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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

Tran Dang Khanh, La Hoang Anh, La Tuan Nghia, Khuat Huu Trung, Pham Bich Hien, Do Minh Trung, Tran Dang Xuan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C). The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated...
May 8, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mahmoud Naser, Mohamed Badran, Hanaa Abouzied, Heba Ali, Ibrahim Elbasyoni
In recent years, barley has attracted more interest as a food and feed source because of its high soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content compared with other small grains. Twenty-five barley genotypes (20 imported genotypes and five check cultivars) were grown in three environments for two successive seasons: 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The first environment was in El-Nubaria, Alexandria, Egypt during 2015/2016, while the second and third environments were in El-Bostan, Elbhera, Egypt during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017...
May 4, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Benjamin Burrows, Andrew McCubbin
Recent findings on the molecular basis of heteromorphic self-incompatibility in Primula have shown that the controlling self-incompatibility ( S )-locus is not allelic, but is instead a small hemizygous region of only a few genes in the thrum genotype. How these genes alter the development of floral morphology and the specificity of self-incompatibility is still not completely clear. In order to start to identify genes regulated by the S -locus and elucidate the large-scale biological processes affected, we used RNA-seq data from floral buds of heteromorphic P...
May 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Philippe Etienne, Elise Sorin, Anne Maillard, Karine Gallardo, Mustapha Arkoun, Jérôme Guerrand, Florence Cruz, Jean-Claude Yvin, Alain Ourry
Determination of S status is very important to detect S deficiency and prevent losses of yield and seed quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the ([Cl− ]+[NO₃− ]+[PO₄3− ]):[SO₄2− ] ratio as an indicator of S nutrition under field conditions in Brassica napus and whether this could be applied to other species. Different S and nitrogen (N) fertilizations were applied on a S deficient field of oilseed rape to harvest mature leaves and analyze their anion and element contents in order to evaluate a new S nutrition indicator and useful threshold values...
April 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tararag Pincam, Hans Brix, Arunothai Jampeetong
The responses of Acorus calamus under greenhouse conditions for 56 days when exposed to three dilutions (25%, 50%, and undiluted) of anaerobic digester effluent from a swine farm were determined. Plant growth, morphology, pigments, and minerals in plant tissues as well as water quality were investigated. The plants grew well in all concentrations of anaerobic digester effluent with no statistically significant effects on plant growth and morphology, and without any toxicity symptoms. The NH₄⁺ concentrations in leaves and roots and the NO₃− concentrations in leaves as well as the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations in the plant tissues increased with increasing effluent concentration...
April 20, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Alberto Gianinetti, Franca Finocchiaro, Paolo Bagnaresi, Antonella Zechini, Primetta Faccioli, Luigi Cattivelli, Giampiero Valè, Chiara Biselli
Red rice fully dormant seeds do not germinate even under favorable germination conditions. In several species, including rice, seed dormancy can be removed by dry-afterripening (warm storage); thus, dormant and non-dormant seeds can be compared for the same genotype. A weedy (red) rice genotype with strong dormancy was used for mRNA expression profiling, by RNA-Seq, of dormant and non-dormant dehulled caryopses (here addressed as seeds) at two temperatures (30 °C and 10 °C) and two durations of incubation in water (8 h and 8 days)...
April 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yong-Bi Fu, Zaheer Ahmed, Hui Yang, Carolee Horbach
In a search for useful seed aging signals as biomarkers for seed viability prediction, we conducted an experiment using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to analyze morphological and molecular changes in naturally aged (NA) and artificially aged (AA) flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. A total of 2546 sections were performed from 112 seeds of 12 NA and AA seed samples with variable germination rates...
April 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Fadi Alhousari, Maria Greger
This paper reviews the most recent progress in exploring silicon-mediated resistance to herbivorous insects and the mechanisms involved. The aim is to determine whether any mechanism seems more common than the others as well as whether the mechanisms are more pronounced in silicon-accumulating than non-silicon-accumulating species or in monocots than eudicots. Two types of mechanisms counter insect pest attacks: physical or mechanical barriers and biochemical/molecular mechanisms (in which Si can upregulate and prime plant defence pathways against insects)...
April 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Shinji Ishikawa, Yuki Ono, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi, Sayuri Tanabata, Takuji Ohyama
Leguminous plants form root nodules with rhizobia that fix atmospheric dinitrogen (N₂) for the nitrogen (N) nutrient. Combined nitrogen sources, particular nitrate, severely repress nodule growth and nitrogen fixation activity in soybeans ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.). A microarray-based transcriptome analysis and the metabolome analysis were carried out for the roots and nodules of hydroponically grown soybean plants treated with 5 mM of nitrate for 24 h and compared with control without nitrate. Gene expression ratios of nitrate vs...
April 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Nidal Jaradat, Ismail Fichtali, Wessal Ouedrhiri, Shehdeh Jodeh, Samar Ayesh, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Phytopharmaceuticals play an essential role in medicine, since the need to investigate highly effective and safe drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus disease remains a significant challenge for modern medicine. Arbutus unedo L. root has various therapeutic properties, and has been used widely in the traditional medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The current study aimed to isolate the pharmacologically active compound from A. unedo roots using accelerated solvent extraction technology, to determine its chemical structure using different instrumental analytical methods, and also to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity...
