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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

Marino Exposito-Rodriguez, Philippe P Laissue, Patricia E López-Calcagno, Philip M Mullineaux, Christine A Raines, Andrew J Simkin
Gateway technology has been used to facilitate the generation of a large number of constructs for the modification of plants for research purposes. However, many of the currently available vectors only allow the integration of a single cDNA of interest into an expression clone. The ability to over-express multiple genes in combination is essential for the study of plant development where several transcripts have a role to play in one or more metabolic processes. The tools to carry out such studies are limited, and in many cases rely on the incorporation of cDNA into expression systems via conventional cloning, which can be both time consuming and laborious...
November 12, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Frances C Sussmilch, Scott A M McAdam
Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. The genes underlying this response offer valuable candidates for targeted selection of crop varieties with improved drought tolerance, a critical goal for current plant breeding programs, to maximize crop production in drier and increasingly marginalized environments, and meet the demands of a growing population in the face of a changing climate...
November 4, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Eva Masiero, Dipanwita Banik, John Abson, Paul Greene, Adrian Slater, Tiziana Sgamma
Liriope and Ophiopogon species have a long history of use as traditional medicines across East Asia. They have also become widely used around the world for ornamental and landscaping purposes. The morphological similarities between Liriope and Ophiopogon taxa have made the taxonomy of the two genera problematic and caused confusion about the identification of individual specimens. Molecular approaches could be a useful tool for the discrimination of these two genera in combination with traditional methods. Seventy-five Liriope and Ophiopogon samples from the UK National Plant Collections of Ophiopogon and Liriope were analyzed...
October 26, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Csengele E Barta, Bethany Bolander, Steven R Bilby, Jeremy H Brown, Reid N Brown, Alexander M Duryee, Danielle R Edelman, Christina E Gray, Chandler Gossett, Amie G Haddock, Mackenzie M Helsel, Alyssa D Jones, Marissa E Klingseis, Kalif Leslie, Edward W Miles, Rachael A Prawitz
Mature oak (Quercus spp.) leaves, although abundantly available during the plants' developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites...
October 24, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Racquel J Wright, Ken S Lee, Hyacinth I Hyacinth, Jacqueline M Hibbert, Marvin E Reid, Andrew O Wheatley, Helen N Asemota
Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1) followed by a series of liquid-liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay...
October 23, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Elizabeth K Dann, Duy P Le
The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil(®)32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected...
October 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mirtha Navarro, Ileana Moreira, Elizabeth Arnaez, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, Diego Alvarado, Maria J Monagas
The phenolic composition of aerial parts from Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd., species commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicines, was studied using UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS on enriched-phenolic extracts. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content (TPC), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, were observed for P. niruri extracts (328.8 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for S. reticulata (79.30 gallic acid equivalents/g) whereas P. alliaceae extract showed the lowest value (13...
October 19, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Dilek Killi, Matthew Haworth
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO₂ transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance...
October 17, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jane Geisler-Lee, Xian Liu, Wei Rang, Jayanthan Raveendiran, Marisa Blake Szubryt, David John Gibson, Matt Geisler, Qiang Cheng
Intraspecific competition is an important plant interaction that has been studied extensively aboveground, but less so belowground, due to the difficulties in accessing the root system experimentally. Recent in vivo and in situ automatic imaging advances help understand root system architecture. In this study, a portable imaging platform and a scalable transplant technique were applied to test intraspecific competition in Arabidopsis thaliana. A single green fluorescent protein labeled plant was placed in the center of a grid of different planting densities of neighboring unlabeled plants or empty spaces, into which different treatments were made to the media...
October 11, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Brandon White, Brenda S Tubana, Tapasya Babu, Henry Mascagni, Flavia Agostinho, Lawrence E Datnoff, Steve Harrison
Field studies were established on the alluvial floodplain soils in Louisiana, from 2013 to 2015, to evaluate the effect of silicate slag applications on productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum), under sufficient and high nitrogen (N) application rates. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications consisting of twelve treatments: a factorial combination of two N (101 and 145 kg N ha(-1)) and five silicate slag rates (0, 1, 2, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha(-1)), and two control plots (with and without lime)...
