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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441780/pollen-grain-preservation-and-fertility-in-valuable-commercial-rose-cultivars
#1
Annalisa Giovannini, Anca Macovei, Matteo Caser, Andrea Mansuino, Gian Guido Ghione, Marco Savona, Daniela Carbonera, Valentina Scariot, Alma Balestrazzi
In the cut flower market, traditional breeding is still the best way to achieve new rose cultivars. The geographical delocalization of cultivar constitution (generally made in Europe and North America) and plant cultivation (large areas in Africa and South America) represents a limit point for crossing and selection. Rose breeders often need to overcome geographical distances, resulting in asynchrony in flowering among crossing parents, by storing and sending pollen. Hence, a key aspect in breeding programs is linked to pollen availability and conservation, jointly with the identification of parameters related to pollen fertility...
April 24, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394295/antimicrobial-resistance-and-the-alternative-resources-with-special-emphasis-on-plant-based-antimicrobials-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Harish Chandra, Parul Bishnoi, Archana Yadav, Babita Patni, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Anant Ram Nautiyal
Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe's development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according to their mechanism of action, i.e., interference with cell wall synthesis, DNA and RNA synthesis, lysis of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc...
April 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368351/lipid-raft-regulator-of-plasmodesmal-callose-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Arya Bagus Boedi Iswanto, Jae-Yean Kim
Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs)...
April 3, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273829/combined-effects-of-ozone-and-drought-on-the-physiology-and-membrane-lipids-of-two-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-walp-cultivars
#4
Deborah Moura Rebouças, Yuri Maia De Sousa, Matthieu Bagard, Jose Helio Costa, Yves Jolivet, Dirce Fernandes De Melo, Anne Repellin
The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D) grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation) did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day) had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation...
March 3, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257092/first-report-on-the-ethnopharmacological-uses-of-medicinal-plants-by-monpa-tribe-from-the-zemithang-region-of-arunachal-pradesh-eastern-himalayas-india
#5
Tamalika Chakraborty, Somidh Saha, Narendra S Bisht
The Himalayas are well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of the region's medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayan regions are well studied. Studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are still lacking for many tribes. Past studies have primarily focused on listing plants' vernacular names and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation by mixing multiple plant products of different species has not yet been reported in published literature from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Eastern Himalayas...
March 2, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257070/plasmodesmata-mediated-cell-to-cell-communication-in-the-shoot-apical-meristem-how-stem-cells-talk
#6
REVIEW
Munenori Kitagawa, David Jackson
Positional information is crucial for the determination of plant cell fates, and it is established based on coordinated cell-to-cell communication, which in turn is essential for plant growth and development. Plants have evolved a unique communication pathway, with tiny channels called plasmodesmata (PD) spanning the cell wall. PD interconnect most cells in the plant and generate a cytoplasmic continuum, to mediate short- and long-distance trafficking of various molecules. Cell-to-cell communication through PD plays a role in transmitting positional signals, however, the regulatory mechanisms of PD-mediated trafficking are still largely unknown...
March 1, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230801/ethnopharmacology-chemistry-and-biological-properties-of-four-malian-medicinal-plants
#7
REVIEW
Karl Egil Malterud
The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed...
February 21, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218654/caffeoylquinic-acids-from-the-aerial-parts-of-chrysanthemum-coronarium-l
#8
Chunpeng Wan, Shanshan Li, Lin Liu, Chuying Chen, Shuying Fan
To elucidate the chemical compositions of the aerial parts of Chrysanthemum coronarium L., the ethanol extracts of Ch. coronarium L. were firstly isolated by the MCI-gel resin column. The caffeoylquinic acid-rich fractions were further purified by various chromatographic columns including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC to yield the compounds. The purified compounds were characterized by ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR), (13)C-NMR, and high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectral (HR-ESI-MS) spectroscopy...
February 17, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216553/an-improved-syringe-agroinfiltration-protocol-to-enhance-transformation-efficiency-by-combinative-use-of-5-azacytidine-ascorbate-acid-and-tween-20
#9
Huimin Zhao, Zilong Tan, Xuejing Wen, Yucheng Wang
Syringe infiltration is an important transient transformation method that is widely used in many molecular studies. Owing to the wide use of syringe agroinfiltration, it is important and necessary to improve its transformation efficiency. Here, we studied the factors influencing the transformation efficiency of syringe agroinfiltration. The pCAMBIA1301 was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves for investigation. The effects of 5-azacytidine (AzaC), Ascorbate acid (ASC) and Tween-20 on transformation were studied...
February 14, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208608/multiple-mobile-mrna-signals-regulate-tuber-development-in-potato
#10
REVIEW
David J Hannapel, Anjan K Banerjee
Included among the many signals that traffic through the sieve element system are full-length mRNAs that function to respond to the environment and to regulate development. In potato, several mRNAs that encode transcription factors from the three-amino-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily move from leaves to roots and stolons via the phloem to control growth and signal the onset of tuber formation. This RNA transport is enhanced by short-day conditions and is facilitated by RNA-binding proteins from the polypyrimidine tract-binding family of proteins...