April 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ulrike Mathesius
Flavonoids are structurally diverse secondary metabolites in plants, with a multitude of functions. These span from functions in regulating plant development, pigmentation, and UV protection, to an array of roles in defence and signalling between plants and microorganisms. Because of their prevalence in the human diet, many flavonoids constitute important components of medicinal plants and are used in the control of inflammation and cancer prevention. Advances in the elucidation of flavonoid biosynthesis and its regulation have led to an increasing number of studies aimed at engineering the flavonoid pathway for enhancing nutritional value and plant defences against pathogens and herbivores, as well as modifying the feeding value of pastures...
April 3, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Daoud A M, Hemada M M, Saber N, El-Araby A A, Moussa L
This paper aims to determine the most tolerant growth stage(s) of wheat to salinity stress with the addition of silicon. The aim was to investigate whether saline water could be used instead of good quality water for irrigation without implicating a greater risk to crop production. Local wheat cv. Gimmiza 11 was germinated and grown in sand cultures. Four different NaCl salinity levels were used as treatments: 0, 60, 90 and 120 mM. This was in the presence of 0 and 0.78 mM Si which added as sodium meta- silicate (Na₂SiO₃·9H₂O)...
April 3, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Deepesh R Bista, Scott A Heckathorn, Dileepa M Jayawardena, Sasmita Mishra, Jennifer K Boldt
Climate change will increase drought in many regions of the world. Besides decreasing productivity, drought also decreases the concentration (%) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) in plants. We investigated if decreases in nutrient status during drought are correlated with decreases in levels of nutrient-uptake proteins in roots, which has not been quantified. Drought-sensitive ( Hordeum vulgare , Zea mays ) and -tolerant grasses ( Andropogon gerardii ) were harvested at mid and late drought, when we measured biomass, plant %N and P, root N- and P-uptake rates, and concentrations of major nutrient-uptake proteins in roots (NRT1 for NO₃, AMT1 for NH₄, and PHT1 for P)...
March 30, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Saqer S Alotaibi, Caroline A Sparks, Martin A J Parry, Andrew J Simkin, Christine A Raines
Wheat yields have plateaued in recent years and given the growing global population there is a pressing need to develop higher yielding varieties to meet future demand. Genetic manipulation of photosynthesis in elite wheat varieties offers the opportunity to significantly increase yields. However, the absence of a well-defined molecular tool-box of promoters to manipulate leaf processes in wheat hinders advancements in this area. Two promoters, one driving the expression of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) and the other fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) from Brachypodium distachyon were identified and cloned into a vector in front of the GUS reporter gene...
March 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Olga S Walsh, Sanaz Shafian, Jordan R McClintick-Chess, Kelli M Belmont, Steven M Blanscet
Many studies throughout the world have shown positive responses of various crops to silicon (Si) application in terms of plant health, nutrient uptake, yield, and quality. Although not considered an essential element for plant growth, Si has been recently recognized as a "beneficial substance" or "quasi-essential" due to its important role in plant nutrition, especially notable under stressed conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of Si on wheat plant height, grain yield (GY), and grain protein content (GP)...
March 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Katerina Tzima, Nigel P Brunton, Dilip K Rai
Lamiaceae species are promising potential sources of natural antioxidants, owing to their high polyphenol content. In addition, increasing scientific and epidemiological evidence have associated consumption of foods rich in polyphenols with health benefits such as decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases mediated through anti-inflammatory effects. The complex and diverse nature of polyphenols and the huge variation in their levels in commonly consumed herbs make their analysis challenging. Innovative robust analytical tools are constantly developing to meet these challenges...
March 26, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Giuseppe Cristiano, Gjok Vuksani, Vincenzo Tufarelli, Barbara De Lucia
The most common substrate for potted ornamental plants is prepared with Sphagnum peat; however, the cost and declining availability of high-quality peat, due to environmental constraints, make it necessary to investigate for alternative organic materials. The present study aimed to determine the effects of partial compost replacement with peat and the optimum electrical conductivity (EC) level of the nutrient solution in potted weeping lantana [ L. montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq.] under a recirculating soilless system...
March 22, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jae-Yean Kim
Communication between cells is an essential process for developing and maintaining multicellular collaboration during plant development and physiological adaptation in response to environmental stimuli. The intercellular movement of proteins and RNAs in addition to the movement of small nutrients or signaling molecules such as sugars and phytohormones has emerged as a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell signaling in plants. As a strategy for efficient intercellular communication and long-distance molecule movement, plants have evolved plant-specific symplasmic communication networks via plasmodesmata (PDs) and the phloem...
March 20, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
K D P P Gunathilake, K K D S Ranaweera, H P V Rupasinghe
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica , Cassia auriculata , Gymnema lactiferum , Olax zeylanica , Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition...
March 16, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sunirmal Sheet, Kuntal Ghosh, Satabdi Acharya, Kwang-Pyo Kim, Yang Soo Lee
Apart from being fed to silkworms in sericulture, the ecologically important Mulberry plant has been used for traditional medicine in Asian countries as well as in manufacturing wine, food, and beverages. Germplasm analysis among Mulberry cultivars originating from South Korea is crucial in the plant breeding program for cultivar development. Hence, the genetic deviations and relations among 8 Morus alba plants, and one Morus lhou plant, of different cultivars collected from South Korea were investigated using 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in the present study...
March 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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