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Evelyn Lara, Nathaly Rivera, Joel Cabezas, Felipe Navarrete, Fernando Saravia, Lleretny Rodríguez-Alvarez, Fidel Ovidio Castro
The endometrium is an accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Most investigations of endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) have been conducted in humans. In animals, particularly in livestock, eMSC research is scarce. Such cells have been described in the bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine, and equine endometrium. Here we provide the state of the art of eMSCs in farm animals with a focus on the bovine species. In bovines, eMSCs have been identified during the phases of the estrous cycle, during which their functionality and the presence of eMSC-specific markers has been shown to change...
September 18, 2018: Bioengineering
Fardin Khalili, Peshala P T Gamage, Richard H Sandler, Hansen A Mansy
Artificial heart valves may dysfunction, leading to thrombus and/or pannus formations. Computational fluid dynamics is a promising tool for improved understanding of heart valve hemodynamics that quantify detailed flow velocities and turbulent stresses to complement Doppler measurements. This combined information can assist in choosing optimal prosthesis for individual patients, aiding in the development of improved valve designs, and illuminating subtle changes to help guide more timely early intervention of valve dysfunction...
September 16, 2018: Bioengineering
Peter L Stavinoha, Martha A Askins, Stephanie K Powell, Natasha Pillay Smiley, Rhonda S Robert
The late neurocognitive and psychosocial effects of treatment for pediatric brain tumor (PBT) represent important areas of clinical focus and ongoing research. Neurocognitive sequelae and associated problems with learning and socioemotional development negatively impact PBT survivors' overall health-related quality of life, educational attainment and employment rates. Multiple factors including tumor features and associated complications, treatment methods, individual protective and vulnerability factors and accessibility of environmental supports contribute to the neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in PBT survivors...
September 11, 2018: Bioengineering
Sean P Hopkins, Megan C Frost
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the most widely used polymers in medicine but has very poor biocompatibility when in contact with tissue or blood. To increase biocompatibility, controlled release of nitric oxide (NO) can be utilized to mitigate and reduce the inflammatory response. A synthetic route is described where PVC is aminated to a specified degree and then further modified by covalently linking S -nitroso- N -acetyl-d-penicillamine (SNAP) groups to the free primary amine sites to create a nitric oxide releasing polymer (SNAP-PVC)...
September 5, 2018: Bioengineering
Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Sho Torii, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
The technology of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constantly being refined in order to overcome the shortcomings of present day technologies. Even though current generation metallic drug-eluting stents (DES) perform very well in the short-term, concerns still exist about their long-term efficacy. Late clinical complications including late stent thrombosis (ST), restenosis, and neoatherosclerosis still exist and many of these events may be attributed to either the metallic platform and/or the drug and polymer left behind in the arterial wall...
September 4, 2018: Bioengineering
Peter Burgholzer, Gregor Stockner, Guenther Mayr
Pulsed illumination of a sample, e.g., of a biological tissue, causes a sudden temperature increase of light absorbing structures, such as blood vessels, which results in an outgoing acoustic wave, as well as heat diffusion, of the absorbed energy. Both of the signals, pressure and temperature, can be measured at the sample surface and are used to reconstruct the initial temperature or pressure distribution, called photoacoustic or photothermal reconstruction respectively. We have demonstrated that both signals at the same surface pixel are connected by a temporal transformation...
August 29, 2018: Bioengineering
Xinmei Wang, Mir S Ali, Carla M R Lacerda
Since most of the body's extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of collagen and elastin, we believe the choice of these materials is key for the future and promise of tissue engineering. Once it is known how elastin content of ECM guides cellular behavior (in 2D or 3D), one will be able to harness the power of collagen-elastin microenvironments to design and engineer stimuli-responsive tissues. Moreover, the implementation of such matrices to promote endothelial-mesenchymal transition of primary endothelial cells constitutes a powerful tool to engineer 3D tissues...
August 28, 2018: Bioengineering
Trina Roy, Priti Prasanna Maity, Arun Prabhu Rameshbabu, Bodhisatwa Das, Athira John, Abir Dutta, Sanjoy Kumar Ghorai, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Santanu Dhara
The vast domain of regenerative medicine comprises complex interactions between specific cells' extracellular matrix (ECM) towards intracellular matrix formation, its secretion, and modulation of tissue as a whole. In this domain, engineering scaffold utilizing biomaterials along with cells towards formation of living tissues is of immense importance especially for bridging the existing gap of late; nanostructures are offering promising capability of mechano-biological response needed for tissue regeneration...
August 21, 2018: Bioengineering
Takayoshi Kobayashi, Kazuaki Nakata, Ichiro Yajima, Masashi Kato, Hiromichi Tsurui
Label-free confocal photothermal (CPT) microscopy was utilized for the first time to investigate malignancy in mouse skin cells. Laser diodes (LDs) with 405 nm or 488 nm wavelengths were used as pumps, and a 638 nm LD was used as a probe for the CPT microscope. A Grey Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) for texture analysis was applied to the CPT images. Nine GLCM parameters were calculated with definite definitions for the intracellular super-resolved CPT images, and the parameters Entropy, Contrast, and Variance were found to be most suited among the nine parameters to discriminate clearly between healthy cells and malignant cells when a 405 nm pump was used...
August 15, 2018: Bioengineering
Eleftheria Babaliari, George Petekidis, Maria Chatzinikolaidou
Bone tissue engineering provides advanced solutions to overcome the limitations of currently used therapies for bone reconstruction. Dynamic culturing of cell-biomaterial constructs positively affects the cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we present a precisely flow-controlled microfluidic system employed for the investigation of bone-forming cell responses cultured on fibrous collagen matrices by applying two flow rates, 30 and 50 μL/min. We characterized the collagen substrates morphologically by means of scanning electron microscopy, investigated their viscoelastic properties, and evaluated the orientation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity of pre-osteoblastic cells cultured on them...
