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Peter A Sandwall, Brandt P Bastow, Henry B Spitz, Howard R Elson, Michael Lamba, William B Connick, Henry Fenichel
Gel dosimeters are attractive detectors for radiation therapy, with properties similar to biological tissue and the potential to visualize volumetric dose distributions. Radio-fluorogenesis is the yield of fluorescent chemical products in response to energy deposition from ionizing radiation. This report shares the development of a novel radio-fluorogenic gel (RFG) dosimeter, gelatin infused with coumarin-3-carboxlyic acid (C3CA), for the quantification of imparted energy. Aqueous solutions exposed to ionizing radiation result in the production of hydroxyl free radicals through water radiolysis...
July 10, 2018: Bioengineering
Manuela E L Lago, Lucília P da Silva, Catarina Henriques, Andreia F Carvalho, Rui L Reis, Alexandra P Marques
Adipose tissue is involved in many physiological processes. Therefore, the need for adipose tissue-like analogues either for soft tissue reconstruction or as in vitro testing platforms is undeniable. In this work, we explored the natural features of gellan gum (GG) to recreate injectable stable adipose-like microtissues. GG hydrogel particles with different percentages of polymer (0.5%, 0.75%, 1.25%) were developed and the effect of obtained mechanical properties over the ability of hASCs to differentiate towards the adipogenic lineage was evaluated based on the expression of the early (PPARγ) and late (FABP4) adipogenic markers, and on lipids formation and accumulation...
June 27, 2018: Bioengineering
Elizabeth Gianino, Craig Miller, Jordon Gilmore
Given their severity and non-healing nature, diabetic chronic wounds are a significant concern to the 30.3 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (2015). Peripheral arterial diseases, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the development of these wounds, which lead to an increased incidence of lower extremity amputations. Early recognition, debridement, offloading, and controlling infection are imperative for timely treatment. However, wound characterization and treatment are highly subjective and based largely on the experience of the treating clinician...
June 26, 2018: Bioengineering
Claire Mayer-Laigle, Rova Karine Rajaonarivony, Nicolas Blanc, Xavier Rouau
Lignocellulosic feedstocks present a growing interest in many industrial processes as they are an ecological alternative to petroleum-based products. Generally, the size of plant raw materials needs to be reduced by milling step(s), to increase density, facilitate transport and storage, and to increase reactivity. However, this unit operation can prove to be important in term of investments, functioning costs, and energy consumption if the process is not fully adapted to the histological structure of the plant material, possibly challenging the profitability of the whole chain of the biomass conversion...
June 22, 2018: Bioengineering
Cláudia C Miranda, Tiago G Fernandes, Maria Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral
A low percentage of novel drug candidates succeed and reach the end of the drug discovery pipeline, mainly due to poor initial screening and assessment of the effects of the drug and its metabolites over various tissues in the human body. For that, emerging technologies involving the production of organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and the use of organ-on-a-chip devices are showing great promise for developing a more reliable, rapid and cost-effective drug discovery process when compared with the current use of animal models...
June 21, 2018: Bioengineering
Dominik Egger, Carla Tripisciano, Viktoria Weber, Massimo Dominici, Cornelia Kasper
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary candidates for cell-based therapies due to their multiple effects in regenerative medicine. Pre-conditioning of MSCs under physiological conditions—such as hypoxia, three-dimensional environments, and dynamic cultivation—prior to transplantation proved to optimize their therapeutic efficiency. When cultivated as three-dimensional aggregates or spheroids, MSCs display increased angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects as well as improved stemness and survival rates after transplantation, and cultivation under dynamic conditions can increase their viability, proliferation, and paracrine effects, alike...
