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Bioengineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747465/guiding-device-for-the-patellar-cut-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-design-and-validation
#1
Erica L Rex, Cinzia Gaudelli, Emmanuel M Illical, John Person, Karen C T Arlt, Barry Wylant, Carolyn Anglin
An incorrect cut of the patella (kneecap) during total knee arthroplasty, affects the thickness in different quadrants of the patella, leading to pain and poor function. Because of the disadvantages of existing devices, many surgeons choose to perform the cut freehand. Given this mistrust of existing devices, a quick, but accurate, method is needed that guides the cut, without constraining the surgeon. A novel device is described that allows the surgeon to mark a line at the desired cutting plane parallel to the front (anterior) surface using a cautery tool, remove the device, and then align the saw guide, reamer, or freehand saw with the marked line to cut the patella...
May 10, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747393/anti-rsv-peptide-loaded-liposomes-for-the-inhibition-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#2
Sameer Joshi, Atul A Chaudhari, Vida Dennis, Daniel J Kirby, Yvonne Perrie, Shree Ram Singh
Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and adults, effective treatment options remain limited. To circumvent this issue, there is a novel approach, namely, the development of multifunctional liposomes for the delivery of anti RSV-peptides. While most of the peptides that are used for loading with the particulate delivery systems are the penetrating peptides, an alternative approach is the development of liposome-peptide systems, which are loaded with an RSV fusion peptide (RF-482), which has been designed to inhibit the RSV fusion and block infection...
May 9, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734702/a-cardiac-cell-outgrowth-assay-for-evaluating-drug-compounds-using-a-cardiac-spheroid-on-a-chip-device
#3
Jonas Christoffersson, Florian Meier, Henning Kempf, Kristin Schwanke, Michelle Coffee, Mario Beilmann, Robert Zweigerdt, Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
Three-dimensional (3D) models with cells arranged in clusters or spheroids have emerged as valuable tools to improve physiological relevance in drug screening. One of the challenges with cells cultured in 3D, especially for high-throughput applications, is to quickly and non-invasively assess the cellular state in vitro. In this article, we show that the number of cells growing out from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiac spheroids can be quantified to serve as an indicator of a drug’s effect on spheroids captured in a microfluidic device...
May 4, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734666/cardiac-arrhythmia-classification-by-multi-layer-perceptron-and-convolution-neural-networks
#4
Shalin Savalia, Vahid Emamian
The electrocardiogram (ECG) plays an imperative role in the medical field, as it records heart signal over time and is used to discover numerous cardiovascular diseases. If a documented ECG signal has a certain irregularity in its predefined features, this is called arrhythmia, the types of which include tachycardia, bradycardia, supraventricular arrhythmias, and ventricular, etc. This has encouraged us to do research that consists of distinguishing between several arrhythmias by using deep neural network algorithms such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and convolution neural network (CNN)...
May 4, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695108/kinetic-modeling-of-corn-fermentation-with-s-cerevisiae-using-a-variable-temperature-strategy
#5
Augusto C M Souza, Mohammad Mousaviraad, Kenneth O M Mapoka, Kurt A Rosentrater
While fermentation is usually done at a fixed temperature, in this study, the effect of having a controlled variable temperature was analyzed. A nonlinear system was used to model batch ethanol fermentation, using corn as substrate and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , at five different fixed and controlled variable temperatures. The lower temperatures presented higher ethanol yields but took a longer time to reach equilibrium. Higher temperatures had higher initial growth rates, but the decay of yeast cells was faster compared to the lower temperatures...
April 24, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695105/efficient-computational-design-of-a-scaffold-for-cartilage-cell-regeneration
#6
Tannaz Tajsoleiman, Mohammad Jafar Abdekhodaie, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
Due to the sensitivity of mammalian cell cultures, understanding the influence of operating conditions during a tissue generation procedure is crucial. In this regard, a detailed study of scaffold based cell culture under a perfusion flow is presented with the aid of mathematical modelling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). With respect to the complexity of the case study, this work focuses solely on the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations, and the possible influence of fluid-induced shear stress on a targeted cell (cartilage) culture...
