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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

Elide Formentin, Elisabetta Barizza, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Marco Falda, Federica Massa, Danuše Tarkowskà, Ondřej Novák, Fiorella Lo Schiavo
Clear evidence has highlighted a role for hormones in the plant stress response, including salt stress. Interplay and cross-talk among different hormonal pathways are of vital importance in abiotic stress tolerance. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed on leaves and roots of three-day salt treated and untreated plants of two Italian rice varieties, Baldo and Vialone Nano, which differ in salt sensitivity. Genes correlated with hormonal pathways were identified and analyzed. The contents of abscisic acid, indoleacetic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellins were measured in roots, stems, and leaves of seedlings exposed for one and three days to salt stress...
September 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Eugene Rogozhin, Dmitry Ryazantsev, Alexey Smirnov, Sergey Zavriev
Cereal-derived bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activity have been poorly explored compared to those from dicotyledonous plants. Furthermore, there are a few reports addressing the structural differences between antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from cultivated and wild cereals, which may shed light on significant varieties in the range and level of their antimicrobial activity. We performed a primary structure analysis of some antimicrobial peptides from wild and cultivated cereals to find out the features that are associated with the much higher antimicrobial resistance characteristic of wild plants...
September 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Seiji Takeda, Yusuke Onishi, Yoshio Fukui, Takanori Ohsako, Nakao Kubo
Symplocarpus nipponicus , a member of the Araceae family, is an endangered plant in several prefectures in Japan. For the conservation of this wild species, we investigated the morphology, life cycle, and genetic diversity of three wild populations. By fixed-point observation over several years, we found that it takes at least four years for the plant to set the inflorescences consisting of spadices and spathes, and another two years for it to set mature seeds. To examine the genetic diversity in the wild population, we developed 11 novel microsatellite markers and investigated the genetic variation in three populations in Kyoto Prefecture: Ayabe, Hanase, and Momoi...
September 11, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Arun S K Shunmugam, Udhaya Kannan, Yunfei Jiang, Ketema A Daba, Linda Y Gorim
Plant breeders and agricultural scientists of the 21st century are challenged to increase the yield potentials of crops to feed the growing world population. Climate change, the resultant stresses and increasing nutrient deficiencies are factors that are to be considered in designing modern plant breeding pipelines. Underutilized food legumes have the potential to address these issues and ensure food security in developing nations of the world. Food legumes in the past have drawn limited research funding and technological attention when compared to cereal crops...
September 8, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jinsong Xu, Xing Qiao, Zhitao Tian, Xuekun Zhang, Xiling Zou, Yong Cheng, Guangyuan Lu, Liu Zeng, Guiping Fu, Xiaoyu Ding, Yan Lv
The overall health of a plant is constantly affected by the changing and hostile environment. Due to climate change and the farming pattern of rice ( Oryza sativa ) and rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.), stress from waterlogging poses a serious threat to productivity assurance and the yield of rapeseed in China's Yangtze River basin. In order to improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms behind waterlogging stress and identify waterlogging-responsive proteins, we firstly conducted iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification)-based quantitative proteomic analysis of rapeseed roots under waterlogging treatments, for both a tolerant cultivar ZS9 and sensitive cultivar GH01...
September 7, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bahare Salehi, Zorica Stojanović-Radić, Jelena Matejić, Farukh Sharopov, Hubert Antolak, Dorota Kręgiel, Surjit Sen, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Krishnendu Acharya, Razieh Sharifi-Rad, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Natália Martins, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Genus Mentha , a member of Lamiaceae family, encompasses a series of species used on an industrial scale and with a well-described and developed culture process. Extracts of this genus are traditionally used as foods and are highly valued due to the presence of significant amounts of antioxidant phenolic compounds. Many essential oil chemotypes show distinct aromatic flavor conferred by different terpene proportions. Mint extracts and their derived essential oils exert notable effects against a broad spectrum of bacteria, fungi or yeasts, tested both in vitro or in various food matrices...