June 19, 2018: Bioengineering
Laura A Zanella-Calzada, Carlos E Galván-Tejada, Nubia M Chávez-Lamas, Jesús Rivas-Gutierrez, Rafael Magallanes-Quintanar, Jose M Celaya-Padilla, Jorge I Galván-Tejada, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales
Oral health represents an essential component in the quality of life of people, being a determinant factor in general health since it may affect the risk of suffering other conditions, such as chronic diseases. Oral diseases have become one of the main public health problems, where dental caries is the condition that most affects oral health worldwide, occurring in about 90% of the global population. This condition has been considered a challenge because of its high prevalence, besides being a chronic but preventable disease which can be caused depending on the consumption of certain nutritional elements interacting simultaneously with different factors, such as socioeconomic factors...
June 18, 2018: Bioengineering
Benjamin A Minden-Birkenmaier, Gary L Bowlin
Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers wound pH, reduces chronic inflammation, and promotes fibroblast infiltration, among other beneficial qualities. Given these results, it is clear that honey has a potential role in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Researchers have incorporated honey into tissue engineering templates, including electrospun meshes, cryogels, and hydrogels, with varying degrees of success...
June 14, 2018: Bioengineering
Sandra Pérez-Rodríguez, Esther Tomás-González, José Manuel García-Aznar
Fibroblast migration to damaged zones in different tissues is crucial to regenerate and recuperate their functional activity. However, fibroblast migration patterns have hardly been studied in disease terms. Here, we study this fundamental process in dermal and cardiac fibroblasts by means of microfluidic-based experiments, which simulate a three-dimensional matrix in which fibroblasts are found in physiological conditions. Cardiac fibroblasts show a higher mean and effective speed, as well as greater contractile force, in comparison to dermal fibroblasts...
June 12, 2018: Bioengineering
Marcelie Priscila de Oliveira Rosso, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Natália Kawano, Gabriela Furlanette, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogério Leone Buchaim
Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been investigated because of its intimate relationship with tissue recovery processes, such as on peripheral nerve damage. Based on the wide range of benefits that the PBMT has shown and its clinical relevance, the aim of this research was to carry out a systematic review of the last 10 years, ascertaining the influence of the PBMT in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. The search was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE database with the combination of the keywords: low-level laser therapy AND nerve regeneration...
June 9, 2018: Bioengineering
Katharina Schimek, Hao-Hsiang Hsu, Moritz Boehme, Jacob Jan Kornet, Uwe Marx, Roland Lauster, Ralf Pörtner, Gerd Lindner
The human skin is involved in protecting the inner body from constant exposure to outer environmental stimuli. There is an evident need to screen for toxicity and the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics applied to the skin. To date, animal studies are still the standard method for substance testing, although they are currently controversially discussed Therefore, the multi-organ chip is an attractive alternative to replace animal testing. The two-organ chip is designed to hold 96-well cell culture inserts (CCIs)...
June 7, 2018: Bioengineering
Zeljka Rupcic, Stephan Hüttel, Steffen Bernecker, Sae Kanaki, Marc Stadler
A method was established for the production of 1.2-fold and 4.2-fold increased amounts of the antiviral and central nervous system-active lantipeptides, labyrinthopeptins A1 and A2, respectively, isolated from the actinobacterium Actinomadura namibiensis , to enable production in gram scale. We then performed in vivo characterization of this promising compound class. The labyrinthopeptins A1 and A2 have similar chemical structures and physical properties but differ drastically in their bioactivities. Therefore, large quantities of highly pure material are required for pharmacological studies...
June 5, 2018: Bioengineering
Claire Mayer-Laigle, Nicolas Blanc, Rova Karine Rajaonarivony, Xavier Rouau
The comminution of lignocellulosic biomass is a key operation for many applications as bio-based materials, bio-energy or green chemistry. The grinder used can have a significant impact on the properties of the ground powders, of those of the end-products and on the energy consumption. Since several years, the milling of lignocellulosic biomass has been the subject of numerous studies most often focused on specific materials and/or applications but there is still a lack of generic knowledge about the relation between the histological structure of the raw materials, the milling technologies and the physical and chemical properties of the powders...