October 11, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sarla Saklani, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Harish Chandra, Maria Stefanova Atanassova, Milan Stankovic, Bhawana Sati, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Manisha Nigam, Mohammad Usman Khan, Sergey Plygun, Hicham Elmsellem, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
The in vitro antioxidant potential assay between ethanolic extracts of two species from the genus Vitex (Vitex negundo L. and Vitex trifolia L.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family were evaluated. The antioxidant properties of different extracts prepared from both plant species were evaluated by different methods. DPPH scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, and β-carotene-linoleic acid and ferrous ion chelation methods were applied. The antioxidant activities of these two species were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, and Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA)...
September 27, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Chunpeng Wan, Chuying Chen, Mingxi Li, Youxin Yang, Ming Chen, Jinyin Chen
Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae) fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2), five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3-7), three flavonoids (8-10), and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11). Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4-6, and 8-11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside), a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F...
September 27, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Aaron Nix, Cate Paull, Michelle Colgrave
Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is a plant fibre of significant economic importance, with seeds providing an additional source of protein in human and animal nutrition. Flavonoids play a vital role in maintaining plant health and function and much research has investigated the role of flavonoids in plant defence and plant vigour and the influence these have on cotton production. As part of ongoing research into host plant/invertebrate pest interactions, we investigated the flavonoid profile of cotton reported in published, peer-reviewed literature...
September 25, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ammar Altemimi, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Azam Baharlouei, Dennis G Watson, David A Lightfoot
There are concerns about using synthetic phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as food additives because of the reported negative effects on human health. Thus, a replacement of these synthetics by antioxidant extractions from various foods has been proposed. More than 8000 different phenolic compounds have been characterized; fruits and vegetables are the prime sources of natural antioxidants. In order to extract, measure, and identify bioactive compounds from a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, researchers use multiple techniques and methods...
September 22, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gerasimia Tsasi, Theofilos Mailis, Artemis Daskalaki, Eleni Sakadani, Panagis Razis, Yiannis Samaras, Helen Skaltsa
Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period...
September 18, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Maria Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral, Miriam Brito, Bikash Baral, Mario José Garrido
The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls...
September 15, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Motahareh Nobakht, Stephen J Trueman, Helen M Wallace, Peter R Brooks, Klrissa J Streeter, Mohammad Katouli
Traditional medicine and ecological cues can both help to reveal bioactive natural compounds. Indigenous Australians have long used kino from trunks of the eucalypt tree, Corymbia citriodora, in traditional medicine. A closely related eucalypt, C. torelliana, produces a fruit resin with antimicrobial properties that is highly attractive to stingless bees. We tested the antimicrobial activity of extracts from kino of C. citriodora, C. torelliana × C. citriodora, and C. torelliana against three Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria and the unicellular fungus, Candida albicans...
September 14, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nenad M Zlatić, Milan S Stanković
The principal aim of this paper is to show the influence of soil characteristics on the quantitative variability of secondary metabolites. Analysis of phenolic content, flavonoid concentrations, and the antioxidant activity was performed using the ethanol and ethyl acetate plant extracts of the species Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae). The samples were collected from one saline habitat and two non-saline habitats. The values of phenolic content from the samples taken from the saline habitat ranged from 119...
September 11, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Marie Luyckx, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Silicon (Si) is an abundant element which, when supplied to plants, confers increased vigor and resistance to exogenous stresses, as well as enhanced stem mechanical strength. Plant species vary in their ability to take Si up and to accumulate it under the form of silicon dioxide (SiO₂) in their tissues: emblematic of this is the example of Poales, among which there is rice, a high Si accumulator. Monocots usually accumulate more Si than dicots; however, the impact that Si has on dicots, notably on economically important dicots, is a subject requiring further study and scientific efforts...
September 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Huiqin He, Thomas Monaco
It is widely recognized that feedbacks exist between plant litter and plant community species composition, but this relationship is difficult to interpret over heterogeneous conditions typical of modified environments such as roadways. Given the need to expedite natural recovery of disturbed areas through restoration interventions, we characterized litter accumulation and nutrient content (i.e., organic carbon, total N, and P) and quantified their association with key plant species. Plant species cover and litter characteristics were sampled at 18 successional forest plant communities along major roadways in Sichuan Basin, western China...
August 30, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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