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Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice

Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Florencia Djigma, Kafui Akakpo, Ebenezer Aniakwa-Bonsu, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi, Jacques Simpore, Philippe Mayaud
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40661-017-0041-1.].
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Bradley J Monk, Warner K Huh, Julie Ann Rosenberg, Ira Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: Bevacizumab is an important component in the treatment of various cancers, and despite guidelines recommending its use in both ovarian and cervical cancer, patient access to bevacizumab and other angiogenesis inhibitors is limited. Biosimilars are large, structurally complex molecules that are intended to be highly similar to, and treat the same condition(s) as, an existing licensed or approved (reference) biologic, with no clinically meaningful differences in purity, potency and safety...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Radoslav Chekerov, Philipp Harter, Stefan Fuxius, Lars Christian Hanker, Linn Woelber, Lothar Müller, Peter Klare, Wolfgang Abenhardt, Yoana Nedkova, Isil Yalcinkaya, Georg Heinrich, Harald Sommer, Sven Mahner, Pauline Wimberger, Dominique Koensgen-Mustea, Rolf Richter, Gülten Oskay-Oezcelik, Jalid Sehouli
BACKGROUND: Palliative systemic treatment in elderly gynaecological cancer patients remains a major challenge. In recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), treosulfan an active alkylating drug showed similar cytotoxicity whether as oral (p.o.) or intravenous (i.v.) application. The aim of this innovative trial was to evaluate the preference of elderly patients (≥65 years) for p.o. or i.v. chemotherapy focusing compliance, outcome, toxicities, and geriatric aspects as secondary endpoints. METHODS: Patients with ROC had the free choice between treosulfan i...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Florencia Djigma, Kafui Akakpo, Ebenezer Aniakwa-Bonsu, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi, Simpore Jacques, Philippe Mayaud
BACKGROUND: Modern cervical cancer screening increasingly relies on the use of molecular techniques detecting high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (hr-HPV). A major challenge for developing countries like Ghana has been the unavailability and costs of HPV DNA-based testing. This study compares the performance of careHPV, a semi-rapid and affordable qualitative detection assay for 14 hr-HPV genotypes, with HPV genotyping, for the detection of cytological cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL)...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Melissa K Frey, Bhavana Pothuri
Until recently our knowledge of a genetic contribution to ovarian cancer focused almost exclusively on mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes. However, through germline and tumor sequencing an understanding of the larger phenomenon of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) has emerged. HRD impairs normal DNA damage repair which results in loss or duplication of chromosomal regions, termed genomic loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The list of inherited mutations associated with ovarian cancer continues to grow with the literature currently suggesting that up to one in four cases will have germline mutations, the majority of which result in HRD...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Sarah E Paraghamian, Teresa C Longoria, Ramez N Eskander
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor specific for the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor that has led to clinical responses in many cancer types. Identifying biomarkers predictive of response to PD-1 blockade is an area of active investigation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a patient with recurrent, metastatic, PD-L1-negative small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (SCNEC) who experienced a complete response to nivolumab. Though nivolumab was discontinued over 4 months ago due to treatment-related adverse events, she continues to have no evidence of disease...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Austin Huy Nguyen, Ahmed I Tahseen, Adam M Vaudreuil, Gabriel C Caponetti, Christopher J Huerter
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm originating from mechanoreceptor Merkel cells of the stratum basale of the epidermis. Cases affecting the vulva are exceedingly rare, with the currently available literature primarily in case report form. BODY: Systematic review of the PubMed database returned 17 cases of Merkel cell carcinoma affecting the vulva. Patients presented at a mean age of 59.6 years with a firm, mobile vulvar mass. Symptoms of pain, erythema, pruritus, edema, and ulceration have been reported...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Jonathan R Foote, Stephanie Gaillard, Gloria Broadwater, Julie A Sosa, Brittany Davidson, Mohamed A Adam, Angeles Alvarez Secord, Monica B Jones, Junzo Chino, Laura J Havrilesky
BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) recommend lymph node sampling (LNS) as a key component in the surgical staging of high-grade endometrial cancer. Our goal was to examine surgical staging patterns for high-grade endometrial cancer in the United States. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was searched for patients who underwent surgery for serous, clear cell, or grade 3 endometrioid endometrial cancer...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
A Talhouk, J N McAlpine
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the fourth most common cancer in women in the developed world. Classification of ECs by histomorphologic criteria has limited reproducibility and better tools are needed to distinguish these tumors and enable a subtype-specific approach to research and clinical care. Based on the Cancer Genome Atlas, two research teams have developed pragmatic molecular classifiers that identify four prognostically distinct molecular subgroups. These methods can be applied to diagnostic specimens (e...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Brittany A Davidson, Jonathan Foote, Stacey L Brower, Chunqiao Tian, Laura J Havrilesky, Angeles Alvarez Secord
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy plays a role in the treatment of endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC); however, tumor grade may affect response. Our objective was to evaluate associations between tumor grade and in vitro chemoresponse. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of primary tumor samples from women with EEC undergoing in vitro chemoresponse testing. Results were classified as sensitive (S), intermediate (I), or resistant (R) to each drug tested. Correlations between tumor grade and response were examined...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Hanoon P Pokharel, Neville F Hacker, Lesley Andrews
