiographs. METHODS: Patients who had standing cervical and 36-inch radiographs within four weeks of each other were identified...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Hyejung Lee, Jihea Choi, Jin-Ho Hwang, Jung Hyun Park
BACKGROUND: Young adolescents with scoliosis are more likely than adults to experience psychological distress affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Adolescence is a sensitive period of psychological development, and thus physical deformity from scoliosis can negatively affect body image and appearance of adolescents. The present study evaluated HRQoL in young Korean adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and identified related factors. METHODS: One hundred and ten adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited from two tertiary hospital outpatient clinics over one year...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Wataru Saito, Gen Inoue, Takayuki Imura, Toshiyuki Nakazawa, Masayuki Miyagi, Takanori Namba, Eiki Shirasawa, Naonobu Takahira, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy) is an autosomal recessive disorder with constriction and narrowing of the thorax. To our knowledge, there are no reports regarding spinal deformity and correction in Jeune syndrome. Herein, we report two cases of spinal correction in patients with Jeune syndrome, and review the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We experienced cases of spinal scoliosis in an adolescent boy and a young adult woman, both with Jeune syndrome...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Adrian Gardner, Anna Price, Fiona Berryman, Paul Pynsent
BACKGROUND: Loss of trunk height caused by scoliosis has been previously assessed using different mathematical formulae. However, these are of differing algebraic construction and will give a range of values for the same size of scoliosis curve. As such, the following study attempted to determine the most valid published formulae for calculating height loss caused by idiopathic scoliosis based on reported growth charts. METHODS: The height and sitting height for a group with idiopathic scoliosis were measured...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
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