September 4, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Rubén Vilcacundo, Daniel Alejandro Barrio, Lucrecia Piñuel, Patricia Boeri, Andrea Tombari, Adelita Pinto, James Welbaum, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma, Wilman Carrillo
Amaranth protein concentrate (APC) was hydrolyzed under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. APC proteins were partially degraded by pepsin at pHs 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. During the intestinal phase (pepsin/pancreatin enzymes at pH 7.0), no polypeptide bands were observed in the gel, suggesting the susceptibility of amaranth proteins to the action of digestive enzymes. The potent in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation, shown by the gastric and intestinal digests, was confirmed in the zebrafish larvae, with a 72...
September 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Isaac Njaci, Brett Williams, Claudia Castillo-González, Martin B Dickman, Xiuren Zhang, Sagadevan Mundree
Drought causes approximately two-thirds of crop and yield loss worldwide. To sustain future generations, there is a need to develop robust crops with enhanced water use efficiency. Resurrection plants are naturally resilient and tolerate up to 95% water loss with the ability to revive upon watering. Stress is genetically encoded and resilient species may garner tolerance by tightly regulating the expression of stress-related genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate development and other stress response processes in eukaryotes...
August 31, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Carmen X Luzuriaga-Quichimbo, Míriam Hernández Del Barco, José Blanco-Salas, Carlos E Cerón-Martínez, Trinidad Ruiz-Téllez
This study's objective was to evaluate the rescued traditional knowledge about the chiricaspi ( Brunfelsia grandiflora s.l.), obtained in an isolated Canelo-Kichwa Amazonian community in the Pastaza province (Ecuador). This approach demonstrates well the value of biodiversity conservation in an endangered ecoregion. The authors describe the ancestral practices that remain in force today. They validated them through bibliographic revisions in data megabases, which presented activity and chemical components. The authors also propose possible routes for the development of new bioproducts based on the plant...
August 18, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Verónica Meza, Camilo Lillo, Daniela Rivera, Eva Soto, Rodrigo Figueroa
Being adapted to saline environments, halophytes are plant species that have received considerable attention due to their ability to cope with environmental stress factors, such as high concentrations of soluble salts and heavy metals. In this work, we focused on determining if the Sarcocornia neei ( S. neei ) plant can be considered as an indicator of heavy metal pollution in soil. This was done by analyzing the concentration of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and arsenic (As) in plants and soil sampled from two wetlands in the central zone of Chile: a wetland contaminated by industrial activities and a wetland protected by the Chilean government...
August 17, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Peter Amoako Ofori, Markus Geisler, Martin di Donato, Hao Pengchao, Shungo Otagaki, Shogo Matsumoto, Katsuhiro Shiratake
Plant ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that are important for transporting a wide range of compounds, including secondary metabolites and phytohormones. In Arabidopsis, some members of the ABCB subfamily of ABC transporter, also known as Multi-Drug Resistance proteins (MDRs), have been implicated in auxin transport. However, reports on the roles of the auxin-mediated ABCBs in fleshy fruit development are rare. Here, we present that SlABCB4, a member of the tomato ABCB subfamily, transports auxin in the developing fruit of tomato...
August 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Massimo Malerba, Raffaella Cerana
High temperatures are a significant stress factor for plants. In fact, many biochemical reactions involved in growth and development are sensitive to temperature. In particular, heat stress (HS) represents a severe issue for plant productivity and strategies to obtain high yields under this condition are important goals in agriculture. While selenium (Se) is a nutrient for humans and animals, its role as a plant micronutrient is still questioned. Se can prevent several abiotic stresses (drought, heat, UV, salinity, heavy metals), but the action mechanisms are poorly understood...
August 11, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Salwan Al-Maliki, Mugtaba Al-Masoudi
Soil salinity has an adverse impact on soil biological properties and growth of corn plant, majorly in arid and semi-arid lands. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (M) ( Glomus mosseae ), tea wastes (T), algal dried biomass (A), and their combinations on soil respiration, total bacteria, total fungi, soil mean weight diameter (MWD), and corn yield ( Zea mays L.) . under saline and non-saline soils. Results showed that M, T, and A treatments increased significantly CO₂ release compared to the control...
