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Aysun Güney, Christina Gardiner, Andrew McCormack, Jos Malda, Dirk W Grijpma
Novel tough hydrogel materials are required for 3D-printing applications. Here, a series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone)- b -poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL- b -PEG- b -PCL) triblock copolymers and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were developed with PEG contents varying between 30 and 70 mol%. These showed excellent mechanical properties not only when dry, but also when hydrated: TPUs prepared from PCL- b -PEG- b -PCL with PEG of Mn 6 kg/mol (PCL₇-PEG₆-PCL₇) took up 122 wt...
November 14, 2018: Bioengineering
Young Hoon Park, Sung Mo Yang
The significance of this study lies in the importance of (1) nondestructive testing in defect studies and (2) securing the reliability of breast cancer prediction through thermal analysis in nondestructive testing. Most nondestructive tests have negative effects on the human body. Moreover, the precision and accuracy of such tests are poor. This study analyzes these drawbacks and increases the reliability of such methods. A theoretical model was constructed, by which simulated inner breast tissue was observed in a nondestructive way through thermal analysis, and the presence and extent of simulated breast cancer were estimated based on the thermal observations...
November 5, 2018: Bioengineering
Ethan B Ludmir, David R Grosshans, Kristina D Woodhouse
Radiation therapy (RT) represents an integral component in the treatment of many pediatric brain tumors. Multiple advances have emerged within pediatric radiation oncology that aim to optimize the therapeutic ratio-improving disease control while limiting RT-related toxicity. These include innovations in treatment planning with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation, as well as increasingly sophisticated radiation delivery techniques. Advanced RT techniques, including photon-based RT such as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), as well as particle beam therapy and stereotactic RT, have afforded an array of options to dramatically reduce radiation exposure of uninvolved normal tissues while treating target volumes...
November 4, 2018: Bioengineering
Anders W Bailey, Amreena Suri, Pauline M Chou, Tatiana Pundy, Samantha Gadd, Stacey L Raimondi, Tadanori Tomita, Simone Treiger Sredni
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics, with rare occurrences of primary and metastatic tumors in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously reported the overexpression of the polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) in embryonal brain tumors. PLK4 has also been found to be overexpressed in a variety of peripheral adult tumors and recently in peripheral NB. Here, we investigated PLK4 expression in NBs of the CNS (CNS-NB) and validated our findings by performing a multi-platform transcriptomic meta-analysis using publicly available data...
November 4, 2018: Bioengineering
Panagiotis Mallis, Dimitra Boulari, Efstathios Michalopoulos, Amalia Dinou, Maria Spyropoulou-Vlachou, Catherine Stavropoulos-Giokas
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) from Wharton's Jelly (WJ) tissue express HLA-G, a molecule which exerts several immunological properties. This study aimed at the evaluation of HLA-G expression in MSCs derived from vitrified WJ tissue. METHODS: WJ tissue samples were isolated from human umbilical cords, vitrified with the use of VS55 solution and stored for 1 year at -196 °C. After 1 year of storage, the WJ tissue was thawed and MSCs were isolated. Then, MSCs were expanded until reaching passage 8, followed by estimation of cell number, cell doubling time (CDT), population doubling (PD) and cell viability...
November 1, 2018: Bioengineering
Holly Clingan, Devon Rusk, Kathryn Smith, Antonio A Garcia
In lateral flow and colorimetric test strip diagnostics, the effects of capillary action and diffusion on speed and sensitivity have been well studied. However, another form of fluid motion can be generated due to stresses and instabilities generated in pores when two miscible liquids with different densities and viscosities come into contact. This study explored how a swellable test pad can be deployed for measuring urea in saliva by partially prefilling the pad with a miscible solution of greater viscosity and density...
October 29, 2018: Bioengineering
Rajeev Ravindran, Shady S Hassan, Gwilym A Williams, Amit K Jaiswal
Agro-industrial waste is highly nutritious in nature and facilitates microbial growth. Most agricultural wastes are lignocellulosic in nature; a large fraction of it is composed of carbohydrates. Agricultural residues can thus be used for the production of various value-added products, such as industrially important enzymes. Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, corn cob and rice bran, have been widely investigated via different fermentation strategies for the production of enzymes. Solid-state fermentation holds much potential compared with submerged fermentation methods for the utilization of agro-based wastes for enzyme production...
October 28, 2018: Bioengineering
Julia Marshall, Amanda Barnes, Paul Genever
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are typically characterised by their ability to differentiate into skeletal (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic) lineages. MSCs also appear to have additional non-stem cell functions in coordinating tissue morphogenesis and organising vascular networks through interactions with endothelial cells (ECs). However, suitable experimental models to examine these apparently unique MSC properties are lacking. Following previous work, we have developed our 3D in vitro co-culture models to enable us to track cellular self-organisation events in heterotypic cell spheroids combining ECs, MSCs and their differentiated progeny...
October 26, 2018: Bioengineering
Joris A van Dongen, Martin C Harmsen, Berend van der Lei, Hieronymus P Stevens
The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line of defense against physical and biological damage. Thus, the skin is equipped to self-repair and regenerates after trauma. Skin regeneration after damage comprises a tightly spatial-temporally regulated process of wound healing that involves virtually all cell types in the skin. Wound healing features five partially overlapping stages: homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation, re-epithelization, and finally resolution or fibrosis. Dysreguled wound healing may resolve in dermal scarring...
