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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

Shina Sasi, Jelli Venkatesh, Rawya Fatohllah Daneshi, Mayank Anand Gururani
Abiotic stress remains one of the major challenges in managing and preventing crop loss. Photosystem II (PSII), being the most susceptible component of the photosynthetic machinery, has been studied in great detail over many years. However, much of the emphasis has been placed on intrinsic proteins, particularly with respect to their involvement in the repair of PSII-associated damage. PSII extrinsic proteins include PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbR in higher plants, and these are required for oxygen evolution under physiological conditions...
November 14, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sreyvatey Pen, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Samnang Song, Gayatri Goswami, Ji-Hee Lee, Hee-Jeong Jung, Hoy-Taek Kim, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Vegetables in Brassica are some of the world's most commonly cultivated plants and have a wide range of consumable plant organs. Improvement of this group of vegetables is limited at the species level due to limited genetic variability. Interspecies hybridization could be a powerful alternate tool for broadening the genetic variability of target traits. Embryo rescue technique is necessarily practiced in interspecies hybridization for protecting embryos from premature abortion. However, its success depends on the age of ovaries, shape of embryos, and the effect of female genotype...
November 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Aurelia Scarano, Marcello Chieppa, Angelo Santino
Flavonoids represent a wide group of plant secondary metabolites implicated in many physiological roles, from the attraction of pollinators to the protection against biotic or abiotic stresses. Flavonoids are synthetized in a number of horticultural crops that are important components of our daily diet. In the last decades, the consumption of vegetables rich in antioxidants has been strongly promoted from the perspective of prevention/protection against chronic diseases. Therefore, due to their nutritional importance, several attempts have been made to enhance flavonoid levels in species of agronomic interest...
November 7, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Iftikhar Ahmad, Fatma Bibi, Hameed Ullah, Tariq Muhammad Munir
Mango ( Mangifera indica L.), the sixth most important fruit crop worldwide, is likely at risk under a climate change scenario of accelerated soil organic matter mineralization and constrained plant nutrient supplies such as zinc (Zn) and boron (B). We identified the optimum nutrient formulation and application method to possibly rectify nutrient deficits in mango plants grown in one of the warmest and driest regions-Multan, Pakistan. We evaluated the yield and physiological (quality) responses of 20-year-old mango trees to seven treatments of foliar and soil applications of Zn and B...
November 3, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Kenichi Doi, Ryouichi Nozaki, Kouji Takahashi, Naoto Iwasaki
In present research, differences in the number of seeds per berry (NSB), berry fresh weight (BW), days to ripening from flowering (DRF), and the duration of a slow growth phase (DS II) among pollen sources were investigated in highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum ). NSB, as well as BW and DRF, were significantly different among the pollen sources. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with NSB as the covariate showed significant interaction between the NSB and pollen sources on BW and DRF when self-pollination was included...
November 3, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mohammed Ibrahim, Xin Du, Manjree Agarwal, Giles Hardy, Muslim Abdulhussein, Yonglin Ren
Two modern rose varieties, Floribunda and Hybrid Tea, were used to analyze and identify metabolic changes after foliar application with benzyladenine (BA). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as metabolites were detected. Two pairs of doses of BA, at 11.16 and 17.87 mg/cm², and 7.17 and 12.26 mg/cm² were applied to the foliage of Hybrid Tea and Floribunda, respectively. Sampling time was optimized and treatment duration was 4 weeks. After treatment, the volatiles from the treated and untreated control roses were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technology by three-phase fiber 50/30 µm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), and with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Thomas E Marler
Essential nutrients and metals have been quantified in stems of many tree species to understand the role of stems as storage and source organs. Little is known about stored stem resources of cycad tree species. Cycas micronesica tissue was collected from apical and basal axial regions of stems; and pith, vascular, and cortex tissues were separated into three radial regions. Leaves were also sampled to provide a comparison to stems. Minerals and metals were quantified in all tissues. Minerals and metals varied greatly among the six stem sections...
November 1, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Massimiliano Renna
Sea fennel ( Crithmum maritimum L.), a perennial halophyte typical of coastal habits, is well known for several food and non-food uses. This review presents both the characteristics and ethnobotany as well as the findings, technical advances and potential of sea fennel research with the aim to improve and disseminate knowledge regarding the value and potentials of this halophyte. Current knowledge suggest that sea fennel shows good potential as an emerging crop, being a refined food and also an interesting source of human health compounds and crop protection products...
October 27, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mohamed Al-Fatimi
Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. (Dracaenaceae) is an important plant endemic to Soqotra Island, Yemen. Dragon's blood ( Dam Alakhwin ) is the resin that exudes from the plant stem. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews to document the ethnobotanical data of the plant. According to the collected ethnobotanical data, the resin of D. cinnabari is widely used in the traditional folk medicine in Soqotra for treatment of dermal, dental, eye and gastrointestinal diseases in humans...
October 26, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vitalijs Radenkovs, Jorens Kviesis, Karina Juhnevica-Radenkova, Anda Valdovska, Tõnu Püssa, Maris Klavins, Inese Drudze
The amplified production of fruit as well as burgeoning demand for plant-made food products have resulted in a sharp increase of waste. Currently, millions of tons of by-products are either being discarded or utilized rather ineffectively. However, these by-products may be processed and further incorporated as functional ingredients in making high-value food products with many physiological and biochemical effects. The chemical analysis of pomace oils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and reversed-phase-liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (RP-HPLC/FLD) systems led to the identification and quantification of 56 individual lipophilic compounds including unsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids, as well as phytosterols and four homologs of tocopherol...