June 2, 2018: Bioengineering
Claudia Kühlbach, Sabrina da Luz, Frank Baganz, Volker C Hass, Margareta M Mueller
Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is a very complex process. It includes the intravasation of cells into the metastatic pathways, their passive distribution within the blood or lymph flow, and their extravasation into the surrounding tissue. Crucial steps during extravasation are the adhesion of the tumor cells to the endothelium and their transendothelial migration. However, the molecular mechanisms that are underlying this process are still not fully understood. Novel three dimensional (3D) models for research on the metastatic cascade include the use of microfluidic devices...
May 23, 2018: Bioengineering
Marion Jamard, Heather Sheardown
The efficiency of drug delivery to the eye using topical drop therapy is limited by the ocular clearance mechanisms. Nanocarriers, able to encapsulate bioactive compounds and slow down their release, may allow for prolonged on-eye residence times when combined with topical application for treatment of ocular conditions. Previously, self-assemblies of methylcellulose (MC) hydrophobized with N -tert-butylacrylamide side chains (MC-g-PNtBAm) were developed. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of the methylcellulose backbone length on the properties of the nanogels...
May 23, 2018: Bioengineering
Erica L Rex, Cinzia Gaudelli, Emmanuel M Illical, John Person, Karen C T Arlt, Barry Wylant, Carolyn Anglin
An incorrect cut of the patella (kneecap) during total knee arthroplasty, affects the thickness in different quadrants of the patella, leading to pain and poor function. Because of the disadvantages of existing devices, many surgeons choose to perform the cut freehand. Given this mistrust of existing devices, a quick, but accurate, method is needed that guides the cut, without constraining the surgeon. A novel device is described that allows the surgeon to mark a line at the desired cutting plane parallel to the front (anterior) surface using a cautery tool, remove the device, and then align the saw guide, reamer, or freehand saw with the marked line to cut the patella...
May 10, 2018: Bioengineering
Sameer Joshi, Atul A Chaudhari, Vida Dennis, Daniel J Kirby, Yvonne Perrie, Shree Ram Singh
Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and adults, effective treatment options remain limited. To circumvent this issue, there is a novel approach, namely, the development of multifunctional liposomes for the delivery of anti RSV-peptides. While most of the peptides that are used for loading with the particulate delivery systems are the penetrating peptides, an alternative approach is the development of liposome-peptide systems, which are loaded with an RSV fusion peptide (RF-482), which has been designed to inhibit the RSV fusion and block infection...
May 9, 2018: Bioengineering
Jonas Christoffersson, Florian Meier, Henning Kempf, Kristin Schwanke, Michelle Coffee, Mario Beilmann, Robert Zweigerdt, Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
Three-dimensional (3D) models with cells arranged in clusters or spheroids have emerged as valuable tools to improve physiological relevance in drug screening. One of the challenges with cells cultured in 3D, especially for high-throughput applications, is to quickly and non-invasively assess the cellular state in vitro. In this article, we show that the number of cells growing out from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiac spheroids can be quantified to serve as an indicator of a drug’s effect on spheroids captured in a microfluidic device...
May 4, 2018: Bioengineering
Shalin Savalia, Vahid Emamian
The electrocardiogram (ECG) plays an imperative role in the medical field, as it records heart signal over time and is used to discover numerous cardiovascular diseases. If a documented ECG signal has a certain irregularity in its predefined features, this is called arrhythmia, the types of which include tachycardia, bradycardia, supraventricular arrhythmias, and ventricular, etc. This has encouraged us to do research that consists of distinguishing between several arrhythmias by using deep neural network algorithms such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and convolution neural network (CNN)...
May 4, 2018: Bioengineering
Augusto C M Souza, Mohammad Mousaviraad, Kenneth O M Mapoka, Kurt A Rosentrater
While fermentation is usually done at a fixed temperature, in this study, the effect of having a controlled variable temperature was analyzed. A nonlinear system was used to model batch ethanol fermentation, using corn as substrate and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , at five different fixed and controlled variable temperatures. The lower temperatures presented higher ethanol yields but took a longer time to reach equilibrium. Higher temperatures had higher initial growth rates, but the decay of yeast cells was faster compared to the lower temperatures...
April 24, 2018: Bioengineering
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