February 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208605/quantification-of-climate-warming-and-crop-management-impacts-on-cotton-phenology
#11
Shakeel Ahmad, Qaiser Abbas, Ghulam Abbas, Zartash Fatima, Atique-Ur-Rehman, Sahrish Naz, Haseeb Younis, Rana Jahanzeb Khan, Wajid Nasim, Muhammad Habib Ur Rehman, Ashfaq Ahmad, Ghulam Rasul, Muhammad Azam Khan, Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Understanding the impact of the warming trend on phenological stages and phases of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in central and lower Punjab, Pakistan, may assist in optimizing crop management practices to enhance production. This study determined the influence of the thermal trend on cotton phenology from 1980-2015 in 15 selected locations. The results demonstrated that observed phenological stages including sowing (S), emergence (E), anthesis (A) and physiological maturity (M) occurred earlier by, on average, 5...
February 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106834/heat-stress-decreases-levels-of-nutrient-uptake-and-assimilation-proteins-in-tomato-roots
#12
Anju Giri, Scott Heckathorn, Sasmita Mishra, Charles Krause
Global warming will increase root heat stress, which is already common under certain conditions. Effects of heat stress on root nutrient uptake have rarely been examined in intact plants, but the limited results indicate that heat stress will decrease it; no studies have examined heat-stress effects on the concentration of nutrient-uptake proteins. We grew Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) at 25 °C/20 °C (day/night) and then transferred some plants for six days to 35 °C /30 °C (moderate heat) or 42 °C/37 °C (severe heat) (maximum root temperature = 32 °C or 39 °C, respectively); plants were then moved back to control conditions for seven days to monitor recovery...
January 19, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067821/influence-of-nitrogen-availability-on-growth-of-two-transgenic-birch-species-carrying-the-pine-gs1a-gene
#13
Vadim G Lebedev, Nina P Kovalenko, Konstantin A Shestibratov
An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS) gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens) and silver birch (B. pendula) were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM) for one growing season...
January 6, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042810/perturbation-analysis-of-calcium-alkalinity-and-secretion-during-growth-of-lily-pollen-tubes
#14
Lawrence J Winship, Caleb Rounds, Peter K Hepler
Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate...
December 30, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036058/cold-tolerance-of-the-male-gametophyte-during-germination-and-tube-growth-depends-on-the-flowering-time
#15
Johanna Wagner, Evelyn Gastl, Martin Kogler, Michaela Scheiber
In temperate climates, most plants flower during the warmer season of the year to avoid negative effects of low temperatures on reproduction. Nevertheless, few species bloom in midwinter and early spring despite severe and frequent frosts at that time. This raises the question of adaption of sensible progamic processes such as pollen germination and pollen tube growth to low temperatures. The performance of the male gametophyte of 12 herbaceous lowland species flowering in different seasons was examined in vitro at different test temperatures using an easy to handle testing system...
December 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025509/a-high-throughput-rna-extraction-for-sprouted-single-seed-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-rich-in-polysaccharides
#16
Abdur Rashid, Thomas Baldwin, Michael Gines, Phil Bregitzer, Kathy Esvelt Klos
Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the excess polysaccharides. Here, we compare the current methods for RNA extraction applicable to germinated barley tissue. We found that although some of these standard methods produced high-quality RNA, the process of extraction was drastically slow, mostly because the frozen seed tissue powder from liquid N₂ grinding became recalcitrant to buffer mixing...
December 22, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973433/variation-among-soybean-cultivars-in-mesophyll-conductance-and-leaf-water-use-efficiency
#17
James Bunce
Improving water use efficiency (WUE) may prove a useful way to adapt crop species to drought. Since the recognition of the importance of mesophyll conductance to CO₂ movement from inside stomatal pores to the sites of photosynthetic carboxylation, there has been interest in how much intraspecific variation in mesophyll conductance (gm) exists, and how such variation may impact leaf WUE within C₃ species. In this study, the gm and leaf WUE of fifteen cultivars of soybeans grown under controlled conditions were measured under standardized environmental conditions...
December 11, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941603/analysis-of-metabolites-in-stem-parasitic-plant-interactions-interaction-of-cuscuta-momordica-versus-cassytha-ipomoea
#18
Takeshi Furuhashi, Takemichi Nakamura, Koji Iwase
Cuscuta and Cassytha are two well-known stem parasitic plant genera with reduced leaves and roots, inducing haustoria in their stems. Their similar appearance in the field has been recognized, but few comparative studies on their respective plant interactions are available. To compare their interactions, we conducted a metabolite analysis of both the Cassytha-Ipomoea and the Cuscuta-Momordica interaction. We investigated the energy charge of the metabolites by UFLC (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography), and conducted GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis for polar metabolites (e...
December 7, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929423/plant-responses-to-climate-change-the-case-study-of-betulaceae-and-poaceae-pollen-seasons-northern-italy-vignola-emilia-romagna
#19
Anna Maria Mercuri, Paola Torri, Rita Fornaciari, Assunta Florenzano
Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990-2004 with a Hirst spore trap...
December 6, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#20
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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