October 24, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Lazar Novaković, Tingting Guo, Antony Bacic, Arun Sampathkumar, Kim L Johnson
Plant cells are surrounded by highly dynamic cell walls that play important roles regulating aspects of plant development. Recent advances in visualization and measurement of cell wall properties have enabled accumulation of new data about wall architecture and biomechanics. This has resulted in greater understanding of the dynamics of cell wall deposition and remodeling. The cell wall is the first line of defense against different adverse abiotic and biotic environmental influences. Different abiotic stress conditions such as salinity, drought, and frost trigger production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which act as important signaling molecules in stress activated cellular responses...
October 23, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Víctor García-Gaytán, Fanny Hernández-Mendoza, Ana Velia Coria-Téllez, Soledad García-Morales, Esteban Sánchez-Rodríguez, Luis Rojas-Abarca, Hadiseh Daneshvar
Temperature changes, drought, frost, and the presence of pest and diseases place enormous stress on crops, which implies that the potential performance of these crops may be affected. One of the main goals for agronomists, horticulturists, growers, physiologists, soil scientists, geneticists, plant breeders, phytopathologists, and microbiologists is to increase the food production on the same cultivable area and to ensure that they are safe and of high quality. Understanding the biophysical changes in soil will help to manage the crop's ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stress...
October 23, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jennifer C Fletcher
The shoot apical meristem at the growing shoot tip acts a stem cell reservoir that provides cells to generate the entire above-ground architecture of higher plants. Many agronomic plant yield traits such as tiller number, flower number, fruit number, and kernel row number are therefore defined by the activity of the shoot apical meristem and its derivatives, the floral meristems. Studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that a molecular negative feedback loop called the CLAVATA (CLV)-WUSCHEL (WUS) pathway regulates stem cell maintenance in shoot and floral meristems...
October 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Emma Rapposelli, Maria Pia Rigoldi, Daniela Satta, Donatella Delpiano, Sara Secci, Andrea Porceddu
BACKGROUND: Recent nutritional and medical studies have associated the regular consumption of almonds with a wide range of health benefits. As a consequence, kernel quality has become an important goal for breeding, considering not only the chemical composition conferring a specific organoleptic quality but also physical traits related to industrial processing. METHODS: We characterized an almond collection from Sardinia through analysis of 13 morpho-physiological traits and eight essential oil profiles...
October 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sabrina Chin, Carolyn A Behm, Ulrike Mathesius
Most land plants can become infected by plant parasitic nematodes in the field. Plant parasitic nematodes can be free-living or endoparasitic, and they usually infect plant roots. Most damaging are endoparasites, which form feeding sites inside plant roots that damage the root system and redirect nutrients towards the parasite. This process involves developmental changes to the root in parallel with the induction of defense responses. Plant flavonoids are secondary metabolites that have roles in both root development and plant defense responses against a range of microorganisms...
October 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Qian Zhao, Ling Chen, Kun Dong, Yan Dong, Jingxiu Xiao
To ascertain the role and mechanism of cinnamic acid in the process of soil-borne Fusarium wilt infection with fava bean, we studied the effect of cinnamic acid on the faba bean and Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae (FOF). Our results showed that cinnamic acid treatment affected the physiological resistance of faba bean to FOF after inoculation with the pathogen and enhanced the pathogenicity of the pathogen, which may have led to aggravation of infection by the pathogen and increases in the incidence rates of Fusarium wilt and disease...
October 11, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Alina Avanesyan
Novel, non-coevolved associations between introduced plants and native insect herbivores may lead to changes in trophic interactions in native communities, as well as to substantial economic problems. Although some studies in invasion ecology demonstrated that native herbivores can preferentially feed on introduced plants and therefore contribute to the biotic resistance of native communities to plant invasions, the role of acridid grasshoppers as native generalist insect herbivores is largely overlooked. This systematic review aimed to identify patterns of grasshopper feeding preferences for native versus introduced plants and, consequently, a potential of grasshoppers to provide biotic resistance of native communities...
October 7, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mariano Fracchiolla, Anna Maria Stellacci, Eugenio Cazzato, Luigi Tedone, Salem Alhajj Ali, Giuseppe De Mastro
Conservative agriculture includes a range of management strategies with low energy inputs such as no-tillage, minimum tillage, and low application of fertilizers. Weed flora in arable fields is strictly affected by agronomic practices such as tillage and fertilization management. This study was conducted seven years after the beginning of a long-term-durum wheat⁻faba bean-rotation. It analyzes the combined effects on the soil seed bank of three different tillage systems (conservative, reduced, and conventional tillage) and two levels of nitrogen fertilization...
September 30, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Julien Sechet, Annie Marion-Poll, Helen M North
The formation of seeds is a reproductive strategy in higher plants that enables the dispersal of offspring through time and space. Eudicot seeds comprise three main components, the embryo, the endosperm and the seed coat, where the coordinated development of each is important for the correct formation of the mature seed. In addition, the seed coat protects the quiescent progeny and can provide transport mechanisms. A key underlying process in the production of seed tissues is the formation of an extracellular matrix termed the cell wall, which is well known for its essential function in cytokinesis, directional growth and morphogenesis...
September 29, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nadezhda Golubkina, Helene Kekina, Gianluca Caruso
One of the possible ways to challenge selenium (Se) and iodine (I) deficiency in human beings is the joint biofortification of plants with these elements. Though the relationship between Se and I is highly pronounced in mammals, little is known about their interactions in plants where Se and I are considered not to be essential. Peculiarities of Se and I assimilation by a natural Se accumulator, such as Brassica juncea L., cultivar Volnushka, were assessed upon joint and separate plant foliar supply with sodium selenate (50 mg Se L-1 ) and potassium iodide (100 mg I L-1 ), in two crop seasons (spring, summer)...
September 27, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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