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for an inherited susceptibility to cancer is an emerging technology in medical practice. Little information is currently available about physicians' attitudes towards these tests in developing countries. METHODS: We conducted an email survey of Nepalese physicians practicing in academic and non-academic settings in Nepal, regarding knowledge, attitudes and perception towards genetic testing for gynaecologic cancer. RESULTS: Responses were received from 251 of 387 practitioners (65%)...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Stéphanie L Gaillard, Angeles A Secord, Bradley Monk
The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized treatment of multiple cancers and has bolstered interest in this treatment approach. So far, emerging clinical data show limited clinical efficacy of these agents in ovarian cancer with objective response rates of 10-15% with some durable responses. In this review, we present emerging clinical data of completed trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors and review ongoing studies. In addition we examine the current knowledge of the tumor microenvironment of ovarian cancers with a focus on the significance of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on predicting response to immune checkpoint blockade...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Karla Willows, Genevieve Lennox, Allan Covens
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, many of who are still within their reproductive lifespan. Advances in screening and treatment have increased the 5-year survival for early stage disease to over 90 % in developed countries. The focus is now shifting to reducing morbidity and improving fertility outcomes for cervical cancer patients. Radical trachelectomy with lymph node assessment became the standard of care for selected women with lesions <2 cm who desire fertility preservation...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Michael Feichtinger, Kenny A Rodriguez-Wallberg
BACKGROUND: Although cancer in general affects an aged population, a significant number of women develop cancer at childbearing age. Long-term survival rates after gynecological cancer, especially in young patients are increasing and all quality-of-life aspects, including preservation of fertility have become of major relevance. OUTCOMES: Surgical techniques aimed at sparing reproductive organs and preserving fertility have been developed for women presenting with gynecological cancer found at early stages...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Michelle Glasgow, Rachel Isaksson Vogel, Jennifer Burgart, Peter Argenta, Kathryn Dusenbery, Melissa A Geller
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine if previously reported overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates are maintained long term following multimodal therapy for advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer and to assess the lymphedema rates associated with this therapy. METHODS: Women with advanced-stage or recurrent endometrial cancer were recruited between 9/2004 and 6/2009 to our previously published Phase II trial. Patients received intravenous docetaxel (75 mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC = 6) every 3 weeks for 3 cycles before and after radiation therapy...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Neville F Hacker, Archana Rao
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with recurrent gynecological malignancy is complex, and often contentious. While historically, patients with metastases in the lungs, liver or brain have been treated with palliative intent, surgery is proving to have an increasing role in the management of such patients. METHODS: In this review article, the surgical management of lung, liver and brain metastases from gynecological cancers is examined. A search of the English language literature over the last 25 years was conducted using the Medline and PubMed databases...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Teresa C Longoria, Ramez N Eskander
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40661-015-0020-3.].
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Munetaka Takekuma, Kwong K Wong, Robert L Coleman
BACKGROUND: Selumetinib is a potent, selective, orally available, and non-ATP competitive small molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) that has demonstrated single agent activity in a number of solid tumor including recurrent low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC). However, the long-term prognosis of patients who receive selumetinib, as well as the late toxicity of the agent, have not yet been described. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we present a patient with recurrent LGSOC with KRAS mutation whose tumor has not progressed and who has maintained a good general condition without severe toxicities following treatment with selumetinib for more than 7 years...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Lindsey E Minion, Dana M Chase, John H Farley, Lyndsay J Willmott, Bradley J Monk
BACKGROUND: After platinum and taxane chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab, active regimens for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer are lacking. Our objective was to review a single institution experience in treating recurrent, refractory cervical cancer with nano-particle albumin bound (NAB) paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab. METHODS: This retrospective case series was conducted in accordance with the regulations set forth by the Institutional Review Board at St...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Robert S Meehan, Alice P Chen
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which was first described over 50 years ago by Mandel, are a family of protein enzymes involved in DNA damage response and works by recognizing the single-strand DNA break (ssDNA) and then effecting DNA repair. A double-strand DNA (dsDNA) break can be repaired by one of two different pathways: homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Homologous recombination occurs in the G2 or M phase of the cell cycle when a sister chromatid is available to use as a template for repair...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
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