August 12, 2018: Bioengineering
Jan Hansmann, Dominik Egger, Cornelia Kasper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Bioengineering
Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Bioengineering
Victor Zislin, Moshe Rosenfeld
Impedance pumping is a mechanism that generates flow in a compliant vessel by repeatedly actuating the vessel asymmetrically, without employing any internal valves, blades, or other mechanisms. The net flow is obtained by establishing a constructive wave pattern. Elaborate studies of impedance pumping in a single vessel have shown that the flow rate strongly depends on the actuation frequency, as well as on other parameters, such as actuator location and amplitude, and that it operates best in the resonance mode...
August 9, 2018: Bioengineering
Karem D Marcomini, Eduardo F C Fleury, Vilmar M Oliveira, Antonio A O Carneiro, Homero Schiabel, Robert M Nishikawa
Purpose: Evaluation of the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on the quantified color distribution in strain elastography imaging to evaluate the malignancy of breast tumors. Methods: The database consisted of 31 malignant and 52 benign lesions. A radiologist who was blinded to the diagnosis performed the visual analysis of the lesions. After six months with no eye contact on the breast images, the same radiologist and other two radiologists manually drew the contour of the lesions in B-mode ultrasound, which was masked in the elastography image...
August 9, 2018: Bioengineering
Renee Duijvelshoff, Nicole C A van Engeland, Karen M R Gabriels, Serge H M Söntjens, Anthal I P M Smits, Patricia Y W Dankers, Carlijn V C Bouten
In situ vascular tissue engineering aims to regenerate vessels "at the target site" using synthetic scaffolds that are capable of inducing endogenous regeneration. Critical to the success of this approach is a fine balance between functional neo-tissue formation and scaffold degradation. Circulating immune cells are important regulators of this process as they drive the host response to the scaffold and they play a central role in scaffold resorption. Despite the progress made with synthetic scaffolds, little is known about the host response and neo-tissue development during and after scaffold resorption...
August 6, 2018: Bioengineering
Nadine Zumbrägel, Harald Gröger
A proof of concept for a one-pot process merging a heterocycle formation by a classical chemical approach at basic conditions with a biocatalytic reduction, running at neutral pH conditions, is reported. A crucial component for this process is the compartmentalization of the single reactions by the use of polydimethylsiloxane thimbles. This process was applied successfully towards an asymmetric synthesis of ( S )-2,2,3-trimethyl-1-thia-4-azaspiro[4.4]nonane, leading to excellent enantioselectivities of 99% enantiomeric excess ( ee )...
August 1, 2018: Bioengineering
Chantell Farias, Roman Lyman, Cecilia Hemingway, Huong Chau, Anne Mahacek, Evangelia Bouzos, Maryam Mobed-Miremadi
Cell-hydrogel based therapies offer great promise for wound healing. The specific aim of this study was to assess the viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells immobilized in atomized alginate capsules (3.5% (w/v) alginate, d = 225 µm ± 24.5 µm) post-extrusion through a three-dimensional (3D) printed methacrylate-based custom hollow microneedle assembly (circular array of 13 conical frusta) fabricated using stereolithography. With a jetting reliability of 80%, the solvent-sterilized device with a root mean square roughness of 158 nm at the extrusion nozzle tip (d = 325 μm) was operated at a flowrate of 12 mL/min...
July 31, 2018: Bioengineering
Francesco Fiz, Helmut Dittman, Cristina Campi, Silvia Morbelli, Cecilia Marini, Massimo Brignone, Matteo Bauckneht, Roberta Piva, Anna Maria Massone, Michele Piana, Gianmario Sambuceti, Christian la Fougère
Metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), is the most advanced form of prostate neoplasia, where massive spread to the skeletal tissue is frequent. Patients with this condition are benefiting from an increasing number of treatment options. However, assessing tumor response in patients with multiple localizations might be challenging. For this reason, many computational approaches have been developed in the last decades to quantify the skeletal tumor burden and treatment response. In this review, we analyzed the progressive development and diffusion of such approaches...
July 28, 2018: Bioengineering
Haobo Yuan, Ke Xing, Hung-Yao Hsu
Cell culture and cell scaffold engineering have previously developed in two directions. First can be 'static into dynamic', with proven effects that dynamic cultures have benefits over static ones. Researches in this direction have used several mechanical means, like external vibrators or shakers, to approximate the dynamic environments in real tissue, though such approaches could only partly address the issue. Second, can be '2D into 3D', that is, artificially created three-dimensional (3D) passive (also called 'static') scaffolds have been utilized for 3D cell culture, helping external culturing conditions mimic real tissue 3D environments in a better way as compared with traditional two-dimensional (2D) culturing...
July 23, 2018: Bioengineering
Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
Engineering design of microbioreactors (MBRs) and organ-on-chip (OoC) devices can take advantage of established design science theory, in which systematic evaluation of functional concepts and user requirements are analyzed. This is commonly referred to as a conceptual design. This review article compares how common conceptual design principles are applicable to MBR and OoC devices. The complexity of this design, which is exemplified by MBRs for scaled-down cell cultures in bioprocess development and drug testing in OoCs for heart and eye, is discussed and compared with previous design solutions of MBRs and OoCs, from the perspective of how similarities in understanding design from functionality and user purpose perspectives can more efficiently be exploited...
July 19, 2018: Bioengineering
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