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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

K D P P Gunathilake, K K D S Ranaweera, H P V Rupasinghe
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica , Cassia auriculata , Gymnema lactiferum , Olax zeylanica , Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition...
March 16, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sunirmal Sheet, Kuntal Ghosh, Satabdi Acharya, Kwang-Pyo Kim, Yang Soo Lee
Apart from being fed to silkworms in sericulture, the ecologically important Mulberry plant has been used for traditional medicine in Asian countries as well as in manufacturing wine, food, and beverages. Germplasm analysis among Mulberry cultivars originating from South Korea is crucial in the plant breeding program for cultivar development. Hence, the genetic deviations and relations among 8 Morus alba plants, and one Morus lhou plant, of different cultivars collected from South Korea were investigated using 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in the present study...
March 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Maryam Malmir, Rita Serrano, Manuela Caniça, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Olga Silva
Abstract : Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Asphodelus L. ( Asphodelaceae ) is a genus of 18 species and of a total of 27 species, sub-species and varieties, distributed along the Mediterranean basin, and has been traditionally used for treating several diseases particularly associated with inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. The present study aimed to provide a general review of the available literature on ethnomedical, phytochemical, and biological data related to the genus Asphodelus as a potential source of new compounds with biological activity...
March 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Noura S Dosoky, William N Setzer
Conradina (Lamiaceae) is a small genus of native United States (US) species limited to Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky. Three species of Conradina are federally listed as endangered and one is threatened while two are candidates for listing as endangered. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the recent advances in current knowledge on Conradina species and to compile reports of chemical constituents that characterize and differentiate between Conradina species.
March 11, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Theofilos Mailis, Helen Skaltsa
Twenty compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge, growing wild in Cyprus. These compounds comprise one new and one known acetophenone, one megastigmane glucoside, five phenolic derivatives, two caffeic acid oligomers, three flavonoids, two lignans, two triterpene acids, one monoterpene glucoside, and two fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of NMR [(Rotating-frame OverhauserEffect SpectroscopY) (¹H-¹H-COSY (COrrelation SpectroscopΥ), ¹H-13 C-HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation), HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation), NOESY (Nuclear Overhauser Effect SpectroscopY), ROESY (Rotating-frame Overhauser Effect SpectroscopY)] and MS spectral analyses...
March 6, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ai Ting Vong, Hui Wen Chong, Vuanghao Lim
Environment hygiene is important for preventing infection and promoting a healthier environment in which to live or work. The goal of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia (key lime) juice and aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum iners (cinnamon) bark and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime) leaves on the kinetic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ). Antimicrobial activity was quantitatively evaluated using spectrophotometry and viable cell counts versus bacterial growth time...
March 6, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gabriella Rossi, Claudio Beni
The organic fraction of sewage sludge administered to agricultural soil can contribute to slowing down the loss of soil's organic carbon and, in some cases, can improve the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. One of the main constraints to the agricultural use of sewage sludge is its heavy metals content. In the long term, agricultural administration of sewage sludge to soil could enhance the concentration of soil heavy metals (as total and bioavailable fractions). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medium-term fertilization with diversely processed sewage sludge on the soil's organic carbon content and humification-mineralization processes, on the physical-mechanical properties of soil and their influence on the pool of potentially bioavailable heavy metals, in order to assess their effectiveness as soil organic amendments...
March 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jia Dong, Robert H Jones, Pu Mou
(1) Background: Plant roots respond to nutrients through root architecture that is regulated by hormones. Strong inter-specific variation in root architecture has been well documented, but physiological mechanisms that may control the variation have not. (2) Methods: We examined correlations between root architecture and hormones to seek clues on mechanisms behind root foraging behavior. In the green house at Beijing Normal University, hydroponic culture experiments were used to examine the root responses of four species- Callistephus chinensis , Solidago canadensis , Ailanthus altissima , Oryza sativa- to two nitrogen types (NO₃- or NH₄⁺), three nitrogen concentrations (low, medium, and high concentrations of 0...
February 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Miao Zhang, Bronwen G Smith, Brian H McArdle, Ramesh R Chavan, Bryony J James, Philip J Harris
Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the dimensional changes in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions, on wetting and drying, of tracheids of opposite wood (OW) and three grades of compression woods (CWs), including severe CW (SCW) and two grades of mild compression wood (MCW) (MCW1 and MCW2) in corewood of radiata pine ( Pinus radiata ) saplings. The CW was formed on the underside and OW on the upper side of slightly tilted stems. In the longitudinal direction, the shrinkage of SCW tracheids was ~300% greater than that of OW tracheids, with the shrinkage of the MCW1 and MCW2 tracheids being intermediate...
February 27, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Kurt Appel, Eduardo Munoz, Carmen Navarrete, Cristina Cruz-Teno, Andreas Biller, Eva Thiemann
Immulina® , a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis ( Spirulina ) is a potent activator of innate immune cells. On the other hand, it is well documented that Spirulina exerts anti-inflammatory effects and showed promising effects with respect to the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Taking into account these findings, we decided to elucidate whether Immulina® , and immunLoges® (a commercial available multicomponent nutraceutical with Immulina® as a main ingredient) beyond immune-enhancing effects, might also exert inhibitory effects in the induced allergic inflammatory response and on histamine release from RBL-2H3 mast cells...