August 8, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
James Bunce
Whether the mesophyll conductance to CO₂ movement (gm ) within leaves of C₃ plants changes with CO₂ concentration remains a matter of debate, particularly at low CO₂ concentrations. We tested for changes in gm over the range of sub-stomatal CO₂ concentrations (Ci ) for which Rubisco activity limited photosynthesis (A) in three plant species grown under the same conditions. Mesophyll conductance was estimated by three independent methods: the oxygen sensitivity of photosynthesis, variable J fluorescence combined with gas exchange, and the curvature of the Rubisco-limited A vs...
August 5, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Izumi C Mori, Yuichi Nobukiyo, Yoshiki Nakahara, Mineo Shibasaka, Takuya Furuichi, Maki Katsuhara
Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) have been postulated to contribute significantly in plant development and stress resistance. However, their electrophysiological properties remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized barley CNGC2-3 (HvCNGC2-3) by the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique in the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system. Current was not observed in X. laevis oocytes injected with HvCNGC2-3 complementary RNA (cRNA) in a bathing solution containing either Na⁺ or K⁺ solely, even in the presence of 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cAMP) or 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cGMP)...
July 26, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Christina Saier, Christian Büchter, Karoline Koch, Wim Wätjen
Extracts of the Chinese plant Polygonum multiflorum (PME) are used for medicinal purposes as well as food supplement due to anti-aging effects. Despite of the common use of these food supplements, experimental data on physiological effects of PME and its underlying molecular mechanisms in vivo are limited. We used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze anti-aging-effects of PME in vivo (life span, lipofuscin accumulation, oxidative stress resistance, thermal stress resistance) as well as the molecular signaling pathways involved...
July 20, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Janardan Khadka, Narendra S Yadav, Gila Granot, Gideon Grafi
Plants thriving in desert environments are suitable for studying mechanisms for plant survival under extreme seasonal climate variation. We studied epigenetic mechanisms underlying seasonal growth cycles in the desert plant Zygophyllum dumosum Boiss., which was previously shown to be deficient in repressive markers of di-methyl and tri-methyl H3K9 and their association with factors regulating basic cell functions. We showed a contingent association between rainfall and seasonal growth and the epigenetic marker of dimethyl H3K4, which disappears upon entry into the dry season and the acquisition of a dormant state...
July 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nathan P Grant, Amita Mohan, Devinder Sandhu, Kulvinder S Gill
Short-statured plants revolutionized agriculture during the 1960s due to their ability to resist lodging, increased their response to fertilizers, and improved partitioning of assimilates which led to yield gains. Of more than 21 reduced-height ( Rht ) genes reported in wheat, only three- Rht-B1b , Rht-D1b , and Rht8 -were extensively used in wheat breeding programs. The remaining reduced height mutants have not been utilized in breeding programs due to the lack of characterization. In the present study, we determined the inheritance of Rht18 and developed a genetic linkage map of the region containing Rht18 ...
July 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Doris Akachukwu, Michael Adedapo Gbadegesin, Philippa Chinyere Ojimelukwe, Christopher John Atkinson
This study evaluates the effects of remediation of gas flared soil by biochar on the nutritional composition of cultivated Telfairia occidentalis leaves, relative to non-gas flared soil. Gas flared soils are degraded due to the presence of heavy metals, noxious gases, carbon soot and acidic rain. Biochar produced from oil palm fibre was applied at five different amounts: 0 t ha-1 , 7.1 t ha-1 , 13.9 t ha-1 , 20.9 t ha-1 and 28.0 t ha-1 to containerized soils (both gas flared and control soil), inside a greenhouse, which were allowed to mineralize for two weeks...
July 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ibrahim S Elbasyoni, Sabah M Morsy, Raghuprakash K Ramamurthy, Atef M Nassar
Sustaining wheat production under low-input conditions through development and identifying genotypes with enhanced nutritional quality are two current concerns of wheat breeders. Wheat grain total protein content, to no small extent, determines the economic and nutritive value of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to identify accessions with high and low grain protein content (GPC) under well-watered and water-deficit growth conditions and to locate genomic regions that contribute to GPC accumulation...
July 11, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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