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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

Tiina A Salminen, D Magnus Eklund, Valentin Joly, Kristina Blomqvist, Daniel P Matton, Johan Edqvist
When plants conquered land, they developed specialized organs, tissues, and cells in order to survive in this new and harsh terrestrial environment. New cell polymers such as the hydrophobic lipid-based polyesters cutin, suberin, and sporopollenin were also developed for protection against water loss, radiation, and other potentially harmful abiotic factors. Cutin and waxes are the main components of the cuticle, which is the waterproof layer covering the epidermis of many aerial organs of land plants. Although the in vivo functions of the group of lipid binding proteins known as lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are still rather unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting a role for LTPs in the transfer and deposition of monomers required for cuticle assembly...
January 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
(no author information available yet)
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Plants maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...].
January 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bo Li, Julien Lecourt, Gerard Bishop
Global food security for the increasing world population not only requires increased sustainable production of food but a significant reduction in pre- and post-harvest waste. The timing of when a fruit is harvested is critical for reducing waste along the supply chain and increasing fruit quality for consumers. The early in-field assessment of fruit ripeness and prediction of the harvest date and yield by non-destructive technologies have the potential to revolutionize farming practices and enable the consumer to eat the tastiest and freshest fruit possible...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Andreas Douros, Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina, Konstantinos Nikolaou, Helen Skaltsa
The phytochemical analysis of the polar extracts of Cedrus brevifolia needles yielded 20 compounds, namely from the methanol extract we isolated three flavonoids (1-3), one hydrolysable tannin (4), eleven phenolic derivatives (5-15) and one apocarotenoid (16), while from the methanol: water (5:1) extract we isolated four flavonoids (17-20). Chemical structures of all isolated compounds were determined by 1D, 2D-NMR (1 Dimension, 2 Dimensions Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-Visible) spectroscopy...
December 27, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Erick P Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Manuel A Picos-Salas, Nayely Leyva-López, Marilyn S Criollo-Mendoza, Gabriela Vazquez-Olivo, J Basilio Heredia
Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases...
December 26, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bipei Zhang, Andrea Schrader
The flavonoid composition of various tissues throughout plant development is of biological relevance and particular interest for breeding. Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (AtTTG1) is an essential regulator of late structural genes in flavonoid biosynthesis. Here, we provide a review of the regulation of the pathway's core enzymes through AtTTG1-containing R2R3-MYELOBLASTOSIS-basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX-WD40 repeat (MBW(AtTTG1)) complexes embedded in an evolutionary context. We present a comprehensive collection of A...
December 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
James Godwin, Buzi Raviv, Gideon Grafi
It is commonly assumed that dead pericarps of dry indehiscent fruits have evolved to provide an additional physical layer for embryo protection and as a means for long distance dispersal. The pericarps of dry fruits undergo programmed cell death (PCD) during maturation whereby most macromolecules such DNA, RNA, and proteins are thought to be degraded and their constituents remobilized to filial tissues such as embryo and endosperm. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the dead pericarp represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds...
December 19, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
José Mostacero León, Segundo E López Medina, Helmut Yabar, Jordan De La Cruz Castillo
Abstract: Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades...
December 18, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mirtha Navarro, Ileana Moreira, Elizabeth Arnaez, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, Felipe Vargas, Diego Alvarado, Pei Chen
The phenolic composition of leaves from Phyllanthus acuminatus L., a plant commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicine, was studied using UPLC-ESI-MS on an enriched phenolic extract. A total of 20 phenolic compounds were identified, comprising eight flavonoids (two flavanones-pinocembrin isomers and six derivatives from apigenin, chrysin, quercetin, and kaempferol); seven ellagitannins, two flavan-3-ols (prodelphinidin B dimer and (epi)gallocatechin); and three phenolic acids (ellagic acid, trimethylellagic acid, and ferulic acid)...
December 15, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Panagiotis Dalias, Damianos Neocleous
The nitrogen (N) effect of legumes is one of the main reasons for their inclusion in rotation systems and their success in rainfed agriculture of Mediterranean areas. The comparative analysis of this effect in relation to alternative systems or practices is essential for a comprehensive appreciation in their merit. This field experiment was comprised of four three-year rotation cycles. Wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) was seeded for two consecutive years after common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), treated in three different ways, and after fallow and compared with three wheat monocultures: the conventional one, the continuous straw incorporation, and the sewage sludge incorporation once every three years...