February 26, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
James Bunce
Seeds of three C₃ and one C₄ annual weedy species were collected from agricultural fields in Beltsville, Maryland in 1966 and 2006, when atmospheric CO₂ concentrations averaged about 320 and 380 mol mol-1 , respectively. Plants from each collection year were grown over a range of CO₂ concentrations to test for adaptation of these weedy species to recent changes in atmospheric CO₂. In all three of the C₃ species, the increase in CO₂ concentration from 320 mol mol-1 to 380 mol mol-1 increased total dry mass at 24 days in plants from seeds collected in 2006, but not in plants from seeds collected in 1966...
February 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gabriel Paës, Anouck Habrant, Christine Terryn
Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex network of polymers making up the cell walls of plants. It represents a feedstock of sustainable resources to be converted into fuels, chemicals, and materials. Because of its complex architecture, lignocellulose is a recalcitrant material that requires some pretreatments and several types of catalysts to be transformed efficiently. Gaining more knowledge in the architecture of plant cell walls is therefore important to understand and optimize transformation processes. For the first time, super-resolution imaging of poplar wood samples has been performed using the Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) technique...
February 6, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Lloyd Donaldson, Nari Williams
Many plant tissues fluoresce due to the natural fluorophores present in cell walls or within the cell protoplast or lumen. While lignin and chlorophyll are well-known fluorophores, other components are less well characterized. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of fresh or fixed vibratome-cut sections of radiata pine needles revealed the presence of suberin, lignin, ferulate, and flavonoids associated with cell walls as well as several different extractive components and chlorophyll within tissues. Comparison of needles in different physiological states demonstrated the loss of chlorophyll in both chlorotic and necrotic needles...
February 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Olga S Walsh, Sanaz Shafian, Robin J Christiaens
Wheat is the most widely cultivated food crop in the world, which provides nutrition to most of the world population and is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Timely and efficient rates of nitrogen (N) application are vital for increasing wheat grain yield and protein content, and maintaining environmental sustainability. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of using different rates and split application of N on the performance of spring wheat in dryland cropping systems...
January 29, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vanya Dimcheva, Maria Karsheva
The purpose of the present study is to survey the extraction conditions and explore the antioxidant potential of the wild herb Cistus incanus, which is non-traditional in Bulgarian ethnomedicine and widespread in the Strandja Mountain. The influence of the extraction time (0-500 min) and solvent composition (0-50% ethanol in water) on the polyphenols, flavonoid yields and on the antioxidant capacity of the extracts of leaves, stalks (wood parts) and bud mixture were studied. The antioxidant capacity (AOC) was evaluated by use of scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals...
January 26, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ingrid Zeise, Zsuzsanna Heiner, Sabine Holz, Maike Joester, Carmen Büttner, Janina Kneipp
Raman microspectra combine information on chemical composition of plant tissues with spatial information. The contributions from the building blocks of the cell walls in the Raman spectra of plant tissues can vary in the microscopic sub-structures of the tissue. Here, we discuss the analysis of 55 Raman maps of root, stem, and leaf tissues of Cucumis sativus, using different spectral contributions from cellulose and lignin in both univariate and multivariate imaging methods. Imaging based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicates different substructures in the xylem cell walls of the different tissues...
January 25, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tiina A Salminen, D Magnus Eklund, Valentin Joly, Kristina Blomqvist, Daniel P Matton, Johan Edqvist
When plants conquered land, they developed specialized organs, tissues, and cells in order to survive in this new and harsh terrestrial environment. New cell polymers such as the hydrophobic lipid-based polyesters cutin, suberin, and sporopollenin were also developed for protection against water loss, radiation, and other potentially harmful abiotic factors. Cutin and waxes are the main components of the cuticle, which is the waterproof layer covering the epidermis of many aerial organs of land plants. Although the in vivo functions of the group of lipid binding proteins known as lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are still rather unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting a role for LTPs in the transfer and deposition of monomers required for cuticle assembly...
January 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bo Li, Julien Lecourt, Gerard Bishop
Global food security for the increasing world population not only requires increased sustainable production of food but a significant reduction in pre- and post-harvest waste. The timing of when a fruit is harvested is critical for reducing waste along the supply chain and increasing fruit quality for consumers. The early in-field assessment of fruit ripeness and prediction of the harvest date and yield by non-destructive technologies have the potential to revolutionize farming practices and enable the consumer to eat the tastiest and freshest fruit possible...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Andreas Douros, Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina, Konstantinos Nikolaou, Helen Skaltsa
The phytochemical analysis of the polar extracts of Cedrus brevifolia needles yielded 20 compounds, namely from the methanol extract we isolated three flavonoids (1-3), one hydrolysable tannin (4), eleven phenolic derivatives (5-15) and one apocarotenoid (16), while from the methanol: water (5:1) extract we isolated four flavonoids (17-20). Chemical structures of all isolated compounds were determined by 1D, 2D-NMR (1 Dimension, 2 Dimensions Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-Visible) spectroscopy...
December 27, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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