October 26, 2018: Bioengineering
Eileen S Cadel, Ember D Krech, Paul M Arnold, Elizabeth A Friis
Electrical stimulation devices can be used as adjunct therapy to lumbar spinal fusion to promote bone healing, but their adoption has been hindered by the large battery packs necessary to provide power. Piezoelectric composite materials within a spinal interbody cage to produce power in response to physiological lumbar loads have recently been investigated. A piezoelectric macro-fiber composite spinal interbody generated sufficient power to stimulate bone growth in a pilot ovine study, despite fabrication challenges...
October 23, 2018: Bioengineering
Albert Uhoraningoga, Gemma K Kinsella, Gary T Henehan, Barry J Ryan
The production of high yields of soluble recombinant protein is one of the main objectives of protein biotechnology. Several factors, such as expression system, vector, host, media composition and induction conditions can influence recombinant protein yield. Identifying the most important factors for optimum protein expression may involve significant investment of time and considerable cost. To address this problem, statistical models such as Design of Experiments (DoE) have been used to optimise recombinant protein production...
October 19, 2018: Bioengineering
Cavan P Bailey, Mary Figueroa, Sana Mohiuddin, Wafik Zaky, Joya Chandra
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and brainstem gliomas are some of the most challenging cancers to treat in children, with no effective therapies and 5-year survival at ~2% for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) patients. The standard of care for pHGG as a whole remains surgery and radiation combined with chemotherapy, while radiation alone is standard treatment for DIPG. Unfortunately, these therapies lack specificity for malignant glioma cells and have few to no reliable biomarkers of efficacy. Recent discoveries have revealed that epigenetic disruption by highly conserved mutations in DNA-packaging histone proteins in pHGG, especially DIPG, contribute to the aggressive nature of these cancers...
October 18, 2018: Bioengineering
John R Aggas, Sara Abasi, Blake Smith, Michael Zimmerman, Michael Deprest, Anthony Guiseppi-Elie
The formation of hybrid bioactive and inherently conductive constructs of composites formed from polyaniline-polyacrylamidomethylpropane sulfonic acid (PAn-PAAMPSA) nanomaterials (0.00⁻10.0 wt%) within poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate- co -N-{Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl} acrylamide)- co -polyethyleneglycol methacrylate) p(HEMA- co -HMMA- co -PEGMA) hydrogels was made possible using microlithographic fabrication and 3-D printing. Hybrid constructs formed by combining a non-conductive base (0.00 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) and electroconductive (ECH) (varying wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) hydrogels using these two production techniques were directly compared...
October 17, 2018: Bioengineering
Marc Ruoß, Victor Häussling, Frank Schügner, Leon H H Olde Damink, Serene M L Lee, Liming Ge, Sabrina Ehnert, Andreas K Nussler
Due to pronounced species differences, hepatotoxicity of new drugs often cannot be detected in animal studies. Alternatively, human hepatocytes could be used, but there are some limitations. The cells are not always available on demand or in sufficient amounts, so far there has been only limited success to allow the transport of freshly isolated hepatocytes without massive loss of function or their cultivation for a long time. Since it is well accepted that the cultivation of hepatocytes in 3D is related to an improved function, we here tested the Optimaix-3D Scaffold from Matricel for the transport and cultivation of hepatocytes...
October 16, 2018: Bioengineering
Peter H Baenziger, Karen Moody
Children with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies often suffer from high symptom burden and risk of death. Pediatric palliative care is a medical specialty, provided by an interdisciplinary team, which focuses on enhancing quality of life and minimizing suffering for children with life-threatening or life-limiting disease, and their families. Primary palliative care skills, which include basic symptom management, facilitation of goals-of-care discussions, and transition to hospice, can and should be developed by all providers of neuro-oncology care...
October 13, 2018: Bioengineering
Munsur Rahman, Akin Cil, Antonis P Stylianou
Computational elbow joint models, capable of simulating medial collateral ligament deficiency, can be extremely valuable tools for surgical planning and refinement of therapeutic strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying levels of medial collateral ligament deficiency on elbow joint stability using subject-specific computational models. Two elbow joint models were placed at the pronated forearm position and passively flexed by applying a vertical downward motion on humeral head...
October 10, 2018: Bioengineering
Praveena Velpurisiva, Brandon P Piel, Jack Lepine, Prakash Rai
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a common primary brain cancer with a poor prognosis and a median survival of less than 14 months. Current modes of treatment are associated with deleterious side effects that reduce the life span of the patients. Nanomedicine enables site-specific delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients and facilitates entrapment inside the tumor. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) inhibitors have shown promising results in tumor cells. GSK461364A (GSK) is one such targeted inhibitor with reported toxicity issues in phase 1 clinical trials...
October 9, 2018: Bioengineering
Kendra Clark, Amol V Janorkar
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been shown to differentiate down many lineages including endothelial lineage. We hypothesized that hASCs would more efficiently differentiate toward the endothelial lineage when formed as three-dimensional (3D) spheroids and with the addition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Three conditions were tested: uncoated tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces that induced a 2D monolayer formation; elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-collagen composite hydrogel scaffolds that induced encapsulated 3D spheroid culture; and ELP-polyethyleneimine-coated TCPS surfaces that induced 3D spheroid formation in scaffold-free condition...
October 3, 2018: Bioengineering
Tara H W Dobson, Vidya Gopalakrishnan
Approximately five out of 100,000 children from 0 to 19 years old are diagnosed with a brain tumor. These children are treated with medication designed for adults that are highly toxic to a developing brain. Those that survive are at high risk for a lifetime of limited physical, psychological, and cognitive abilities. Despite much effort, not one drug exists that was designed specifically for pediatric patients. Stagnant government funding and the lack of economic incentives for the pharmaceutical industry greatly limits preclinical research and the development of clinically applicable pediatric brain tumor models...
October 2, 2018: Bioengineering
Gary Chinga-Carrasco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Bioengineering
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