December 6, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Zerihun Yemataw, Alemayehu Chala, Daniel Ambachew, David J Studholme, Murray R Grant, Kassahun Tesfaye
Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is Ethiopia's most important root crop. A total of 387 accessions collected from nine different regions of Ethiopia were evaluated for 15 quantitative traits at Areka Agricultural Research Centre to determine the extent and pattern of distribution of morphological variation. The variations among the accessions and regions were significant (p ≤ 0.01) for all the 15 traits studied. Mean for plant height, central shoot weight before grating, and fermented squeezed kocho yield per hectare per year showed regional variation along an altitude gradient and across cultural differences related to the origin of the collection...
December 6, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yasmina Benabdesslem, Kadda Hachem, Khaled Kahloula, Miloud Slimani
An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L.), a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system...
December 5, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Minako Ekawa, Koh Aoki
Phelipanche aegyptiaca parasitizes a wide range of plants, including important crops, and causes serious damage to their production. P. aegyptiaca develops a specialized intrusive organ called a haustorium that establishes connections to the host's xylem and phloem. In parallel with the development of xylem vessels, the differentiation of phloem-conducting cells has been demonstrated by the translocation of symplasmic tracers from the host to the parasite. However, it is unclear yet whether haustorial phloem-conducting cells are sieve elements...
December 5, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
(no author information available yet)
Aim: To identify the extent and direction of range shift of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens in Australia by 2050 through an ensemble forecast of four species distribution models (SDMs). Each was generated using four global climate models (GCMs), under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Location: Australia. Methods: We used four SDMs of (i) generalized linear model, (ii) MaxEnt, (iii) random forest, and (iv) boosted regression tree to construct SDMs for species E. sideroxylon and E. albens under four GCMs including (a) MRI-CGCM3, (b) MIROC5, (c) HadGEM2-AO and (d) CCSM4, under two RCPs of 4...
November 24, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bénédicte Bakan, Didier Marion
Cuticular matrices covering aerial plant organs or delimiting compartments in these organs are composed of an insoluble hydrophobic polymer of high molecular mass, i.e., cutin, that encompass some cell wall polysaccharides and is filled by waxes. Cutin is a polyester of hydroxy and-or epoxy fatty acids including a low amount of glycerol. Screening of Arabidopsis and more recently of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants allowed the delineation of the metabolic pathway involved in the formation of cutin monomers, as well as their translocation in the apoplast...
November 18, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Marino Exposito-Rodriguez, Philippe P Laissue, Patricia E López-Calcagno, Philip M Mullineaux, Christine A Raines, Andrew J Simkin
Gateway technology has been used to facilitate the generation of a large number of constructs for the modification of plants for research purposes. However, many of the currently available vectors only allow the integration of a single cDNA of interest into an expression clone. The ability to over-express multiple genes in combination is essential for the study of plant development where several transcripts have a role to play in one or more metabolic processes. The tools to carry out such studies are limited, and in many cases rely on the incorporation of cDNA into expression systems via conventional cloning, which can be both time consuming and laborious...
November 12, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Frances C Sussmilch, Scott A M McAdam
Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. The genes underlying this response offer valuable candidates for targeted selection of crop varieties with improved drought tolerance, a critical goal for current plant breeding programs, to maximize crop production in drier and increasingly marginalized environments, and meet the demands of a growing population in the face of a changing climate...
November 4, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Eva Masiero, Dipanwita Banik, John Abson, Paul Greene, Adrian Slater, Tiziana Sgamma
Liriope and Ophiopogon species have a long history of use as traditional medicines across East Asia. They have also become widely used around the world for ornamental and landscaping purposes. The morphological similarities between Liriope and Ophiopogon taxa have made the taxonomy of the two genera problematic and caused confusion about the identification of individual specimens. Molecular approaches could be a useful tool for the discrimination of these two genera in combination with traditional methods. Seventy-five Liriope and Ophiopogon samples from the UK National Plant Collections of Ophiopogon and Liriope were analyzed...
October 26, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Csengele E Barta, Bethany Bolander, Steven R Bilby, Jeremy H Brown, Reid N Brown, Alexander M Duryee, Danielle R Edelman, Christina E Gray, Chandler Gossett, Amie G Haddock, Mackenzie M Helsel, Alyssa D Jones, Marissa E Klingseis, Kalif Leslie, Edward W Miles, Rachael A Prawitz
Mature oak (Quercus spp.) leaves, although abundantly available during the plants' developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites...
October 24, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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