April 24, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695077/role-of-bioreactor-technology-in-tissue-engineering-for-clinical-use-and-therapeutic-target-design
#7
REVIEW
Clare Selden, Barry Fuller
Micro and small bioreactors are well described for use in bioprocess development in pre-production manufacture, using ultra-scale down and microfluidic methodology. However, the use of bioreactors to understand normal and pathophysiology by definition must be very different, and the constraints of the physiological environment influence such bioreactor design. This review considers the key elements necessary to enable bioreactors to address three main areas associated with biological systems. All entail recreation of the in vivo cell niche as faithfully as possible, so that they may be used to study molecular and cellular changes in normal physiology, with a view to creating tissue-engineered grafts for clinical use; understanding the pathophysiology of disease at the molecular level; defining possible therapeutic targets; and enabling appropriate pharmaceutical testing on a truly representative organoid, thus enabling better drug design, and simultaneously creating the potential to reduce the numbers of animals in research...
April 24, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677139/musculoskeletal-model-development-of-the-elbow-joint-with-an-experimental-evaluation
#8
Munsur Rahman, Mohsen Sharifi Renani, Akin Cil, Antonis P Stylianou
A dynamic musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint in which muscle, ligament, and articular surface contact forces are predicted concurrently would be an ideal tool for patient-specific preoperative planning, computer-aided surgery, and rehabilitation. Existing musculoskeletal elbow joint models have limited clinical applicability because of idealizing the elbow as a mechanical hinge joint or ignoring important soft tissue (e.g., cartilage) contributions. The purpose of this study was to develop a subject-specific anatomically correct musculoskeletal elbow joint model and evaluate it based on experimental kinematics and muscle electromyography measurements...
April 20, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642515/biocatalyst-screening-with-a-twist-application-of-oxygen-sensors-integrated-in-microchannels-for-screening-whole-cell-biocatalyst-variants
#9
Ana C Fernandes, Julia M Halder, Bettina M Nestl, Bernhard Hauer, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
Selective oxidative functionalization of molecules is a highly relevant and often demanding reaction in organic chemistry. The use of biocatalysts allows the stereo- and regioselective introduction of oxygen molecules in organic compounds at milder conditions and avoids the use of complex group-protection schemes and toxic compounds usually applied in conventional organic chemistry. The identification of enzymes with the adequate properties for the target reaction and/or substrate requires better and faster screening strategies...
April 9, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642502/a-3d-microfluidic-model-to-recapitulate-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#10
Yi-Chin Toh, Anju Raja, Hanry Yu, Danny van Noort
We have developed a microfluidic-based culture chip to simulate cancer cell migration and invasion across the basement membrane. In this microfluidic chip, a 3D microenvironment is engineered to culture metastatic breast cancer cells (MX1) in a 3D tumor model. A chemo-attractant was incorporated to stimulate motility across the membrane. We validated the usefulness of the chip by tracking the motilities of the cancer cells in the system, showing them to be migrating or invading (akin to metastasis). It is shown that our system can monitor cell migration in real time, as compare to Boyden chambers, for example...
April 8, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642402/therapeutic-use-of-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction
#11
REVIEW
Mariah Madigan, Rony Atoui
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medical and surgical treatments can significantly improve patient outcomes, no treatment currently available is able to generate new contractile tissue or reverse ischemic myocardium. Driven by the recent/novel understanding that regenerative processes do exist in the myocardium-tissue previously thought not to possess regenerative properties-the use of stem cells has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach with high expectations...
April 6, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614717/non-transfusional-hemocomponents-from-biology-to-the-clinic-a-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Roberta Gasparro, Erda Qorri, Alessandra Valletta, Michele Masucci, Pasquale Sammartino, Alessandra Amato, Gaetano Marenzi
Non-transfusional hemocomponents for surgical use are autogenous products prepared through the centrifugation of a blood sample from a patient. Their potential beneficial outcomes include hard and soft tissue regeneration, local hemostasis, and the acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, they are suitable for application in different medical fields as therapeutic options and in surgical practices that require tissue regeneration.
March 31, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565293/towards-control-of-a-transhumeral-prosthesis-with-eeg-signals
#13
D S V Bandara, Jumpei Arata, Kazuo Kiguchi
Robotic prostheses are expected to allow amputees greater freedom and mobility. However, available options to control transhumeral prostheses are reduced with increasing amputation level. In addition, for electromyography-based control of prostheses, the residual muscles alone cannot generate sufficiently different signals for accurate distal arm function. Thus, controlling a multi-degree of freedom (DoF) transhumeral prosthesis is challenging with currently available techniques. In this paper, an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based hierarchical two-stage approach is proposed to achieve multi-DoF control of a transhumeral prosthesis...
March 22, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547557/process-analytical-technology-for-advanced-process-control-in-biologics-manufacturing-with-the-aid-of-macroscopic-kinetic-modeling
#14
Martin Kornecki, Jochen Strube
Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP); however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA), aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess...
March 16, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543727/microscale-3d-liver-bioreactor-for-in-vitro-hepatotoxicity-testing-under-perfusion-conditions
#15
Nora Freyer, Selina Greuel, Fanny Knöspel, Florian Gerstmann, Lisa Storch, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jennifer Foster Harris, Rashi Iyer, Frank Schubert, Katrin Zeilinger
The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP) used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05) and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP ( p < 0...
March 15, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522497/stem-cells-and-engineered-scaffolds-for-regenerative-wound-healing
#16
REVIEW
Biraja C Dash, Zhenzhen Xu, Lawrence Lin, Andrew Koo, Sifon Ndon, Francois Berthiaume, Alan Dardik, Henry Hsia
The normal wound healing process involves a well-organized cascade of biological pathways and any failure in this process leads to wounds becoming chronic. Non-healing wounds are a burden on healthcare systems and set to increase with aging population and growing incidences of obesity and diabetes. Stem cell-based therapies have the potential to heal chronic wounds but have so far seen little success in the clinic. Current research has been focused on using polymeric biomaterial systems that can act as a niche for these stem cells to improve their survival and paracrine activity that would eventually promote wound healing...
March 9, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518979/metabolic-reprogramming-and-the-recovery-of-physiological-functionality-in-3d-cultures-in-micro-bioreactors
#17
Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Stephen J Fey
The recovery of physiological functionality, which is commonly seen in tissue mimetic three-dimensional (3D) cellular aggregates (organoids, spheroids, acini, etc.), has been observed in cells of many origins (primary tissues, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and immortal cell lines). This plurality and plasticity suggest that probably several basic principles promote this recovery process. The aim of this study was to identify these basic principles and describe how they are regulated so that they can be taken in consideration when micro-bioreactors are designed...
March 7, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510580/topical-digitoxigenin-for-wound-healing-a-feasibility-study
#18
Xinchi Feng, Cuifen Wang, Yunhui Xu, Joel Turley, Zijian Xie, Sandrine V Pierre, Jinsong Hao
(1) Background: Cardiotonic steroids have been found to stimulate collagen synthesis and might be potential wound healing therapeutics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of digitoxigenin and its topical formulation for wound healing; (2) Methods: In the in vitro study, the human dermal fibroblast cells were treated with digitoxigenin and collagen synthesis was assessed. In the in vivo study, digitoxigenin was applied to excisional full-thickness wounds in rats immediately after wounding and remained for three days, and wound open was evaluated over 10 days...
March 5, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498670/microbiological-sensing-technologies-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Firouz Abbasian, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh, Sebastian Magierowski
Microorganisms have a significant influence on human activities and health, and consequently, there is high demand to develop automated, sensitive, and rapid methods for their detection. These methods might be applicable for clinical, industrial, and environmental applications. Although different techniques have been suggested and employed for the detection of microorganisms, and the majority of these methods are not cost effective and suffer from low sensitivity and low specificity, especially in mixed samples...
March 2, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495420/evaluation-of-peripheral-blood-and-cord-blood-platelet-lysates-in-isolation-and-expansion-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#20
Ioanna Christou, Panagiotis Mallis, Efstathios Michalopoulos, Theofanis Chatzistamatiou, George Mermelekas, Jerome Zoidakis, Antonia Vlahou, Catherine Stavropoulos-Giokas
Abstract : Background: Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The in vitro isolation and expansion of MSCs involve the use of foetal bovine serum (FBS). However, many concerns have been raised regarding the safety of this product. In this study, alternative additives derived either from peripheral or cord blood were tested as an FBS replacement. Methods: Platelet lysates (PL) from peripheral and cord blood were used for the expansion of MSCs. The levels of growth factors in peripheral blood (PB) and cord blood (CB) PLs were determined using the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM)...
February 26, 2018: Bioengineering
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